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January–March

*
January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365 ...
**
Fisk University Fisk University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two deca ...
, a
historically black university Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States Higher education in the United States is an optional stage of formal learning following secondary education. Higher education is ...
, is established in
Nashville, Tennessee Nashville is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerca ...
. ** The last issue of the abolitionist magazine '' The Liberator'' is published. *
January 6 Events Pre-1600 *1066 1066 (Roman numerals, MLXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. Events By place England * January 5 – Edward the Confessor dies after a 24-year reign at London. The Witena ...
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
troops clash with supporters of
Maronite The Maronites ( ar, الموارنة; syr, ܡܖ̈ܘܢܝܐ) are an ethnoreligious Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christ ...
leader
Youssef Bey Karam Youssef Bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ar, بيه “''Beyeh''”) is a Turkic title f ...

Youssef Bey Karam
, at St. Doumit in
Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part ...

Lebanon
; the Ottomans are defeated. *
January 12 Events Pre-1600 *49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubikon at the head of the 13th Legion. Civil war between the former allies, Caesar and Pompey, is now inevitable. *475 – List of Byzantine emperors, Byzantine Emperor Zeno (emper ...
** The ''
Royal Aeronautical Society The Royal Aeronautical Society, also known as the RAeS, is a British multi-disciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community. Founded in 1866, it is the oldest Aeronautics, aeronautical society in the world. Fellow ...
'' is formed as ''The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain'' in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
, the world's oldest such society. ** British auxiliary steamer sinks in a storm in the
Bay of Biscay The Bay of Biscay (; french: Golfe de Gascogne, es, Golfo de Vizcaya, eu, Bizkaiko Golkoa, oc, Golf de Gasconha, br, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn) is a gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower openin ...
, on passage from the Thames to Australia, with the loss of 244 people, and only 19 survivors. *
January 18 Events Pre-1600 * – Seven-year-old succeeds his maternal grandfather as . He dies ten months later. * – in fail. * – abdicates the Chinese throne in favour of his son . * – King marries , daughter of , uniting the ...
Wesley College, Melbourne , motto_translation = Dare To Be Wise , slogan = A ''True'' Education (2010 – Present) , established = 18 January 1866 , type = Independent, day & boarding , gender ...
is established. *
January 26 Events Pre-1600 *661 Year 661 ( DCLXI) was a common year starting on Friday A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in ...
Volcanic eruption Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava Lava is magma once it has been expelled from the interior of a terrestrial planet (such as Earth) or a Natural satellite, moon onto its surface. Lava may be erupted at a volcano or ...

Volcanic eruption
in the
Santorini caldera Santorini caldera is a large, mostly submerged caldera A caldera is a large cauldron-like hollow that forms shortly after the emptying of a magma chamber in a volcanic eruption. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time, struc ...

Santorini caldera
begins. *
February 7 Events Pre-1600 * 457 – Leo I (emperor), Leo I becomes the Eastern Roman emperor. *987 – Bardas Phokas the Younger and Bardas Skleros, Byzantine generals of the military elite, begin a Rebellion of Bardas Phokas the Younger, wide-s ...
Battle of Abtao The Battle of Abtao was a naval battle fought on February 7, 1866, during the Chincha Islands War, between a Spanish squadron and a combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet, at the island of Abtao in the Gulf of Ancud near Chiloé Archipelago in south-cen ...
: A Spanish naval squadron fights a combined
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
vian-
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
an fleet, at the island of Abtao, in the
Chiloé Archipelago The Chiloé Archipelago ( es, Archipiélago de Chiloé, , ) is a group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region. It is separated from mainland Chile by the Chacao Channel in the north, the Sea of Chiloé in the east and th ...
of southern
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
. *
February 13 Events Pre-1600 * 962 – Emperor Otto I Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (german: Otto der Große, it, Ottone il Grande), was East Francian king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 un ...
– The first daylight
bank robbery Bank robbery is the crime of stealing money from a bank, specifically while bank employees and customers are subjected to force, violence, or a threat of violence. This refers to robbery of a bank Branch (banking), branch or Bank teller, telle ...
in United States history during peacetime takes place in
Liberty, Missouri Liberty is a city in Clay County, Missouri, United States and is a suburb of Kansas City, Missouri, Kansas City, located in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 United States Census the population was 29,149. Liberty is the county se ...
. This is considered to be the first robbery committed by
Jesse James Jesse Woodson James (September 5, 1847April 3, 1882) was an American outlaw, Bank robbery, bank and Train robbery, train robber, guerrilla, and leader of the James–Younger Gang. Raised in the "Little Dixie (Missouri), Little Dixie" area of we ...

