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The Alhambra (, ; ar, الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrāʾ, , ) is a palace and fortress complex located in
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...

Granada
,
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. It was originally constructed as a small fortress in 889 CE on the remains of Roman fortifications, and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Arab
Nasrid The Nasrid dynasty ( ar, بنو نصر ''banū Naṣr'' or ''banū al-Aḥmar''; Spanish: ''Nazarí'') was an dynasty and the last dynasty in the , ruling the from 1230 until 1492. Twenty-three s ruled Granada from the founding of the dynast ...
emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes Romanization of Arabic, transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic language, Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocratic, aristocrat, holder of high-ranking military or politic ...

emir
Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the
Emirate of Granada ) , common_languages = Official language: Classical ArabicOther languages: Andalusi Arabic, Mozarabic, Berber, Ladino , capital = Granada , religion = Majority religion:Sunni Islam Sunni Islam () i ...

Emirate of Granada
, who built its current palace and walls. It was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by
Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada Abu al-Hajjaj Yusuf ibn Ismail ( ar, أبو الحجاج يوسف بن إسماعيل; 29 June 131819 October 1354), known by the laqab, regnal name al-Muayyad billah (, "He who is aided by God"), was the seventh Nasrid dynasty, Nasrid ruler of ...
. After the conclusion of the Christian
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
in 1492, the site became the Royal Court of
Ferdinand and Isabella The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, whose marriage and joint rule marked the ''de facto'' unification of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , ...
(where
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
received royal endorsement for his expedition), and the palaces were partially altered in the Renaissance style. In 1526
Charles I & V
Charles I & V
commissioned a new
Renaissance palace
Renaissance palace
better befitting the Holy Roman Emperor in the revolutionary
Mannerist Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520, spreading by about 1530 and lasting until about the end of the 16th century in Italy, when the Ba ...
style influenced by
humanist Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or some ...
philosophy in direct juxtaposition with the
Nasrid The Nasrid dynasty ( ar, بنو نصر ''banū Naṣr'' or ''banū al-Aḥmar''; Spanish: ''Nazarí'') was an dynasty and the last dynasty in the , ruling the from 1230 until 1492. Twenty-three s ruled Granada from the founding of the dynast ...
Andalusian architecture, but it was ultimately never completed due to
Morisco rebellions in Granada Moriscos (, ; pt, mouriscos ; Spanish for "Moorish") were former Muslims and their descendants whom the Roman Catholic church and the Spain, Spanish Crown commanded to Conversion to Christianity, convert to Christianity or compulsory exile a ...
. Alhambra's last flowering of Islamic palaces was built for the final Muslim emirs in Spain during the decline of the
Nasrid dynasty The Nasrid dynasty ( ar, بنو نصر ''banū Naṣr'' or ''banū al-Aḥmar''; Spanish: ''Nazarí'') was an Arab dynasty and the last Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492. Twenty-three emi ...
, who were increasingly subject to the Christian Kings of Castile. After being allowed to fall into disrepair for centuries, the buildings occupied by
squatters Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not Land ownership and tenure, own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. The United Nations estim ...
, Alhambra was rediscovered following the defeat of
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
, who had conducted retaliatory destruction of the site. The rediscoverers were first British intellectuals and then other north European
Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic poetry, of that era ** Romanticism in science, of that er ...
travelers. It is now one of Spain's major tourist attractions, exhibiting the country's most significant and well-known
Islamic architecture Islamic architecture comprises the architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), style i ...
, together with 16th-century and later Christian building and garden interventions. The Alhambra is a
UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNES ...
.
Moorish '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors in ...

Moorish
poets described it as "a pearl set in emeralds", an allusion to the colour of its buildings and the woods around them. The palace complex was designed with the mountainous site in mind and many forms of technology were considered. The park (Alameda de la Alhambra), which is overgrown with wildflowers and grass in the spring, was planted by the Moors with roses, oranges, and
myrtles
myrtles
; its most characteristic feature, however, is the dense wood of English elms brought by the
Duke of Wellington Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish people, Anglo-Irish soldier and Tories (British political party), Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political fi ...

Duke of Wellington
in 1812. The park has a multitude of
nightingale The common nightingale, rufous nightingale or simply nightingale (''Luscinia megarhynchos''), is a small passerine A passerine is any bird of the Order (biology), order Passeriformes (, Latin ''passer'' (“sparrow”) + ''formis'' (“-shape ...
s and is usually filled with the sound of running water from several fountains and cascades. These are supplied through a conduit long, which is connected with the Darro at the monastery of Jesus del Valle above Granada. Despite long neglect, willful vandalism, and some ill-judged restoration, the Alhambra endures as an atypical example of Muslim art in its final European stages, relatively uninfluenced by the direct Byzantine influences found in the Mezquita of Córdoba. Most of the palace buildings are quadrangular in plan, with all the rooms opening on to a central court, and the whole reached its present size simply by the gradual addition of new quadrangles, designed on the same principle, though varying in dimensions, and connected with each other by smaller rooms and passages. Alhambra was extended by the different Muslim rulers who lived in the complex. However, each new section that was added followed the consistent theme of "paradise on earth". Column arcades, fountains with running water, and reflecting pools were used to add to the aesthetic and functional complexity. In every case, the exterior was left plain and austere. Sun and wind were freely admitted. Blue, red, and a golden yellow, all somewhat faded through lapse of time and exposure, are the colors chiefly employed. The name Alhambra means the red one or the red castle, which refers to the sun-dried bricks that the outer wall is made of. The decoration consists for the upper part of the walls, as a rule, of Arabic inscriptions—mostly poems by
Ibn Zamrak Ibn Zamrak () (also Zumruk) or Abu Abduallah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Surayhi, (1333–1393) was an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plu ...
and others praising the palace—that are manipulated into with vegetal background set onto an
arabesque The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements. Another definition is "Folia ...

