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The Second Book of Maccabees, also called 2 Maccabees, is a
deuterocanonical The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its p ...
book originally in Greek which focuses on the
Maccabean Revolt The Maccabean Revolt ( he, מרד החשמונאים) was a Jewish rebellion led by the Maccabees against the Seleucid Empire and against Hellenistic period, Hellenistic influence on Jewish life. The main phase of the revolt lasted from 167– ...

Maccabean Revolt
against
Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus IV Epiphanes (; grc, Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, ''Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs'', "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – November/December 164 BC) was a Greek Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean ...

Antiochus IV Epiphanes
and concludes with the defeat of the
Seleucid Empire The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greece, Greek state in Western Asia, during the Hellenistic period, Hellenistic Period, that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. The Sele ...
general Nicanor in 161 BC by
Judas Maccabeus Judah Maccabee (or Judas Maccabeus, also spelled Machabeus, or Maccabæus, Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Judas Maccabeus
, the "
hero File:Wilhelm Tell Denkmal Altdorf um 1900.jpeg, upWilliam Tell, a popular folk hero of Switzerland. A hero (heroine in its feminine form) is a real person or a main fictional character who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through f ...
of the Jewish wars of independence". Unlike 1 Maccabees, the style of ''2 Maccabees'' suggests that it was written in
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
, probably in
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
, some time between 150 and 120 BC (c. 124 BC according to Stephen L. Harris). Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. It presents a revised version of the historical events recounted in the first seven chapters of 1 Maccabees, adding material from the Pharisaic tradition, including
prayer for the deadReligions with the belief in a Judgment Day, future judgment or a resurrection of the dead or of purgatory often offer prayers on behalf of the dead to God. Buddhism For most funerals that follow the tradition of Chinese Buddhism, common practices i ...
and a
resurrection Resurrection or anastasis is the concept of coming back to life after death. In a number of religions, a Dying-and-rising deity, dying-and-rising god is a deity which dies and resurrects. Reincarnation is a similar process hypothesized by ot ...
on
Judgment Day The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Reckoning, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday or The Day of the Lord ( he, יום הדין, Yom ha-din, ar, یوم القيامة, Yawm al-qiyāmah, Day of Resurrection or ar, یوم الدین, i ...
. The book, like the other
Books of the MaccabeesThe Books of the Maccabees or Sefer Hamakabim, ''Book of the Maccabees'', recount the history of the Maccabees, the leaders of the Jews, Jewish rebellion against the Seleucid dynasty. List of books The Book of the Maccabees refers to a series of deu ...
, was not included in Masoretic Hebrew canon, the
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, ...
. It was included in the Greek
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
, known as the Alexandrian canon. For this reason,
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jew
s and
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants originating in the Ref ...
reject most of the doctrinal issues present in the work, while
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
s and
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
consider the work to be
deuterocanonical The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its p ...
and part of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
. Some Protestants include 2 Maccabees as part of the
biblical apocrypha The biblical apocrypha (from the grc, ἀπόκρυφος, translit=apókruphos, lit=hidden) denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books thought to have been written some time between 200 BC and 400 AD. Some Christian churches include ...
, useful for reading in the church. ''Article VI'' of the
Thirty-Nine Articles The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion (commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles) are the historically defining statements of doctrines and practices of the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is ...
of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
defines it as useful but not the basis of doctrine and not necessary for
salvation Salvation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in re ...

salvation
.


Author

The author of 2 Maccabees is not identified, but he claims to be abridging a 5-volume work by
Jason of CyreneJason of Cyrene ( el, Ἰάσων ὁ Κυρηναῖος) was a Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as sign ...
. This longer work is not preserved, and it is uncertain how much of the present text of 2 Maccabees is simply copied from that work. The author wrote in Greek, apparently, as there is no particular evidence of an earlier Hebrew version. A few sections of the book, such as the Preface, Epilogue, and some reflections on morality are generally assumed to come from the author, not from Jason. Jason's work was apparently written sometime around 100 BC and most likely ended with the defeat of Nicanor, as does the abridgement available to us. The beginning of the book includes two letters sent by Jews in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
to Jews of the
Diaspora A diaspora ( ) is a scattered population whose origin Origin(s) or The Origin may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Comics and manga * , a Wolverine comic book mini-series published by Marvel Comics in 2002 * , a 1999 ''Buffy th ...

Diaspora
in
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
concerning the feast day set up to celebrate the purification of the temple (see
Hanukkah or English translation: 'Establishing' or 'Dedication' (of the Temple in Jerusalem The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome o ...

