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Altenburg () is a city in
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, located south of
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
, west of
Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. It is the List of cities in German ...

Dresden
and east of
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
. It is the capital of the
Altenburger Land Altenburger Land is a district in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixtee ...
district and part of a polycentric old-industrial textile and metal production region between
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
,
Zwickau Zwickau (; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German lang ...

Zwickau
and
Chemnitz Chemnitz (; cs, Saská Kamenice; from 1953 to 1990: ''Karl-Marx-Stadt'' ) is the third largest city in the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people ...

Chemnitz
with more than 1 million inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of 33,000. Today, the city and its rural
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
is part of the
Central German Metropolitan Region The Central German Metropolitan Region (german: Metropolregion Mitteldeutschland) is one of the officially established metropolitan regions in Germany. It is centered on the major cities of Leipzig Leipzig (, also , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the mos ...
. Altenburg was first mentioned in 976 and later became one of the first German cities within former Slavic area, east of the
Saale The Saale (), also known as the Saxon Saale (german: Sächsische Saale) and Thuringian Saale (german: Thüringische Saale), is a river in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin ...

Saale
river (as part of the medieval
Ostsiedlung (, literally "East settling") is the term for the High Medieval The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that lasted from around AD 1000 to 1250. The High Middle Ages In the history of Eur ...

Ostsiedlung
movement). The emperor
Frederick Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I (german: Friedrich I, it, Federico I), was the Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The La ...

Frederick Barbarossa
visited Altenburg several times between 1165 and 1188, hence the town is named a Barbarossa town today. Since the 17th century, Altenburg was the residence of different Ernestine duchies, of whom the
Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Altenburg (german: Sachsen-Altenburg, links=no) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 132 ...

Saxe-Altenburg
persisted until the end of monarchy in Germany in 1918. Industrialization reached Altenburg and the region quite early in the first half of the 19th century and flourished until the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
around 1930. Economic malaise set in while Altenburg was in
East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current ...
and continued after German reunification in 1990, evidenced by a decline in population, high unemployment and house vacancy rates. The main sights of Altenburg are the castle, the
Lindenau-Museum The Lindenau-Museum is an art museum in Altenburg, Thuringia, Germany. It originated as the house-museum of baron and collector Bernhard August von Lindenau. The building was completed in 1876. The museum's main attraction is its collection of Ita ...

Lindenau-Museum
, the historic city center (most buildings are from early-modern origin) and the
Gründerzeit in Leipzig, Germany (1892) (; "founders' period") was the economic phase in 19th-century Germany and Austria before the great Panic of 1873, stock market crash of 1873. In Central Europe, the age of industrialisation had been taking place since ...
architecture around the center. The popular German card game Skat was developed in Altenburg during the 1810s and the founder of the famous
Brockhaus Enzyklopädie The ''Brockhaus Enzyklopädie'' is a German-language The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland ...
,
Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus (4 May 1772 – 20 August 1823) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ances ...
, lived and worked in Altenburg between 1810 and 1817. Altenburg lies in the flat and fertile landscape of
Osterland Osterland (''terra orientalis'') is a historical region in Germany. It was situated between the Elbe and Saale rivers to the north of Pleissnerland which it later absorbed and it included the city of Leipzig. The name derives from the previous na ...
on the
Pleiße The Pleiße is a river of Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; hsb, Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: , Upper Sorbian: ), is a landlocked state of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , c ...
river in the very east of Thuringia, next to the neighboring federal state of
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...

Saxony
.


History


Middle Ages

The town (''civitas Altenburg'') was first mentioned in a deed to the Bishop of Zeitz in 976. Remains of a Slavic castle on the Schloßberg ("Castle Hill") demonstrate that the town was probably a Slavic foundation, the capital of the shire of Plisni, taken over during the conquest of
Meissen Meissen (in German orthography German orthography is the orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. ...
by
Henry IHenry I may refer to: 876–1366 * Henry I the Fowler, King of Germany (876–936) * Henry I, Duke of Bavaria (died 955) * Henry I of Austria, Margrave of Austria (died 1018) * Henry I of France (1008–1060) * Henry I the Long, Margrave of the Nord ...

Henry I
. As shown by placenames, the surrounding area (
Osterland Osterland (''terra orientalis'') is a historical region in Germany. It was situated between the Elbe and Saale rivers to the north of Pleissnerland which it later absorbed and it included the city of Leipzig. The name derives from the previous na ...
) was mainly settled by
Slavs Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavs
. The town's location on the imperial road '
Via Imperii Via Imperii (Imperial Road) was one of the most important of a class of roads known collectively as imperial roads (''german: Reichsstraßen'') of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges R ...
' between
Halle Halle may refer to: Places Germany * Halle (Saale), also called Halle an der Saale, a city in Saxony-Anhalt ** Halle (region), a former administrative region in Saxony-Anhalt ** Bezirk Halle, a former administrative division of East Germany ** Hall ...
and
Cheb Cheb (; german: Eger) is a town in the Karlovy Vary Region The Karlovy Vary Region or Carlsbad Region ( cs, Karlovarský kraj) is an administrative unit ( cs, kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the westernmost part of its historical region ...
in
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, ...