arabesque
setting ("Ataurique"). Much of this ornament is carved
stucco Stucco or render is a construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and c ...
(plaster) rather than stone. Tile mosaics ("alicatado"), with complicated mathematical patterns ("tracería", most precisely "lacería"), are largely used as panelling for the lower part. Metal was also not present very mainly. Similar designs are displayed on wooden ceilings ().
Muqarnas Muqarnas ( ar, مقرنص; fa, مقرنس), also known in Iranian architecture Iranian architecture or Persian architecture (Persian language, Persian: معمارى ایرانی, ''Memāri e Irāni'') is the architecture of Iran and par ...
are the main elements for vaulting with stucco, and some of the most accomplished dome examples of this kind are in the Court of the Lions halls. The palace complex is designed in the Nasrid style, the last blooming of Islamic Art in the Iberian Peninsula, that had a great influence on the
Maghreb The Maghreb (; ar, المغرب, al-Maghrib, lit=the west), also known as Northwest Africa, is the western part of North Africa and the Arab world. The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania (also considered part of West Africa), Morocco and ...

Maghreb
to the present day, and on contemporary Mudejar Art, which is characteristic of western elements reinterpreted into Islamic forms and widely popular during the
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
in Spain.


Etymology

''Alhambra'' derives from the Arabic '' (f.)'', meaning "the red one", the complete form of which was ' "the red fortress ( qalat)". The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is normally given the definite article.


History

Around the year 889, forces loyal to
Umar ibn HafsunImage:Bobastro ruinas.jpg, 300px, Ruins of the Bobastro Church. Umar ibn Hafsun ibn Ja'far ibn Salim ( ar, عمر بن حَفْصُون بن جَعْفَ بن سالم) (c. 850 – 917), known in Spanish history as Omar ...
in revolt against
Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi Abdullah ibn Muhammad ( ar, عبد الله بن محمد الأموي; January 11, 844 – October 15, 912) was the seventh Emir of Córdoba, reigning from 888 to 912 in Al-Andalus (Islamic Iberia). Biography Contemporary historians accuse ...
and the
Emirate of Córdoba An emirate is a territory ruled by an emir, a title used by monarchs or high officeholders in the Muslim world. There are three emirates that are independent states (Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Qatar); and the unrecognized Islamic Emirate ...
besieged a small Islamic fortress in Granada held by Sawār Ben Hamdūn. The first reference to ' came in lines of poetry attached to an arrow shot over the ramparts, recorded by
Ibn Hayyan Abū Marwān Ḥayyān ibn Khalaf ibn Ḥusayn ibn Ḥayyān al-Qurṭubī (987–1075), usually known as Ibn Hayyan, was a Muslim historian from Al-Andalus. Born at Córdoba, Spain, Córdoba, his father was an important official at the court of t ...
: "Deserted and roofless are the houses of our enemies; Invaded by the autumnal rains, traversed by impetuous winds; Let them within the red castle (Kalat al hamra) hold their mischievous councils; Perdition and woe surround them on every side." Completed towards the end of Muslim rule of Spain by
Yusuf I Abu al-Hajjaj Yusuf ibn Ismail ( ar, أبو الحجاج يوسف بن إسماعيل; 29 June 131819 October 1354), known by the regnal name A regnal name, or reign name, is the name used by monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II ...
(1333–1353) and
Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada Abu Abdallah Muhammad V () (4 January 1339http://dbe.rah.es/biografias/6554/muhammad-v – 16 January 1391), known by the regnal name al-Ghani bi'llah ( ar, الغني بالله, al-Ghanī bi-ʾllāh, He who is contented with God), was the eig ...
(1353–1391), the Alhambra is a reflection of the culture of the last centuries of the Muslim rule of , reduced to the . It is a place where artists and intellectuals had taken refuge as the Reconquista by Spanish Christians won victories over Al Andalus. The Alhambra integrates natural site qualities with constructed structures and gardens, and is a testament to Moorish culture in Spain and the skills of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian artisans, craftsmen, and builders of their era. The literal translation of Alhambra, "the red (female)," reflects the color of the red clay of the surroundings of which the fort is made. The buildings of the Alhambra were originally
whitewash Three different brands of kalsomine Whitewash, or calcimine, kalsomine, calsomine, or lime paint is a type of paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin ...
ed; however, the buildings as seen today are reddish. Another possible origin of the name is the tribal designation of the
Nasrid Dynasty The Nasrid dynasty ( ar, بنو نصر ''banū Naṣr'' or ''banū al-Aḥmar''; Spanish: ''Nazarí'') was an Arab dynasty and the last Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492. Twenty-three emi ...
, known as the Banu al-Ahmar ''Arabic: Sons of the Red (male)'', a sub-tribe of the
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, : , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an mainly inhabiting the . In modern usage the term refers to those who originate from an Arab co ...

Arab
Qahtanite The terms Qahtanite and Qahtani ( ar, قَحْطَانِي; Arabic transliteration, transliterated: Qaḥṭānī) refer to Arab people, Arabs who originate from South Arabia. Qahtan Britannica Online Encyclopedia, 2009. notes "Qahtan are divid ...
Banu Khazraj The Banu Khazraj ( ar, بنو خزرج) is a large tribe in Medina Medina, ', "the radiant city"; or , ' (), "the city", officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah, is the second holiest city in Islam ...
tribe. One of the early Nasrid ancestors was nicknamed ''Yusuf Al Ahmar'' (Yusuf the Red) and hence the (Nasrid) fraction of the Banu Khazraj took up the name of Banu al-Ahmar. The first reference to the Qal‘at al-Ḥamra was during the battles between the Arabs and the Muladies (people of mixed Arab and European descent) during the rule of the ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad (r. 888–912). In one particularly fierce and bloody skirmish, the Muladies soundly defeated the Arabs, who were then forced to take shelter in a primitive red castle located in the province of Elvira, presently located in
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...