Hanukkah
) and the feast to celebrate the defeat of Nicanor. If the author of the book inserted these letters, the book would have to have been written after 124 BC the date of the second letter. Some commentators hold that these letters were a later addition, while others consider them the basis for the work. Catholic scholars tend toward a dating in the last years of the 2nd century BC, while the consensus among Jewish scholars place it in the second half of the 1st century BC.


Contents


Summary

Unlike 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees does not attempt to provide a complete account of the events of the period, instead covering only the period from the high priest
Onias IIIOnias III ( he, חוֹנִיּוֹ ''Ḥōniyyō''), son of Simon II, was High PriestThe term “high priest” usually refers either to an individual who holds the office of ruler-priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform ...
and King (180 BC) to the defeat of Nicanor in 161. In general, the chronology of the book coheres with that of 1 Maccabees, and it has some historical value in supplementing 1 Maccabees, principally in providing a few apparently authentic historical documents. The author seems primarily interested in providing a theological interpretation of the events; in this book God's interventions direct the course of events, punishing the wicked and restoring the
Temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect temples include Christianity (whose temples are typically called church (building), churches), Hinduism (w ...

Temple
to his people. It has been suggested that some events appear to be presented out of strict chronological order to make theological points, but there seems little reason to expect a sequential chronology anyway, and little evidence for demonstrating the point one way or the other. Some of the numbers cited for sizes of armies may also appear exaggerated, though not all of the manuscripts of this book agree. The
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
style of the writer is very educated, and he seems well-informed about Greek customs. The action follows a very simple plan: after the death of
Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus IV Epiphanes (; grc, Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, ''Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs'', "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – November/December 164 BC) was a Greek Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean ...

Antiochus IV Epiphanes
, the Feast of the Dedication of the Temple is instituted. The newly dedicated Temple is threatened by Nicanor, and after his death, the festivities for the dedication are concluded. A special day is dedicated to commemorate the Jewish victory in the month of
Adar Adar ( he, אֲדָר ; from Akkadian language, Akkadian ''adaru'') is the sixth month of the civil year and the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar, roughly corresponding to the month of March in the Gregorian calend ...
, on the day before "
Mordecai Mordecai (; also Mordechai; , IPA: ) is one of the main personalities in the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible. He is described as being the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin. He was promoted to Vizier after Haman was killed. Biblical acco ...
's Day" (
Purim Purim (; Hebrew: ; , "Cleromancy, lots", from the word , , translated as 'lot' in the Book of Esther, perhaps related to Akkadian language, Akkadian , "stone, urn"; also called the Festival of Lots) is a Jewish holiday which commemorates the savi ...

Purim
).


Structure

The
Jerusalem Bible ''The Jerusalem Bible'' (JB or TJB) is an English translation English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or ...

Jerusalem Bible
divides the book into seven sections: #1:1 - 2:18 - Two letters to the Jews of Egypt #2:19-32 - Compiler's Preface #Chapter 3 - The Story of Heliodorus #Chapters 4-7 - Hellenistic Propaganda and Persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes #8:1 - 10:8 - The Victory of Judaism #10:9 - 13:26 - The Struggle of Judas against the Neighbouring Peoples, and against Lysias, Eupator's High Commissioner #Chapters 14 and 15 - The Conflict with Nicanor, General of Demetrius I, The Day of Nicanor The divisions used by the
New American Bible (Revised Edition) The New American Bible Revised Edition (NABRE) is an English-language Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek l ...
are similar, except that all the "renewed persecution" of 2 Maccabees 10:10 to 15:36 is treated as one section, with a brief "epilogue" in verses 15:37-39.


Doctrine

2 Maccabees demonstrates several points of doctrinal interpretation deriving from Pharisaic Judaism, and also found in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox theology. Doctrinal issues that are raised in 2 Maccabees include: *
Prayer for the deadReligions with the belief in a Judgment Day, future judgment or a resurrection of the dead or of purgatory often offer prayers on behalf of the dead to God. Buddhism For most funerals that follow the tradition of Chinese Buddhism, common practices i ...
and sacrificial offerings, both to free the dead from
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

sin
* Merits of the
martyr A martyr (, ''mártys'', "witness", or , ''marturia'', stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some ...

martyr
s * Intercession of the saints (15:11–17) (at least as seen from a Christian viewpoint); the
New American Bible The New American Bible (NAB) is an English translation English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or relate ...
comments on verse 14 "Jeremiah’s prayer in heaven has been taken in the Roman Catholic tradition as a biblical witness to the intercession of the saints" *
Resurrection of the dead General resurrection or universal resurrection is the belief in a resurrection of the dead, or resurrection from the dead (Koine Greek, Koine: , ''anastasis nekron''; literally: "standing up again of the dead") by which most or all people ...
* Specific mention of
creatio ex nihilo (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republi ...
(II Maccabees 7:28) In particular, the long descriptions of the
martyr A martyr (, ''mártys'', "witness", or , ''marturia'', stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some ...