Bohemia
gave Altenburg economic importance in the salt trade. The first castle, located under the present day church St. Bartholomäi, was destroyed after the Battle of Hohenmölsen between
Henry IVHenry IV may refer to: People * Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1050–1106), King of The Romans and Holy Roman Emperor * Henry IV, Duke of Limburg (1195–1247) * Henry IV, Duke of Brabant (1251/1252–1272) * Henryk IV Probus (c. 1258–1290), Duke ...

Henry IV
and Rudolph of Swabia. It was rebuilt on the Schloßberg outside of the town. The 11th century ''Mantelturm'' tower is still preserved. The castle later became an imperial palatinate and played an important part in the German takeover and settlement of the area between the
Harz The Harz () is a highland area in northern Germany. It has the highest elevations for that region, and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is ...

Harz
-mountains and the
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
. In the middle of the 12th century, the
Hohenstaufen The Hohenstaufen (, , ), also called Staufer, was a noble dynasty of unclear origin that rose to rule the Duchy of Swabia The Duchy of Swabia ( German: ''Herzogtum Schwaben'') was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German Kingdom. I ...
emperors patronized Altenburg as one of their
Kaiserpfalz The term ''Kaiserpfalz'' (, "imperial palace") or ''Königspfalz'' (, "royal palace", from Middle High German Middle High German (MHG; german: Mittelhochdeutsch (Mhd.)) is the term for the form of German German(s) may refer to: Common use ...
es, allowing the town to become a market and a mint. Together with the Royal forests Leina, Pahna, Kammerforst and Luckauer Forst, lands of the
Groitzsch Groitzsch () is a town in the Leipzig (district), Leipzig district, in Saxony, Germany. Geography and transport The town is situated at the southern edge of the Leipzig Bay east of the White Elster river on the confluence of Schwennigke and Sch ...
family bought by
Frederick Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I (german: Friedrich I, it, Federico I), was the Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The La ...
, Altenburg,
Colditz Colditz () is a small town in the district of Leipzig (district), Leipzig, in Saxony, Germany. It is best known for Colditz Castle, the site of the Oflag IV-C prisoner-of-war camp, POW camp for officers in World War II. Geography Colditz is situa ...
,
Zwickau Zwickau (; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German lang ...

Zwickau
and
Chemnitz Chemnitz (; cs, Saská Kamenice; from 1953 to 1990: ''Karl-Marx-Stadt'' ) is the third largest city in the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people ...

Chemnitz
were turned into the '' Terra Plisnensis''. Altenburg and Chemnitz as Imperial towns were intended to reduce the importance of Leipzig held by the Margrave of Meissen. Under Frederick Barbarossa much building took place, especially in the market area, and the town grew rapidly. A
priory A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress. Priories may be houses of mendicant friars or nuns (such as the Dominican Order, Dominicans, Augustinian Hermits, Augustinians, Franciscans, an ...

priory
of
canons regular Canons regular are canons (a category of clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established s. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religi ...
was founded and the
parish church A parish church (or parochial church) in Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Je ...
was finished in 1172. The twin towers of the 12th century Augustinian monastery (''Rote Spitzen'') are still preserved. A town wall with 5 gates was constructed at the end of the 12th century. Altenburg got its charter around 1200, in 1256 the Wettins confirmed it again. The law structure was transposed from
Goslar Goslar () is a historic town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an ...

Goslar
municipal law. During the
Interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next (coming from Latin ''i ...

Interregnum
, the Terra Plisnensis was impounded, but bought back by
Rudolph I of Germany Rudolf I (1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291) was the first king of Germany from the House of Habsburg. The first of the count-kings of Kingdom of Germany, Germany, he reigned from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's imperial election of 1273, election ...
, who desired the crown of Thuringia. Together with Zwickau and Chemnitz, Altenburg was part of the anti-Meissen Pleiße-city Union of 1290. After the
Battle of Lucka The Battle of Lucka occurred on 31 May 1307 near the village of Lucka. The settlement was first mentioned in 1320, but had already existed for around 700 years before that. Lucka is located in the Altenburger Land district of Thuringia. The battle ...
in 1307 against Frederick the Brave of Meissen and his brother Diezmann, King
Albert I
Albert I
lost Altenburg and the Pleiße-lands to the Wettin margraves of Meissen, who held the city until 1918. In 1455, Altenburg saw the division (''Altenburger Teilung'') of the Meissen lands between Elector
Frederick IIFrederick II, Frederik II or Friedrich II may refer to: * Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily from 1198; Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 * Frederick II of Denmark (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway 1559–1588 * Freder ...
(the Gentle) and Duke William that led, after a failed attempt at reconciliation (''Hallescher Machtspruch'') to a war (1446–1451) between the two brothers ( ''Bruderkrieg''). In the
second division In sport, the Second Division, also called Division 2 or Division II is usually the second highest division of a league, and will often have promotion and relegation with divisions above and below. Following the rise of Premier League style competi ...
of the Wettin lands between
Ernest Ernest is a given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use of prop ...
and
Albert Albert may refer to: Companies * Albert (supermarket) Albert Česká republika, s.r.o., is a division of the Netherlands-based Ahold Delhaize group, operating in the Czech Republic. The company (then known as Euronova a.s.) began trading in Czec ...