Granada
. According to surviving documents from the era, the red castle was quite small, and its walls were not capable of deterring an army intent on conquering. The castle was then largely ignored until the eleventh century, when its ruins were renovated and rebuilt by Samuel ibn Naghrela,
vizier A vizier (; ar, وزير, wazīr; fa, وزیر, vazīr), or wazir, is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in the near east. The caliphs gave the title ''wazir'' to a minister formerly called ' (secretary), who was at first merely a ...
to the
emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes Romanization of Arabic, transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic language, Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocratic, aristocrat, holder of high-ranking military or politic ...

emir
Badis ben Habus of the
Zirid The Zirid dynasty ( ar, الزيريون, translit=Al-Zīryūn), Banu Ziri ( ar, بنو زيري, translit=Banu Zīry), or the Zirid state ( ar, الدولة الزيرية, translit=Al-dawla al-Zīrya) was a Sanhaja Berbers, Berber dynasty from ...
Dynasty of Al Andalus, in an attempt to preserve the small Jewish settlement also located on the natural plateau, Sabikah Hill. Ibn Nasr, the founder of the
Nasrid Dynasty The Nasrid dynasty ( ar, بنو نصر ''banū Naṣr'' or ''banū al-Aḥmar''; Spanish: ''Nazarí'') was an Arab dynasty and the last Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492. Twenty-three emi ...
, was forced to flee to Jaén to avoid persecution by King
Ferdinand III of Castile Ferdinand III ( es, Fernando, link=no; 1199/120130 May 1252), called the Saint (''el Santo''), was King of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: ...

Ferdinand III of Castile
and the Reconquista supporters working to end Spain's Moorish rule. After retreating to Granada, Ibn-Nasr took up residence at the Palace of Badis ben Habus in the Alhambra. A few months later, he embarked on the construction of a new Alhambra fit for the residence of a sultan. According to an Arabic manuscript since published as the ''Anónimo de Granada y Copenhague'', The design included plans for six palaces, five of which were grouped in the northeast quadrant forming a royal quarter, two circuit towers, and numerous bathhouses. During the reign of the Nasrid Dynasty, the Alhambra was transformed into a
palatine A palatine or palatinus (in Latin; plural ''palatini''; cf. derivative spellings below) is a high-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman Empire, Roman times.
palatine
city, complete with an irrigation system composed of
acequia An acequia () or séquia () is a community-operated watercourse used in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de Españ ...

acequia
s for the gardens of the
Generalife The Palacio de Generalife (; ar, جَنَّة الْعَرِيف, translit=Jannat al-‘Arīf) was a summer palace and country estate of the Nasrid rulers of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus. It is located directly east of and uphill from the ...

Generalife
located outside the fortress. Previously, the old Alhambra structure had been dependent upon rainwater collected from a
cistern A cistern (Middle English ', from Latin ', from ', "box", from Greek language, Greek ', "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. Cisterns are often built to catch and Rainwater tank, store rainwater. Cisterns are ...

cistern
and from what could be brought up from the Albaicín. The creation of the Sultan's Canal solidified the identity of the Alhambra as a palace-city rather than a defensive and
ascetic Asceticism (; from the el, ἄσκησις ''áskesis'', "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their ...

ascetic
structure. The hydraulic system includes two long water channels and several sophisticated elevation devices to bring water onto the plateau. The last Nasrid sultan,
Muhammad XII of Granada Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...
, surrendered the
Emirate of Granada ) , common_languages = Official language: Classical ArabicOther languages: Andalusi Arabic, Mozarabic, Berber, Ladino , capital = Granada , religion = Majority religion:Sunni Islam Sunni Islam () i ...

Emirate of Granada
in 1492 without the Alhambra itself being attacked when the forces of the Reyes Católicos, King
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon from 1479, King of Sicily (as Ferdinand II) from 1469, List of monar ...
and Queen
Isabella I of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom and Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that fo ...
, took the surrounding territory with a force of overwhelming numbers. Muhammad XII moved the remains of his ancestors from the complex, as was verified by
Leopoldo Torres Balbás Leopoldo Torres Balbás (23 May 1888, in Madrid – 21 November 1960, in Madrid) was a Spain, Spanish scholar, architect, and restorer. He was an important figure in the early 20th century Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage, conservat ...
in 1925, when he found seventy empty tombs. The remains are now likely to be located in Mondújar in the principality of Lecrín. The decoration within the palaces comes from the last great period of Andalusian art in Granada. With little of the
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
influence of contemporary
Abassid The Abbasid Caliphate ( or ar, اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّةُ, ') was the third caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islam Islam (;There ar ...
architecture, artists endlessly reproduced the same forms and trends, creating a new style that developed over the course of the Nasrid Dynasty. The Nasrids used freely all the stylistic elements that had been created and developed during eight centuries of Muslim rule in the Peninsula, including the Caliphate
horseshoe arch The horseshoe arch (Spanish: ''arco de herradura'' /ˈarko de eraˈduɾa/), also called the Moorish arch and the keyhole arch, is the emblematic arch An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not sup ...
, the Almohad
sebka ''Sebka'' () refers to a type of decorative motif used in historic western Islamic ("Moorish") architecture, Mudéjar architecture, and up to present-day Moroccan architecture. History and description Various types of interlacing rhombus ...
(a grid of rhombuses), the Almoravid palm, and unique combinations of them, as well as innovations such as stilted arches and
muqarnas Muqarnas ( ar, مقرنص; fa, مقرنس), also known in Iranian architecture Iranian architecture or Persian architecture (Persian language, Persian: معمارى ایرانی, ''Memāri e Irāni'') is the architecture of Iran and par ...
(stalactite ceiling decorations). Structurally, the design is simple and does not evince significant innovation. While artistically pleasing it was until the reconquest structurally ad hoc and reliant on the skills of subject artisans and workers. Columns and muqarnas appear in several chambers, and the interiors of numerous palaces are decorated with
arabesque The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements. Another definition is "Folia ...