martyr
doms of
Eleazar Eleazar (; ) or Elʽazar was a priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deity, deities. They also have the au ...
and of a mother with her seven sons (2 Macc 6:18–7:42) caught the imagination of medieval Christians. Several churches are dedicated to the "Maccabeean martyrs", and they are among the few pre-Christian figures to appear on the Catholic calendar of saints' days (that number is considerably higher in the Eastern Orthodox churches' calendars, where they also appear). The book is considered the first model of the medieval stories of the martyrs. Catholic
apologist Apologetics (from Greek language, Greek , "speaking in defense") is the religious discipline of defending religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse. List of early Christian writers, Early Christian writers (c. 120–220) w ...
Jimmy Akin examines
Hebrews The terms ''Hebrews'' (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Jud ...

Hebrews
11:35 ("Some were tortured, refusing to accept release, that they might rise again to a better life") and notes that this hope of eternal life after torture is not found anywhere in the Protocanonicals of the
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as aut ...
, but ''is'' found in 2 Maccabees 7.


Canonicity

Catholics The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholics
and the
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
regard 2 Maccabees as canonical. Jews and all Protestants other than Anglo-Catholics do not. Based on copies, 1 and 2 Maccabees appears in manuscripts of the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, which was completed by the 2nd century BC along with (in some copies) 3 and
4 Maccabees The Fourth Book of Maccabees, also called 4 Maccabees or IV Maccabees, is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from A ...
and
Psalm 151 Psalm 151 is a short found in most copies of the but not in the of the . The title given to this psalm in the Septuagint indicates that it is , and no number is affixed to it: "This Psalm is ascribed to David and is outside the number. When h ...
which are considered apocryphal by the Roman Catholic church. The Codex Vaticanus lacks 1 and 2 Maccabees (but includes 1 Esdras) which Codex
Sinaiticus Codex Sinaiticus ( ell, Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας, ''Sinaïtikós Kṓdikas''; ShelfmarkA shelfmark is a mark in a book or manuscript that denotes the cupboard or bookcase where it is kept as well as the shelf and possibly even its loc ...
includes along with 4 Maccabees (but omits Baruch), which evidences a lack of uniformity in the lists of books in early manuscripts of the Septuagint. Neither 1st nor 2nd Maccabees were found among the
Dead Sea Scrolls The Dead Sea Scrolls (also the Qumran Caves Scrolls) are and religious first found in 1947 at the in what was then , near in the , on the northern shore of the . Dating back to between the and the , the Dead Sea Scrolls are considered ...

Dead Sea Scrolls
.
Pope Damasus I Damasus I (; c. 305 – 11 December 384) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Withi ...

Pope Damasus I
's Council of Rome in 382, if the
Decretum Gelasianum The ''Decretum Gelasianum'' or the Gelasian Decree is so named because it was traditionally thought to be a Decretal Decretals ( la, litterae decretales) are letters of a pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, " ...

Decretum Gelasianum
is correctly associated with it, issued a biblical canon identical with the list given at Trent including the two books of Maccabees.
Origen of Alexandria Origen of Alexandria, ''Ōrigénēs''; Coptic: Ϩⲱⲣⲓⲕⲉⲛ Origen's Greek name ''Ōrigénēs'' () probably means "child of Horus" (from , "Horus", and , "born"). ( 184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was an early Christian ...
(A.D. 253),
Augustine of Hippo Augustine of Hippo (; la, Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also known as Saint Augustine, was a theologian and philosopher of Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers Berbers or ''Im ...

Augustine of Hippo
(c. 397 AD),
Pope Innocent I Pope Innocent I ( la, Innocentius I) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within ...

Pope Innocent I
(405 AD),
Synod of Hippo A synod () is a council of a Ecclesia (church), church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. The word ''wikt:synod, synod'' comes from the meaning "assembly" or "meeting" and is analogous with the L ...
(393 AD), the Council of Carthage (397 AD), the Council of Carthage (419 AD), the
Apostolic Canons The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles or Canons of the Holy Apostles is a 4th-century Christianity in Syria, Syrian Christian text. It is an Ancient Church Orders, Ancient Church Order, a collection of ancient ec ...
, the Council of Florence (1442 AD) and the
Council of Trent The Council of Trent ( la, Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of ...