Albert
at Leipzig in 1485, Altenburg fell to Ernest, together with the Electorate (''Kurland''),
Grimma Grimma ( hsb, Grima) is a town in the Free State of Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Fr ...

Grimma
, the Mutschener Pflege,
Leisnig Leisnig is a small town in the district of Mittelsachsen Mittelsachsen ("Central Saxony") is a district (''Districts of Germany, Kreis'') in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. History The district was established by merging the former distric ...
, Thuringia and the
Vogtland Vogtland (; cz, Fojtsko) is a region spanning the German states of Bavaria Bavaria (; and : ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a (') in the south-east of . With an area of ...

Vogtland
. From this time on, Altenburg was historically connected with Thuringia and its dynasty, the Ernestine Wettins.


Early modern period

The
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...
was introduced in Altenburg quite early, in 1522, by
George Spalatin Georg(e) Spalatin () was the pseudonym taken by Georg Burkhardt (; 17 January 1484 – 16 January 1545), a German humanist, theologian, Protestant Reformer, reformer, secretary of the Saxon Elector Frederick the Wise, as well as an important f ...
, Wenzeslaus Linck and Gabriel Zwilling. During the
German Peasants' War The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt (german: Deutscher Bauernkrieg) was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Ce ...
of 1525, the Altenburg Augustinian monastery was attacked. In the summer, four peasant rebels were executed at the marketplace. After the
Schmalkaldic War The Schmalkaldic War (german: link=no, Schmalkaldischer Krieg) refers to the short period of violence from 1546 until 1547 between the forces of Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (simultaneously King Charles I of Spain), commanded by t ...
brought defeat for the Ernestines, Altenburg belonged to the Albertines for short time (1547–1554) before coming back to the Ernestines after the Naumburg Treaty. From 1603 to 1672, Altenburg was the residence of an Ernestine line, after that, it fell to
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg () was a duchy ruled by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in today's Thuringia, Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capit ...
. The
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
brought heavy damage to the city and more than half of the population died. During the
Napoleonic wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
it was a scene of a brief Allied
raid Raid or RAID may refer to: Attack * Raid (military) Raiding, also known as depredation, is a military tactics, military tactic or operational warfare mission which has a specific purpose. Raiders do not capture and hold a location, but quickly ...
by the Saxon General
Johann von Thielmann Johann Adolf, Freiherr von Thielmann (27 April 176510 October 1824) was a Electorate of Saxony, Saxon soldier who served with Saxony, Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia and France during the Napoleonic Wars. Biography Thielmann was born at Dresden. Ente ...
.


Since 1815

When the Ernestine lands were re-divided in 1826, Altenburg became the capital of
Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Altenburg (german: Sachsen-Altenburg, links=no) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 132 ...
, successor state to the dissolved
Saxe-Hildburghausen Saxe-Hildburghausen () was an Ernestine duchies, Ernestine duchy in the southern side of the present State of Thuringia in Germany. It existed from 1680 to 1826 but its name and borders are currently used by the Hildburghausen (district), District ...
. Around 1830, the city walls and gates were knocked down and the old suburbia in front of the former wall were incorporated. Industrialization began around this time and the economy and population both saw rapid growth, strengthened by the connection to the railway in 1842 (as Thuringia's first connected city). The
Revolution of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch o ...
led to the abdication of the conservative duke
Joseph Joseph is a common masculine given name, derived from the Hebrew Yosef (יוֹסֵף). The form "Joseph" is used mostly in English, French and partially German-speaking (alongside "Josef") countries. This spelling is also found as a variant in th ...
, who was replaced by his more liberal brother
George George may refer to: People * George (given name) George (, ) is a masculine given name derived from the Greek language, Greek Georgios, Geōrgios (; , ). The name gained popularity due to its association with the Christian martyrs, Christian ...
. The last duke abdicated during the Revolution of 1918 on 13 November 1918 after being promised 12 million Marks and the ownership of numerous castles. The free-state of Saxe-Altenburg was merged with Thuringia in 1920. Altenburg was a working-class city during the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
, ruled by
SPD The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major parties of contemporary Germany along with the CDU/CSU, Union parties ...
and KPD, which led to heavy conflicts between left- and right-wing forces after 1933. The Jewish community was destroyed during the
Kristallnacht ''Kristallnacht'' () or the Night of Broken Glass, also called the November Pogrom(s) (german: Novemberpogrome, ), was a pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at the massacre or expulsion of an ethnic or religious group, particularly on ...