arabesque
s and
calligraphy Calligraphy (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

calligraphy
. The arabesques of the interior are ascribed to, among other sultans,
Yusuf I Abu al-Hajjaj Yusuf ibn Ismail ( ar, أبو الحجاج يوسف بن إسماعيل; 29 June 131819 October 1354), known by the regnal name A regnal name, or reign name, is the name used by monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II ...
,
Mohammed VMohamed V may refer to: * Muhammed V of Granada (1338–1391), Sultan of Granada * Mehmed V (1848–1918), 39th Sultan of Ottoman Empire * Mohammed V of Morocco (1909–1961), king of Morocco ** Mohamed V Dam, located in Morocco and named after the ...
, and Ismail I, Sultan of Granada. However, the muqarnas in the Lions' Courtyard at Alhambra have different configurations from their original designs, which might have been altered by repairs. After the Christian conquest of the city in 1492, the conquerors began to alter the Alhambra. The open work was filled up with
whitewash Three different brands of kalsomine Whitewash, or calcimine, kalsomine, calsomine, or lime paint is a type of paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin ...
, the painting and gilding effaced, and the furniture soiled, torn, or removed.
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
(1516–1556) rebuilt portions in the Renaissance style of the period and destroyed the greater part of the winter palace to make room for a Renaissance-style structure which was never completed.
Philip VPhilip V may refer to: * Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) * Philip V of France (1293–1322) * Philip II of Spain, also Philip V, Duke of Burgundy (1526–1598) * Philip V of Spain (1683–1746) {{hndis, Philip 06 ...

Philip V
(1700–1746) Italianised the rooms and completed his palace in the middle of what had been the Moorish building; he had partitions constructed which blocked up whole apartments. Over subsequent centuries the Moorish art was further damaged, and in 1812 some of the towers were destroyed by the French under Count Sebastiani. In 1821, an earthquake caused further damage. Restoration work was undertaken in 1828 by the architect José Contreras, endowed in 1830 by
Ferdinand VII Ferdinand VII ( es, Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was the during the early- to mid-19th century. He reigned over the Spanish Kingdom in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death in 1833. He was known to his supporters as ' (the De ...
. After the death of Contreras in 1847, it was continued by his son Rafael (died 1890) and his grandson. Especially notable was the intervention of
Leopoldo Torres Balbás Leopoldo Torres Balbás (23 May 1888, in Madrid – 21 November 1960, in Madrid) was a Spain, Spanish scholar, architect, and restorer. He was an important figure in the early 20th century Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage, conservat ...
in the 1930s: the young architect "opened arcades that had been walled up, re-excavated filled-in pools, replaced missing tiles, completed inscriptions that lacked portions of their stuccoed lettering, and installed a ceiling in the still unfinished palace of Charles V".


Layout

According to the site's current architect, Pedro Salmeron Escobar, the Alhambra evolved organically over a period of several centuries from the ancient hilltop fortress defined by a narrow promontory carved by the river Darro and overlooking the ''Vega'' or Plain of Granada as it descends from the
Sierra Nevada The Sierra Nevada () is a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and align ...

Sierra Nevada
. The red earth from which the fortress is constructed is a granular aggregate held together by a medium of red clay which gives the resulting layered brick- and stone- reinforced construction (''tapial calicastrado'') its characteristic hue and is at the root of the name of 'the Red Hill'. This crude earthiness is counterpointed by the startling fine
alabaster Alabaster is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure fo ...

alabaster
white
stucco Stucco or render is a construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and c ...
work of the famous interiors. Alhambra is about in length by at its greatest width. It extends from west-northwest to east-southeast and covers an area of about or 35 acres. The Alhambra's most westerly feature is the
Alcazaba An (, ), () or () is a Moorish fortification in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , nationa ...

Alcazaba
(citadel), a strongly fortified position built to protect the original post-Roman districts of ''Iliberri'', now 'Centro', and ''Gárnata al-yahūd'' ('Granada of the
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jews
', now ''Realejo'', and the Moorish suburb of ''El Albayzín''. Due to touristic demand, modern access runs contrary to the original sequence which began from a principal access via the ''Puerta de la Justicia'' (Gate of Justice) onto a large or public market square facing the Alcazaba, now subdivided and obscured by later Christian-era development. From the ''Puerta del Vino'' (Wine Gate) ran the ''Calle Real'' (Royal Street) dividing the Alhambra along its axial spine into a southern residential quarter, with
mosque A mosque (; from ar, مَسْجِد, masjid, ; literally "place of ritual prostration"), also called masjid, is a place of worship for Muslims. Any act of worship that follows the Salah, Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, w ...