Council of Trent
(1546 AD) listed the first two books of Maccabees as canonical. In the
Council of Jamnia The Council of Jamnia (presumably Yavneh Yavne ( he, יַבְנֶה) or Yavneh is a city in the Central District of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( h ...
(late 1st century AD), according to one theory now largely discredited,
rabbis A rabbi () is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated re ...

rabbis
endorsed a narrower canon, excluding deuterocanonical works such as 2 Maccabees. This had little immediate impact on Christians, however, since most Christians did not know Hebrew and were familiar with the Hebrew Bible through the Greek Septuagint text from
Hellenistic Jews Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) i ...
, although some researchers believe that under Christian auspices the books known to Protestants and Jews as apocryphal and to Roman Catholics as deuterocanonical were added to the Septuagint. In addition, the canonical status of deuterocanonical books was disputed among some notable scholars from early on and into the Council of Trent, which first definitively settled the matter of the OT Canon on 8 April 1546, after the death of
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
. Although 2 Maccabees was included by Luther and other early reformers in their Bibles, they were rejected as not being on the same level as canonical writings. Martin Luther said: "I am so great an enemy to the second book of the Maccabees, and to
Esther Esther is described in all versions of the Book of Esther The Book of Esther (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historica ...
, that I wish they had not come to us at all, for they have too many heathen unnaturalities." Other evangelical writers have been more positive towards the book: twentieth century author James B. Jordan, for example, argues that while 1 Maccabees "was written to try and show the
Maccabean The Maccabees (), also spelled Machabees ( he, מַכַּבִּים ''Makabīm'' or he, מַקַבִּים, ''Maqabīm''; or ''Maccabaei''; el, Μακκαβαῖοι, ''Makkabaioi''), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of J ...
usurpers as true heirs of David and as true High Priests" and is a "wicked book", a "far more accurate picture of the situation is given in 2 Maccabees."


Liturgical usage

In the Roman Catholic Church, the
Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , alt = Façade of the Archbasilica of St. John in Lateran , caption = Archbasilica of Saint Joh ...
Lectionary A lectionary ( la, lectionarium) is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sac ...
makes use of texts from 2 Maccabees 6 and 7, along with texts from 1 Maccabees 1 to 6, in the weekday readings for the 33rd week in
Ordinary Time In the liturgy Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a community, communal response to and participation in the sacred through activities reflecting praise, thanksg ...
, in year 1 of the two-year cycle of readings, always in November, and as one of the options available for readings during a
Mass for the Dead at St. Catherine's Cathedral, St. Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrogra ...
.Roman Missal, Lectionary, Revised Edition approved for use in the dioceses of England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland, published by Collins, Geoffrey Chapman and Veritas, 1981, 1982, volumes 2 and 3


References


Further reading

*Borchardt, Francis. 2016. "Reading Aid: 2 Maccabees and the History of Jason of Cyrene Reconsidered." ''Journal for the Study of Judaism'' 47, no. 1: 71–87. *Coetzer, Eugene. 2016. "Heroes and Villains in 2 Maccabees 8:1–36: A Rhetorical Analysis." ''Old Testament Essays'': 419–33. *Doran, Robert. 1981. ''Temple Propaganda: The Purpose and Character of 2 Maccabees.'' Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 12. Washington, DC: Catholic Biblical Association. *--. 2012. ''2 Maccabees.'' Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress. *Goldstein, J. A. 1983. ''II Maccabees.'' Anchor Bible 41A. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. *Habicht, C. 1976. “Royal Documents in II Maccabees.” ''Harvard Studies in Classical Philology'' 80: 1–18. *Janowitz, Naomi. 2017. ''The Family Romance of Martyrdom In Second Maccabees.'' New York: Routledge. *Kosmin, P. 2016. "Indigenous Revolts in 2 Maccabees: The Persian Version." ''Classical Philology'' 111, no. 1: 32–53. *Schwartz, Daniel R. 2008. ''2 Maccabees.'' Commentaries on Early Jewish Literature. Berlin: De Gruyter. *Stewart, Tyler A. 2017. "Jewish Paideia: Greek Education in the Letter of Aristeas and 2 Maccabees." Journal for the Study of Judaism 48, no. 2: 182–202. *Trotter, Jonathan R. 2017. "2 Maccabees 10:1–8: Who Wrote It and Where Does It Belong?" ''Journal of Biblical Literature'' 136, no. 1: 117–30.


External links


The Book of 2 Maccabees
Full text (also available i



Translation with hyperlinks

at biblicalaudio


Jewish Encyclopedia: II Maccabees
* 'Landing the helicopter...' discussing 2 Maccabees 15:38–40 * Various versions {{DEFAULTSORT:Maccabees, 2 2nd-century BC books
1st-century BC books{{Navseasoncats Books A book is a medium for recording information in the form of writing or images, typically composed of many page (paper), pages (made of papyrus, parchment, vellum, or paper) bookbinding, bound together and protected by a bo ...
Deuterocanonical books 2 Hasmonean dynasty Texts in Koine Greek Jewish apocrypha