Kristallnacht
in 1938, many Jews emigrated or were killed in the concentration camps. Furthermore, communists and invalids from Altenburg were murdered. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, several subcamps of the
Buchenwald concentration camp Buchenwald (; literally 'beech forest Beech Forest is a town in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. The area of Beech Forest is largely used for potato farming. The town was named after the many Nothofagus cunninghamii, myrtle beech ...
were located here. They provided 13,000 forced labourers for
HASAG HASAG (also known as Hugo Schneider AG, or by its original name in german: Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft Metallwarenfabrik) was a German metal goods manufacturer founded in 1863. Based in Leipzig, it grew from a small business making lamps a ...
, the third largest German company to use concentration camp labour. The US Army reached Altenburg on 15 April 1945 and was replaced by the Soviet Army on 1 July 1945. In 1952, Thuringia was dissolved and replaced by administrative divisions of East Germany (Bezirks). Altenburg became part of the Leipzig administrative district, in which it was the second largest city. After reunification, previously extant states were re-established in the former east Germany as federal states in the reunified Germany. Although a majority of 54% in the district voted for
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...

Saxony
in a plebiscite, the district council decided to join Thuringia together with the Schmölln district, partly because a vast majority of 80% in the neighboring Schmölln district had voted for Thuringia. These districts had formed the eastern part of Saxe-Altenburg until 1920 and were reunified as the modern-day
Altenburger Land Altenburger Land is a district in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixtee ...
district in 1994.


Geography and demographics


Topography

Altenburg is located on the southern edge of the
Leipzig Bay The Leipzig BayDickinson (1964), p. 29.lignite Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official langu ...

lignite
surface mining north of the town. The nearest mountains are the
Ore Mountains The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range () (german: Erzgebirge ; cs, Krušné hory or historically ''Rudohoří'') in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are somet ...
approximately to the south-east. The
Pleiße The Pleiße is a river of Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; hsb, Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: , Upper Sorbian: ), is a landlocked state of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , c ...
valley runs east of the city, whereas the center itself is located at ''Blaue Flut'' (blue flood) river, a small tributary of Pleiße river. The Blaue Flut feeds the ''Großer Teich'' (big pond), an inner-city pond with an island in the middle, on which the Altenburg zoo is located. There is relatively little forest within the town's municipal territory: the small ''Stadtwald'' (town wood) and ''Herzog-Ernst-Wald'' (Duke Ernest wood) south of the center and the ''Fasanerieholz'' (Pheasantry wood) at Ehrenberg district. The elevation of the city center is 200 m, to the north it declines down to 162 m and in the south next to Mockzig district it rises up to 261 m.


Administrative division

Altenburg is bounded by Windischleuba,
Nobitz Nobitz is a municipality in the district Altenburger Land, in Thuringia, Germany. The nearby Leipzig–Altenburg Airport, Nobitz airfield was used by Ryanair for flights to and from Stansted Airport, London Stansted between 2003 and 2011. History ...
,
Altkirchen
Altkirchen
, Göhren, Lödla, Rositz, Meuselwitz, Treben and Gerstenberg. Because of the quite densely settlement of the region, many small villages and ancient former suburbs are situated within the municipal territory, which is officially divided into 4 districts: * Altenburg (including the villages Drescha, Kauerndorf, Poschwitz, Rasephas, Steinwitz and Zschernitzsch) * Ehrenberg, incorporated in 1993 (with Greipzig, Lehnitzsch, Mockzig, Modelwitz, Paditz, Stünzhain, Zschaiga and Zschechwitz) * Kosma, incorporated in 1996 (with Altendorf and Kürbitz) * Zetzscha, incorporated in 1994 (with Knau, Oberzetzscha, Rautenberg and Unterzetzscha) ''For a detailed view of Altenburg's administrative division, see the :de:Liste der Stadtteile von Altenburg, list in German Wikipedia.''


Demographics

Altenburg has been a relatively big town (compared to others in the wider region) down the centuries, because of its importance as a
Kaiserpfalz The term ''Kaiserpfalz'' (, "imperial palace") or ''Königspfalz'' (, "royal palace", from Middle High German Middle High German (MHG; german: Mittelhochdeutsch (Mhd.)) is the term for the form of German German(s) may refer to: Common use ...
and later as a ducal residence. During the Middle Ages, it had a population of 3,000 to 4,000 inhabitants, rising to 6,000 around 1700, 10,000 around 1800 and 20,000 around 1870, making it Thuringia's second-largest city after
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
for a short time in the mid-19th century. The population grew further to 40,000 in 1910, 44,000 in 1940 and peaked at about 56,000 around 1980 before starting to decline. In 1988, before reunification, Altenburg had 53,000 inhabitants, shrinking to 41,000 by 2000 and 33,000 in 2012. With a decline of nearly 40% since 1988, Altenburg is among the most rapidly declining urban areas in Germany. The average decrease of population between 2009 and 2012 was approximately 1.27% p.a., whereas the population in bordering rural regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Suburbanization played only a small role in Altenburg. It occurred after the reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders, others are Windischleuba and
Nobitz Nobitz is a municipality in the district Altenburger Land, in Thuringia, Germany. The nearby Leipzig–Altenburg Airport, Nobitz airfield was used by Ryanair for flights to and from Stansted Airport, London Stansted between 2003 and 2011. History ...
. During the 1990s and the 2000s, many inhabitants left Altenburg to search a better life in western Germany or other major east German cities like
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
,
Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. It is the List of cities in German ...