mosque
s, hamams (bathhouses) and diverse functional establishments, and a greater northern portion, occupied by several palaces of the nobility with extensive landscaped gardens commanding views over the Albayzin. All of this was subservient to the great Tower of the Ambassadors in the ''Palacio Comares'', which acted as the royal audience chamber and throne room with its three arched windows dominating the city. The private, internalised universe of the ''Palacio de Los Leones'' (Palace of the Lions) adjoins the public spaces at right angles (see Plan illustration) but was originally connected only by the function of the Royal Baths, the Eye of Aixa's Room serving as the exquisitely decorated focus of meditation and authority overlooking the refined garden of ''Lindaraja/Daraxa'' toward the city. The rest of the plateau comprises a number of earlier and later Moorish palaces, enclosed by a , with thirteen defensive towers, some such as the ''Torres de la Infanta'' and ''Cattiva'' containing elaborate vertical palaces in miniature. The river Darro passes through a ravine on the north and divides the plateau from the
Albaicín The Albaicín () or Albayzín ( ar, ٱلْبَيّازِينْ) as it was known under Muslim rule, is a district of Granada Granada ( , ) , DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or ., is the capital city A capital or ...
district of Granada. Similarly, the Assabica Valley, containing the Alhambra Park, lies on the west and south, and, beyond this valley, the almost parallel ridge of Monte Mauror separates it from the Antequeruela district. Another ravine separates it from the
Generalife The Palacio de Generalife (; ar, جَنَّة الْعَرِيف, translit=Jannat al-‘Arīf) was a summer palace and country estate of the Nasrid rulers of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus. It is located directly east of and uphill from the ...

Generalife
, the summer pleasure gardens of the emir. Escobar notes that the later planting of deciduous elms obscures the overall perception of the layout, so a better reading of the original landscape is given in winter when the trees are bare.


Main structures

The Alhambra resembles many medieval Christian strongholds in its threefold arrangement as a castle, a palace and a residential annex for subordinates. The
alcazaba An (, ), () or () is a Moorish fortification in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , nationa ...

alcazaba
or citadel, its oldest part, is built on the isolated and precipitous foreland which terminates the plateau on the northwest. All that remains are its massive outer walls, towers and ramparts. On its watchtower, the 25 m (85 ft) high ''Torre de la Vela'', the flag of
Ferdinand Ferdinand is a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one w ...
and Isabella was first raised as a symbol of the Spanish conquest of Granada on 2 January 1492. A turret containing a large bell was added in the 18th century and restored after being damaged by lightning in 1881. Beyond the Alcazaba is the palace of the Moorish rulers, The Nasrid Palaces or Alhambra proper, and beyond this is the Alhambra Alta (Upper Alhambra), originally occupied by officials and courtiers. Access from the city to the Alhambra Park is afforded by the ''Puerta de las Granadas'' (Gate of Pomegranates), a
triumphal arch A triumphal arch is a free-standing monumental structure in the shape of an arch An arch is a vertical curved structure that Span (architecture), spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizon ...

triumphal arch
dating from the 15th century. A steep ascent leads past the Pillar of Charles V, a fountain erected in 1554, to the main entrance of the Alhambra. This is the ''Puerta de la Justicia'' (Gate of Justice), a massive horseshoe archway surmounted by a square tower and used by the Moors as an informal court of justice. The hand of Fatima, with fingers outstretched as a talisman against the evil eye, is carved above this gate on the exterior; a key, the symbol of authority, occupies the corresponding place on the interior. A narrow passage leads inward to the ''Plaza de los Aljibes'' (Place of the Cisterns), a broad open space which divides the Alcazaba from the Moorish palace. To the left of the passage rises the ''Torre del Vino'' (Wine Tower), built in 1345 and used in the 16th century as a cellar. On the right is the palace of Charles V, a smaller Renaissance building, to construct which part of the Alhambra, including the original main entrance, was torn down.


Royal complex

The Royal Complex (Plaza de Nazaríes) consists of three main parts: Mexuar, Serallo, and the Harem. The Mexuar is modest in decor and houses the functional areas for conducting business and administration. Strapwork is used to decorate the surfaces in Mexuar. The ceilings, floors, and trim are made of dark wood and are in sharp contrast to white, plaster walls. Serallo, built during the reign of Yusuf I in the 14th century, contains the Patio de los Arrayanes (Court of the Myrtles). Brightly colored interiors featured ''dado'' panels, ''yesería'', ''azulejo'', cedar, and ''artesonado''. Artesonado are highly decorative ceilings and other woodwork. Lastly, the Harem is also elaborately decorated and contains the living quarters for the wives and mistresses of the Arab monarchs. This area contains a bathroom with running water (cold and hot), baths, and pressurized water for showering. The bathrooms were open to the elements in order to allow in light and air.


Court of the Myrtles

The Court of the Myrtles was built under Muhammad V of Granada, and with 11 Qasida, ''qasā'id'' by
Ibn Zamrak Ibn Zamrak () (also Zumruk) or Abu Abduallah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Surayhi, (1333–1393) was an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plu ...
, 8 of which remain. The present entrance to the ''Palacio Árabe'' (Arab palace), or ''Casa Real'', is by a small door from which a corridor connects to the ''Patio de los Arrayanes'' (Court of the Myrtles), also called the ''Patio de la Alberca'' (Court of the Blessing or Court of the Pond), from the Arabic ''birka'', "pool". The birka helped to cool the palace and acted as a symbol of power. Because water was usually in short supply, the technology required to keep these pools full was expensive and difficult. This court is 42 m (140 ft) long by 22 m (74 ft) broad, and in the centre there is a large pond set in the marble pavement, full of goldfish, and with myrtles growing along its sides. There are galleries on the north and south sides; the southern gallery is 7 m (23 ft) high and supported by a marble colonnade. Underneath it, to the right, was the principal entrance, and over it are three windows with arches and miniature pillars. From this court, the walls of the ''Torre de Comares'' are seen rising over the roof to the north and reflected in the pond.