Dresden
or Jena. The birth deficit, caused by the high average age of the population, is becoming a bigger problem because there is no immigration to compensate it. Despite urban planning activities to tear down unused flats, vacancy is still a problem with rates around 16% (according to 2011 EU census), which is the largest amount among Thuringia's major towns. A positive side effect for the inhabitants is that Altenburg has one of the lowest rent levels in Germany. The birth deficit was 282 in 2012, this is -8.5 per 1,000 inhabitants (Thuringian average: -4.5; national average: -2.4). The net migration rate was -1.7 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8; national average: +4.6). The most important target regions of Altenburg migrants are the large cities around like Leipzig, Dresden, Halle, Jena and Erfurt, as well as the western German conurbations. Like most other small to middling eastern German towns, Altenburg has only a small amount of foreign population: circa 1.7% are non-Germans by citizenship and overall 1.6% are migrants (according to 2011 EU census). Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in Altenburg are Russians in Germany, Russians and Vietnamese people in Germany, Vietnamese people. During recent years, the economic situation of the city has improved a bit: the unemployment rate in the district declined from 24% in 2005 to 10% in 2013 with little bit higher rates in the city than in the other municipalities of the Altenburger Land district. Nevertheless, this is still one of the highest rates in Thuringia. Partly due to official atheism in former East Germany, GDR, most of the population is non-religious. 12.1% are members of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany and 2.5% are Catholics (according to 2011 EU census). : Source (since 1994): Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik


Culture, sights and cityscape


Culture

Altenburg is nicknamed ''playing cards town''. The game of Skat (card game), skat is said to have originated here, based on the Bavarian tarock. Because of the influence Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I (german: Friedrich I, it, Federico I), was the Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The La ...

Frederick Barbarossa
had on the town, it is nicknamed a "Barbarossa town".


Museums

There are some museums in Altenburg: * The ''Schloss- und Spielkartenmuseum'' (castle and playing card museum) inside the castle hosts an exhibition about Altenburg as a ducal residence, and a historical playing cards collection. * The ''
Lindenau-Museum The Lindenau-Museum is an art museum in Altenburg, Thuringia, Germany. It originated as the house-museum of baron and collector Bernhard August von Lindenau. The building was completed in 1876. The museum's main attraction is its collection of Ita ...

Lindenau-Museum
'' (established in 1876) shows Bernhard von Lindenau's art collection including Italian culture, Italian paintings of the 13th–15th centuries, a collection of classical antiquities and cast and modern art. * The ''Mauritianum'' (opened in 1908) is Altenburg's museum of natural history with the largest well-known mummified Rat king (folklore), rat king, which was found in 1828 in a miller's fireplace at Buchheim. * The ''Brauereimuseum'' inside the Altenburger brewery shows an exhibition about beer and its history with a local focus. File:Schloss Altenburg.jpg, Schloss- und Spielkartenmuseum inside the castle File:AltenburgLindenaumuseum.JPG, Lindenau-Museum File:Mauritianum.jpg, Mauritianum File:Brauerei Altenburg.jpg, Altenburg brewery


Old town

The town center of Altenburg within the former wall has a planned grid of 12th/13th century origin, whereas the two old settlement cores were located around ''Brühl'' in the north-east and around St. Nicholas' Church in the south-west. The area around the castle and southward on the eastern bank of Blaue Flut river has also been urban since the Middle Ages, nevertheless, it was located outside the city walls. During the 19th and early 20th century, Altenburg saw a construction boom and the town enlarged to all directions, particularly north and east towards the new railway station (opened in 1878). Its time as a state capital until 1918 led to many interesting public and private buildings in
Gründerzeit in Leipzig, Germany (1892) (; "founders' period") was the economic phase in 19th-century Germany and Austria before the great Panic of 1873, stock market crash of 1873. In Central Europe, the age of industrialisation had been taking place since ...
style, same as in other historist styles. Later, the town lost some of its importance and became a simple district capital in Thuringia. World War II left Altenburg unscathed, so all historic buildings are preserved. Nevertheless, the buildings' maintenance was neglected during the East German period, instead, some big Plattenbau settlements were set up on the northern and south-eastern periphery of Altenburg. After reunification, most of the main sights and historic buildings were refurbished. On the other hand, the city lost much of its population which led to a very high vacancy rate, especially in the old inner-city buildings, which today endangers the historic city structure because of many vacant old private houses.