Hall of the Ambassadors

The ''Salón de los Embajadores'' (Hall of the Ambassadors) is the largest room in the Alhambra and occupies all the ''Torre de Comares''. It is a square room, the sides being 12 m (37 ft) in length, while the centre of the dome is 23 m (75 ft) high. This was the grand reception room, and the throne of the sultan was placed opposite the entrance. The grand hall projects from the walls of the palace, providing views in three directions. In this sense, it was a "mirador" from which the palace's inhabitants could gaze outward to the surrounding landscape. The tiles are nearly 4 ft (1.2 m) high all round, and the colours vary at intervals. Over them is a series of oval medallions with inscriptions, interwoven with flowers and leaves. There are nine windows, three on each facade, and the ceiling is decorated with white, blue and gold inlays in the shape of circles, crowns and stars. The walls are covered with varied stucco works, surrounding many ancient escutcheons.


Court of the Lions and fountain

The Court of the Lions (''Patio de los Leones'') is an oblong courtyard, 116 ft (35 m) in length by 66 ft (20 m) in width, surrounded by a low gallery supported on 124 white marble columns. A pavilion projects into the court at each extremity, with filigree walls and a light domed roof. The square is paved with coloured tiles and the colonnade with white marble, while the walls are covered 5 ft (1.5 m) up from the ground with blue and yellow tiles, with a border above and below of enamelled blue and gold. The columns supporting the roof and gallery are irregularly placed. They are adorned by varieties of foliage, etc.; about each arch there is a large square of stucco arabesques; and over the pillars is another stucco square of filigree work.


Fountain of the Lions

In the centre of the court is the Fountain of the Lions, an
alabaster Alabaster is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure fo ...

alabaster
basin supported by the figures of twelve lions in white marble, not designed with sculptural accuracy but as symbols of strength, power, and sovereignty. Each hour one lion would produce water from its mouth. At the edge of the great fountain there is a poem written by Ibn Zamrak. This praises the beauty of the fountain and the power of the lions, but it also describes their ingenious hydraulic systems and how they actually worked, which baffled all those who saw them.


Hall of the Abencerrajes

The ''Sala de los Abencerrajes'' (Hall of the Abencerrages) derives its name from a legend according to which the father of Boabdil, the last sultan of
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...

Granada
, having invited the chiefs of that line to a banquet, massacred them here. This room is a perfect square, with a lofty dome and trellised windows at its base. The roof is decorated in blue, brown, red and gold, and the columns supporting it spring out into the arch form in a remarkably beautiful manner. Opposite to this hall is the ''Sala de las dos Hermanas'' (Hall of the two Sisters), so-called from two white marble slabs laid as part of the pavement. These slabs measure 500 by 220 cm (15 by 7½ ft). There is a fountain in the middle of this hall, and the roof – a dome honeycombed with tiny cells, all different, and said to number 5000 – is an example of the "stalactite vaulting" of the Moors.


Generalife

Of the outlying buildings connected to the Alhambra, the foremost in interest is the Generalife, Palacio de Generalife or Gineralife (the Muslim ''Jennat al Arif'', "Garden of Arif," or "Garden of the Architect"). This villa dates from the beginning of the 14th century but has been restored several times. The ''Villa de los Martires'' (Martyrs' Villa), on the summit of Monte Mauror, commemorates by its name the Christian slaves who were forced to build the Alhambra and confined here in subterranean cells. The ''Torres Bermejas'' (Vermilion Towers), also on Monte Mauror, are a well-preserved Moorish fortification, with underground cisterns, stables, and accommodation for a garrison of 200 men. Several Roman tombs were discovered in 1829 and 1857 at the base of Monte Mauror.


Other features

Among the other features of the Alhambra are the ''Sala de la Justicia'' (Hall of Justice), the ''Patio del Mexuar'' (Court of the Council Chamber), the ''Patio de Daraxa'' (Court of the Vestibule), and the ''Peinador de la Reina'' (Queen's Robing Room), in which there is similar architecture and decoration. The palace and the Upper Alhambra also contain baths, rows of bedrooms and summer-rooms, a whispering gallery and labyrinth, and vaulted sepulchres. The original furniture of the palace is represented by one of the famous Alhambra vases, very large Hispano-Moresque ware vases made in the Sultanate to stand in niches around the palace. These famous examples of Hispano-Moresque ware date from the 14th and 15th centuries. The one remaining in the palace, from about 1400, is 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) high; the background is white and the decoration is blue, white and gold.


Water supply system

Water was provided to both the Alhambra and the Generalife by the ''Acequia Real'' (also known as the ''Acequia del Rey'' or ''Acequia del Sultan''), which still exists in large part today. It draws water from the Darro River at an uphill location in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, about 6.1 kilometers east of the Alhambra. A smaller branch known as the ''Acequia del Tercio'' also splits off from it several kilometers upstream and proceeded along higher ground before arriving at the top point of the Generalife's palace and gardens. The main branch, proceeding along lower ground, also arrives at the Generalife palace and supplies water to its iconic ''Patio de la Acequia''. Both canals generally ran along the surface but some parts ran through tunnels cut directly into the bedrock. The ''Silla del Moro'' ('Seat of the Moor'), a ruined structure today on the hilltop overlooking the Generalife, was once a fort and monitoring post that protected the water supply infrastructure of this area. After arriving at the Generalife, the canals turn towards the southeast and run past the gardens. They then join together before turning back towards the Alhambra, where the water enters via an arched Aqueduct (water supply), aqueduct next to the ''Torre del Agua'' ('Water Tower') at the Alhambra's eastern tip. From here it is channeled through the citadel via a complex system of conduits (''acequias'') and water tanks (''albercones'') which create the celebrated interplay of light, sound and surface in the palaces.


Inscriptions

The Alhambra features various styles of the Arabic calligraphy, Arabic epigraphy that developed under the
Nasrid dynasty The Nasrid dynasty ( ar, بنو نصر ''banū Naṣr'' or ''banū al-Aḥmar''; Spanish: ''Nazarí'') was an Arab dynasty and the last Muslim dynasty in the Iberian Peninsula, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492. Twenty-three emi ...
, and particularly under Yusuf I of Granada, Yusuf I and Muhammad V of Granada, Muhammad V. José Miguel Puerta Vílchez compares the walls of the Alhambra to the pages of a manuscript, drawing similarities between the Zellige, zilīj-covered Dado (architecture), dados and the geometric manuscript illuminations, and the epigraphical forms in the palace to calligraphic motifs in contemporary Arabic manuscripts. The texts of the Alhambra include "devout, regal, votive, and Quran, Quranic phrases and sentences," formed into arabesques, carved into wood and marble, and glazed onto tiles. Poets of the Narsid court, including Ibn al-Khatib, Ibn al-Khatīb and
Ibn Zamrak Ibn Zamrak () (also Zumruk) or Abu Abduallah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Surayhi, (1333–1393) was an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, : , Arabic pronunciation: , plu ...
, composed poems for the palace. Most of the poetry is inscribed in Nasrid cursive script, while foliate and floral Kufic inscriptions—often formed into arches, columns, enjambments, and "architectural calligrams"—are generally used as decorative elements. Kufic Calligram, calligrams, particularly of the words "blessing" ( ''baraka'') and "felicity" ( ''yumn''), are used as decorative motifs in
arabesque The arabesque is a form of artistic decoration consisting of "surface decorations based on rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing foliage, tendrils" or plain lines, often combined with other elements. Another definition is "Folia ...

arabesque
throughout the palace.


Influence


In literature

Parts of the following works are set in the Alhambra: * Washington Irving's ''Tales of the Alhambra''. This is a collection of essays, verbal sketches, and stories. Irving lived in the palace while writing the book and was instrumental in introducing the site to Western audiences. * Radwa Ashour's * Salman Rushdie's ''The Moor's Last Sigh'' * Amin Maalouf's ''Leo Africanus (novel), Leo Africanus'', depicting the reconquest of Granada by the Catholic Monarchs. * Philippa Gregory's ''The Constant Princess'', depicting Catalina the Infanta of Spain as she lived in the Alhambra after her parents took Granada. * Federico García Lorca's play ''Doña Rosita the Spinster'', mentioned by title character Doña Rosita in her song/speech to the Manola sisters. * Paulo Coelho's novel ''The Alchemist (novel), The Alchemist'' * Ali Smith's ''The Accidental'' * George Bernard Shaw's play ''Man and Superman'' * László Krasznahorkai's ''Seiobo There Below'' * Hanya Yanagihara's ''A Little Life''


In music

The plot of the ''Ballet-héroïque'' entitled ''Zaïde, reine de Grenade'', by the French Baroque composer Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer (c. 1705–1755), takes place at the Alhambra. Alhambra has directly inspired musical compositions including Francisco Tárrega's famous tremolo study for guitar ''Recuerdos de la Alhambra'', as well as Claude Debussy's piece for two pianos composed in 1901, ''Lindaraja'', and the prelude, ''La Puerta del Vino'', from the second book of preludes composed from 1912 to 1913. Isaac Albéniz wrote a piano suite ''Recuerdos de viaje'', which included a piece called "En La Alhambra", while his suite ''Iberia'' contained a piece called "El Albacin". Albéniz also composed an uncompleted ''Suite Alhambra''. "En los Jardines del Generalife", the first movement (music), movement of Manuel de Falla's ''Noches en los Jardines de España'', and other pieces by composers such as Ruperto Chapí (''Los Gnomos de la Alhambra'', 1891), Tomás Bretón, and many others are included in a stream referred to by scholars as ''Alhambrismo''. In 1976, filmmaker Christopher Nupen filmed ''The Song of the Guitar'' at the Alhambra which was an hour-long program featuring the legendary Spanish guitarist, Andrés Segovia. British composer Peter Seabourne wrote an extended piano cycle ''Steps Volume 3: Arabesques'' (2008-2012) based on shared experiences of the Alhambra with his painter aunt Ann Seabourne, and a movement from his Steps Volume 1 is entitled "El Suspiro del Moro" inspired by the legend of the expulsion of the last Moorish King of Granada. In 2000, Julian Anderson wrote a piece for contemporary chamber ensemble, ''Alhambra Fantasy''. In pop and folk music, Alhambra is the subject of the Ghymes song of the same name. The rock band Grateful Dead released a song called "Terrapin Station" on the 1977 Terrapin Station, album of the same name. It consisted of a series of small compositions penned by Robert Hunter and put to music by Jerry Garcia; a lyrical section of this suite was called "Alhambra". In September 2006, Canadian singer/composer Loreena McKennitt performed live at the Alhambra. The resulting video recordings premiered on PBS and were later released as a 3-disc DVD/CD set called ''Nights from the Alhambra''. The Basques, Basque pop group Mocedades performed a song called "Juntos En La Alhambra". ''Alhambra (EP), Alhambra'' is the title of an extended play, EP recording by Canadians, Canadian rock band, The Tea Party, containing acoustic versions of a few of their songs. Alhambra and
Albaicín The Albaicín () or Albayzín ( ar, ٱلْبَيّازِينْ) as it was known under Muslim rule, is a district of Granada Granada ( , ) , DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or ., is the capital city A capital or ...
are mentioned in the Mägo de Oz song named "El Paseo de los Tristes" from the album entitled ''Gaia II''. On California rapper Dom Kennedy's 2015 album ''By Dom Kennedy'', there is a song entitled "Alhambra".