Sights and architectural heritage


Churches

* St. Bartholomew's Church, built between 1428 and 1443 in Gothic style at Burgstraße, is Altenburg's main evangelical parish church. * The Fraternity Church at Marktplatz is another evangelical parish church, founded as a Franciscans monastery during the 12th century. It was abandoned after the Reformation in 1529 and reused as evangelical church. Today's building was established in 1905 in Neo-Gothic style. * St. Nicholas' Church at Nikolaikirchhof was the first church of Altenburg, mentioned in 1140. It was demolished during the 16th century, only the steeple remains. * St. George's Chapel is the castle's church, built in picturesque Gothic style during the mid-15th century. * St. Mary's Monastery (Augustinians) is a former monastery on a hill east of the center. It was founded during the 12th century and abandoned in 1543. Only the two Romanesque towers and some walls remain, being the city's landmark called "Rote Spitzen" (red spires). * The Duchess Agnes Memorial Church at Hausweg is an evangelical church, built between 1903 and 1906 in historist style. * The Cemetery Church at Hospitalplatz was built between 1639 and 1651 in Renaissance style. File:Altenburg - St. Bartholomäikirche (aka).jpg, St. Bartholomew's Church File:Altenburg Brüderkirche Portalseite.jpg, Fraternity Church File:ABG-Nikolaiturm.JPG, St. Nicholas' Steeple File:Schlosskirche Altenburg Südseite.jpg, St. George's Chapel at the castle File:Altenburg Rote Spitzen.jpg, Rote Spitzen File:Altenburg Herzogin-Agnes-Gedächtniskirche Längsschiff.jpg, Duchess Agnes Memorial Church File:Gottesackerkirche Altenburg.jpg, Cemetery Church


Ducal buildings

* Altenburg Castle is the big ducal residence on a hill above the city center. It was in use first as fortification and later as residence since the 9th century until the end of monarchy in Germany in 1918. Today's castle is of 17th and 18th century origin and was built in Renaissance, later in Baroque style. The chapel is of older origin (see above). The castle is the scene of the famous ''Prinzenraub'', related by Thomas Carlyle, Carlyle in his "Miscellanies". * Further buildings within the castle complex are the ''Junkerei'' in the north, built in the 16th century, the ''Flasche'', an old castle tower from the 11th century, the ''Hausmannturm'', built in the 12th century as the castle's keep as well as the ''Prinzenpalais'' and the ''Hofmarschallamt'' in the south, built after a fire in 1868. * Next to the castle lies the ''Schlosspark'' (castle park) with some more ducal buildings: the Baroque ''Teehaus'' (tea house) (1712), the Baroque ''Orangerie'' (1712) and the historist ''Marstall'' (1851). * The ''Amtshaus'' was built between 1725 and 1728 in Baroque style at Burgstraße and is now used as district court. * The ''Kanzlei'' was the seat of some ducal authorities, built in 1476 at Brühl. * The ''Neues Ministerium'' at Lindenaustraße was built in 1895 in Classicist style and is now the seat of the district government. * The former ''Landgericht'' at Pauritzer Platz was built in 1859 in Neo-Renaissance style and hosts the social court now. * The ''Landesbank'' (federal state bank) at Burgstraße was built in 1865 in Neo-Renaissance style. Currently, it is vacant. * The Ducal Mausoleum in Altenburg Cemetery (burial site of several Dukes and Duchesses), now in ruins (those buried there removed to other parts of the cemetery in 1974). File:Schloss Altenburg 02.JPG, Altenburg Castle File:Schloss Altenburg Junkerei.JPG, Junkerei and ''Flasche'' tower File:ABG-Orangerie.JPG, Orangerie File:Amtsgericht Altenburg.jpg, Amtshaus File:Landratsamt Altenburger Land.jpg, Neues Ministerium File:Sozialgericht Altenburg.jpg, Former Landesgericht File:Altenburg - ducal federal State bank (aka).jpg, Former Landesbank


Other sights

* The town hall is one of the most important Renaissance buildings in Germany. It was built between 1562 and 1564 by the architect Nikolaus Gromann. * The ''Landestheater'' is the theater of Altenburg, built in Neo-Baroque style in 1871. * The city wall remained in the north behind Johannisstraße and in the south at Langengasse. Two towers are preserved at Langengasse and Kunstgasse. * The ''Palais Seckendorff (family), Seckendorff'' at Brühl is a Baroque style nobility palace, built in 1724. * The ''Wasserkunst'' at Kunstgasse is an old waterwork, built in 1844 in Classicist style. * The ''Pohlhof'' at Pohlhofgasse is a small Renaissance palace. * The Freemansons' Lodge at Johannisgraben was built in 1804 in Classicist style. File:Altenburger Rathaus.jpg, Town hall File:Altenburgtheatre.jpg, Theater File:Altenburg Wachturm.jpg, Tower at the city wall File:AltenburgSeckendorffpalais01.jpg, Palais Seckendorff File:Altenburg - art tower (aka).jpg, Wasserkunst File:Altenburg Pohlhof.JPG, Pohlhof File:Freimaurerloge Altenburg.jpg, Freemasons' Lodge