In mathematics

The Alhambra tiles are remarkable in that they contain nearly all, if not all, of the seventeen mathematically possible wallpaper groups. This is a unique accomplishment in world architecture. M. C. Escher's visit in 1922 and study of the Moorish use of symmetries in the Alhambra tiles inspired his subsequent work on tessellation, which he called "regular divisions of the plane".


In film

Marcel L'Herbier's 1921 film ''El Dorado (1921 film), El Dorado'' features many scenes shot in and around the Alhambra palace. This was the first time permission had been granted for a feature film company to shoot inside the Alhambra palace and L'Herbier gave prominent place to its gardens, fountains and geometric architectural patterns, which became some of the film's most memorable images. Animated films by Spanish director Juan Bautista Berasategui such as ''Ahmed, El Principe de la Alhambra'' and ''El Embrujo del Sur'' are based on stories in Washington Irving's ''Tales of the Alhambra''. The Alhambra stands in for Baghdad in the 1958 adventure film ''The 7th Voyage of Sinbad''. Interior palace scenes, including in the Tower of Comares, the Court of the Myrtles, and the Court of the Lions, were shot at night so as not to disturb tourists. The Patio de los Aljibes, backed by the Alcazaba—standing in for a prison yard—was filmed by day. Columbus interview with Queen Isabella in ''Conquest of Paradise'' representing Granada after the Reconquest were filmed at Alhambra. As well as the Palace Scenes of ''Kingdom of Heaven (film), Kingdom of Heaven'' representing Jerusalem during the Crusades. Both films were made by Ridley Scott. The Court of the Lions was depicted in ''Assassin's Creed (film), Assassin's Creed'' (2016) when Sultan Muhammad XII surrenders the 'Apple of Eden', a powerful artifact in the center of the movie plot, in exchange for his son's safe return. Both the Court of the Lions and Granada's Albaicin are featured on the animated film ''Tad Jones: The Hero Returns''. The fictional Broadway theatre (the interior actually Auckland, New Zealand's Auckland Civic Theatre, Civic Theatre), in which Kong is displayed as the 'Eighth Wonder of the World' in 2005's ''King Kong (2005 film), King Kong'', is named "The Alhambra". 2018 Korean drama, South Korean television series ''Memories of the Alhambra'' is based in Granada, Spain with the Alhambra palace as the backdrop of an AR game within the series. Many features and stories of the palace were used as clues and characters for the game progression and AR Alhambra was depicted as ‘a place of magic’ and ‘Mecca for Gamers’ to establish the Gaming plot in the story.


In astronomy

There is a Asteroid belt, main belt asteroid named 3851 Alhambra, Alhambra.


In architecture

The Alhambra inspired: *the synagogue Isaac M. Wise Temple *Villa Alhambra *Villa Zorayda


See also

* 12 Treasures of Spain * Alhambra Decree * Islamic gardens * History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes


Further reading

* * * * Grabar, Oleg. ''The Alhambra''. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1978. * * Lowney, Chris. ''A Vanished World: Medieval Spain's Golden Age of Enlightenment''. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 2005. * Menocal, Maria, Rosa. ''The Ornament of the World''. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 2002. * Read, Jan. ''The Moors in Spain and Portugal''. London: Faber and Faber, 1974. * Ruggles, D. Fairchild. "Alhambra," in ''Encyclopaedia of Islam'', third edition. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2008. * Ruggles, D. Fairchild. ''Gardens, Landscape, and Vision in the Palaces of Islamic Spain'', Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000. * Ruggles, D. Fairchild. ''Islamic Gardens and Landscapes'', University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. * Steves, Rick (2004). ''Spain and Portugal 2004'', pp. 204–205. Avalon Travel Publishing. . * Stewart, Desmond. ''The Alhambra''. Newsweek Publishing, 1974. . * The World Heritage. ''Istanbul and Cordoba'', Vol. #15. Film Ideas, 2008. . *


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * *


External links


Alhambra official website

Alhambra in turgranada.es
Official site for tourism of the province of Granada.

Masterpieces of Islamic Architecture.
InFocus: La Alhambra & Generalife (Granada, Spain)
a
HitchHikers Handbook
* Paul F. Hoye, 1967

''Saudi Aramco World'' * James Cavanah Murphy, Murphy, James Cavanah, 1816
The Alhamra (Alhambra) at Granada
''islamic-arts.org''
Al-Andalus: the art of Islamic Spain
an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Alhambra (see index) * High-resolution 360° Panoramas of&nbs
Alhambra , Art Atlas
{{Authority control Buildings and structures completed in 1333 Alhambra (Spain), Granada Buildings and structures in Granada Castles in Andalusia Gardens in Spain Palaces in Andalusia Royal residences in Spain Open-air museums in Spain Arabic architecture Islamic gardens Spanish gardens Landscape design history of Spain Nasrid dynasty Visionary environments Bien de Interés Cultural landmarks in the Province of Granada World Heritage Sites in Spain Articles containing video clips Islamic art of Spain Azulejos in buildings in Andalusia Nasrid architecture Moorish architecture in Spain