Economy and infrastructure


Agriculture, industry and services

Agriculture plays an important role in the region, because the Loess soil around the city is very fertile. 69% of the municipal territory is in agricultural use, both for cultivation and cattle farming. A famous product of the region is Altenburger Ziegenkäse, a soft cheese of goat milk with some caraway seed inside with protected Geographical indication. Another typical dish of Altenburg is Mutzbraten, a flame-grilled pork speciality. Altenburg is also known for its mustard, which is produced by Altenburger Senf und Feinkost. Altenburger beer also enjoys some popularity. The industry of Altenburg was based on the production of textiles and hardware during the 19th and 20th century, but most of the companies did not survive the transition to capitalism after German reunification. Altenburg was especially known for its sewing machine production from companies like ''Vesta''. Today, the main branches are food industries (with a factory of Vion NV amongst others) and engineering with car component production in focus. The Apollo Automobil, Gumpert Sportwagenmanufaktur produced the Gumpert Apollo supercar between 2005 and its bankruptcy in 2013. Altenburg is also noted for produced playing cards. The Altenburger Spielkartenfabrik (playing card factory) was founded in 1831; today it is a subsidiary company of Cartamundi and market leader in Germany. In 2012, there were 19 companies with more than 20 workers in industrial sector, employing 1,400 people and generating an overall turnover of €451 million. Altenburg is a regional service hub for retail, hospitals, government, culture etc. Tourism doesn't play a big role, although the city hosts many historic sights and is a local center of culture with theater and museums. In 2012, 37,000 hotel guests had 87,000 overnight stays in Altenburg.


Transport

Altenburg was the first city in Thuringia with connection to the railway, established in 1842 with the Leipzig–Hof railway, Leipzig–Hof line. Initially, Altenburg station was a terminus station, which became impractical as traffic grew, so a new through station was built in 1878 in the north-east of the city. In addition to the connections to
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
(1842) and Hof, Bavaria, Hof/
Zwickau Zwickau (; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German lang ...

Zwickau
(1844), some more lines were established to Glauchau (1858, via Gößnitz), to
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
(1865, via Gößnitz), to Zeitz (1872, abandoned in 2002) and to Narsdorf (1901, abandoned in 1998). Today, the Altenburg station is the only station within the municipality, after the Paditz station (on the Hof line) and the North Altenburg station (on the Zeitz line) were closed. There are some regional trains to
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
,
Zwickau Zwickau (; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German lang ...

Zwickau
and
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
(via
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
and Jena) today. Glauchau can be reached by changing trains in the near Gößnitz station. With the rollout of the Leipzig City Tunnel in December 2013, the services on the Leipzig–Hof/Zwickau line were reorganized and integrated in the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland with connections to Leipzig twice an hour. The connection to long-distance trains is carried out via Leipzig (north and east), Jena (south) and Erfurt (west), since the last long-distance trains on the Leipzig–Hof line ceased operating in 2006. Altenburg is situated between two Autobahns: the Bundesautobahn 4, A4 (
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most populous city, after Leipzig. It is the List of cities in German ...

Dresden
) passes approximately south and the Bundesautobahn 72, A72 (
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
Chemnitz Chemnitz (; cs, Saská Kamenice; from 1953 to 1990: ''Karl-Marx-Stadt'' ) is the third largest city in the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people ...

Chemnitz
) passes approximately east of the city. Regional traffic is carried by the three Bundesstraße, national roadsn in Altenburg. The Bundesstraße 7, B7 is the connection to
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
(and A4 in Erfurt direction) in the south-west and to Rochlitz in the north-east, the Bundesstraße 93, B93 runs to Borna, Leipzig, Borna (and A72 in Leipzig direction) in the north and to
Zwickau Zwickau (; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German lang ...

Zwickau
in the south and the Bundesstraße 180, B180 links Altenburg with Zeitz in the west and Hohenstein-Ernstthal (and A72/A4 in Chemnitz and Dresden direction via secondary road 1357) in the south-east. An important secondary road connects Altenburg with Gera north to the B7 via Lumpzig. The B7 and B93 bypass the town center on a ring road to absorb the transit traffic between Leipzig and Zwickau. The Leipzig-Altenburg Airport, a former Soviet Union, Soviet military airport, is situated east of the city and was used by Ryanair for flights to London Stansted Airport, London Stansted, Barcelona-Girona and Edinburgh until 2011. Currently, there are no public flights at this airport. The next regional airport is located in Leipzig/Halle Airport, Leipzig/Halle ( to the north). Biking is becoming more popular since the construction of long-distance cycle tracks began in the 1990s. Both the ''Pleiße track'', along the
Pleiße The Pleiße is a river of Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; hsb, Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: , Upper Sorbian: ), is a landlocked state of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , c ...
valley from Werdau near Zwickau to
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
, and the ''Thuringian city track (Radweg Thüringer Städtekette)'' from Eisenach via
Erfurt Erfurt ( , ; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Erfurt
, Weimar, Jena and
Gera Gera is, with around 93,000 inhabitants, the third-largest city of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , be ...
to Altenburg, connect points of tourist interest. Local public transport within Altenburg is based exclusively on buses. Six lines connect the outlying quarters to the inner city. Furthermore, there are some regional bus services to the villages in the district. The Altenburg Tramway was in operation from 1895 until 1920.


Education

There are three Gymnasium (Germany), Gymnasiums in Altenburg: two state-owned and one Christian (ecumenical).


Politics


Mayor and city council

The first freely elected mayor after German reunification was Johannes Ungvari of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union (CDU), who served from 1990 to 2000. He was succeeded by Michael Wolf (politician), Michael Wolf of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party (SPD), who served until 2018. Since 2018, André Neumann of the CDU has been mayor. The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 April 2018, and the results were as follows: ! colspan=2, Candidate ! Party ! Votes ! % , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, André Neumann , align=left, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union , 7,614 , 55.6 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Frank Schütze , align=left, Independent politician, Independent , 3,296 , 24.0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Katharina Schenk , align=left, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party , 2,795 , 20.4 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 13,705 ! 98.7 , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 177 ! 1.3 , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 13,882 ! 100.0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 27,725 ! 50.1 , - , colspan=5, Source
Wahlen in Thüringen
The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows: ! colspan=2, Party ! Lead candidate ! Votes ! % ! +/- ! Seats ! +/- , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union (CDU) , align=left, André Neumann , 11,510 , 30.4 , 5.0 , 11 , 2 , - , , align=left, Pro Alternburg , align=left, Peter Müller , 9,326 , 24.7 , 6.4 , 9 , 3 , - , , align=left, City Forum Altenburg , align=left, Johannes Schaefer , 5,227 , 13.8 , New , 5 , New , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, The Left (Germany), The Left (Die Linke) , align=left, Kati Klaubert , 5,187 , 13.7 , 8.3 , 5 , 3 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party (SPD) , align=left, Nikolaus Dorsch , 4,356 , 11.5 , 13.3 , 4 , 5 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party (FDP) , align=left, Detlef Zschiegner , 1,274 , 3.4 , 1.7 , 1 , ±0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) , align=left, Claudia Große , 942 , 2.5 , New , 1 , New , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 12,718 ! 95.7 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 566 ! 4.3 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 13,284 ! 100.0 ! ! 36 ! ±0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 27,296 ! 48.7 ! 7.0 ! ! , - , colspan=8, Source
Wahlen in Thüringen


Twin towns – sister cities

Altenburg is Sister city, twinned with: * Offenburg, Germany * Olten, Switzerland * Zlín, Czech Republic


Notable natives

* Günter Beier, (born 1942), gymnast * Friedrich von Beust, (1817–1899), Privy Councillor, Chamberlain and Lord Marshal, Major General and Adjutant General * Perry Bräutigam, (born 1963), footballer * Joachim Büchner, (1905–1983), sprinter athlete *
Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus (4 May 1772 – 20 August 1823) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ances ...
, (1772–1823), encyclopedia publisher * Hermann Askan Demme, (1802–1867), physician and surgeon * Adolph Douai, (1819–1888), German-American journalist, social reformer and founder of the first kindergartens of the US * Bernhard Erdmannsdörffer, (1833–1901), historian * Walther Flemming, (1843–1905), sculptor * Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I, (1122–1190), Holy Roman Emperor * Erhard Frommhold, (1928–2007), art historian and publicist * Hans Conon von der Gabelentz, (1807–1874) * Georg von der Gabelentz, (1840–1893), linguist and sinologist * Johann Georg August Galletti, (1750–1828) * Hanns Bruno Geinitz, (1814–1900), geologist and paleontologist * Ralf Haber, (born 1962), hammer thrower * Dieter Kalka, (born 1957), author, musician and songwriter * Volker Kluge (born 1944), journalist * Johann Ludwig Krebs (1713–1780), Baroque musician and composer * Bernhard von Lindenau (1780–1854), lawyer, astronomer and politician * Sophie Mereau, (1770–1806), writer of German Romanticism * Uwe Rösler, (born 1968), football player and manager * Hermann Schlegel (1804–1884), ornithologist, herpetologist and ichthyologis * Ingo Schulze (born 1962), writer *
George Spalatin Georg(e) Spalatin () was the pseudonym taken by Georg Burkhardt (; 17 January 1484 – 16 January 1545), a German humanist, theologian, Protestant Reformer, reformer, secretary of the Saxon Elector Frederick the Wise, as well as an important f ...
(1484–1545), humanist * Heinrich Schmidt (physician), Heinrich Schmidt, ''Hauptsturmführer'' and camp doctor in the concentration camps * Johann Severin Vater, theologian and linguist * Jürgen Thiele, rowers, Olympic champion in 1980 in coxless four * Kerstin Walther, athlete, with the GDR relay won the gold medal in the 4x400-meter race at the 1983 World Championship * Christian Friedrich Witt, church musician and composer


See also

* Fürstlich Sächsischer Hofbuchdruckerei zu Altenburg


Notes


References


External links


Official website of the town

Tourism information

Lindenau-Museum
{{Authority control Altenburg, Towns in Thuringia Altenburger Land Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg Bezirk Leipzig Holocaust locations in Germany