Jesse James
and his gang, although James's role is disputed. *
February 26 Events Pre-1600 *740s BC, 747 BC – Epoch (reference date), Epoch (origin) of Ptolemy's Nabonassar Era. *364 – Valentinian I is proclaimed Roman emperor. *1266 – Battle of Benevento: An army led by Charles I of Naples, Charles ...
– The
Calaveras Skull The Calaveras Skull was a human skull The skull is a bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the skeleton in most vertebrate animals. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red bl ...

Calaveras Skull
is discovered in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
. Purported to be evidence of humans in North America during the
Pliocene The Pliocene ( ; also Pleiocene) epoch (geology), Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58hoax A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth. It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, rumor A rumour (British English), or rumor (American English; American and British English spelling diffe ...

hoax
. *
February 28 It is the last day of February February is the second month of the year in the and s. The month has 28 days in s or 29 in s, with the 29th day being called the ''leap day''. It is the first of five months not to have 31 days (the other ...
– The month concludes without having a full moon. *
March 13 Events Pre-1600 *1567 __NOTOC__ Year 1567 ( MDLXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) i ...
– The
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
overwhelmingly passes the
Civil Rights Act of 1866 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 (, enacted April 9, 1866, reenacted 1870) was the first United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United ...
, the first federal legislation to protect the rights of African-Americans; U.S. President
Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power of the pre ...

Andrew Johnson
vetoes the bill on March 27, and Congress overrides the veto on April 9. *
March 31 It is the last day of the first quarter of the year. Events Pre-1600 * 307 __NOTOC__ Year 307 ( CCCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year (a year with 365 days) that begins ...
– A total lunar eclipse occurs.


April–June

*
April 4 On the Roman calendar The Roman calendar was the used by the and . The term often includes the established by the reforms of the and in the late 1stcenturyBC and sometimes includes any system dated by towards months' , , and in ...
Alexander II of Russia Alexander II ( rus, Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич, r=Aleksandr II Nikolayevich, p=ɐlʲɪˈksandr ftɐˈroj nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪtɕ; 29 April 181813 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of ...

Alexander II of Russia
narrowly escapes an assassination attempt in the city of
St Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...
. *
April 8 Events * 217 – Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is descr ...
– The kingdoms of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
and
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...
form an alliance against the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It compr ...
. *
April 10 Events * – becomes the . Three years later, he would be deposed due to alleged heresy. * – makes its closest approach to Earth at a distance equal to 0.0342 (5.1 million kilometres/3.2 million miles). * – vis ...
– The
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity o ...
(ASPCA) is founded in New York City by
Henry Bergh Henry Bergh (August 29, 1813 – March 12, 1888) founded the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is a non-profit organization A nonprofit organizati ...

Henry Bergh
. *
May 2 Events Pre-1600 *1194 – King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. *1230 – William de Braose (died 1230), William de Braose is hanged by Prince Llywelyn the Great. *1536 – Anne Boleyn, Queen consort ...
Battle of Callao:
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = Seal (device), National seal , national_mott ...

Peru
vian defenders fight the Spanish fleet. *
May 7 Events Pre-1600 * 351 – The Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus In 351–352 the Jews of Roman Palaestina revolted against the rule of Constantius Gallus, brother-in-law of Emperor Constantius II Flavius Julius Constantius ( ...
– Student
Ferdinand Cohen-Blind Ferdinand Cohen-Blind (March 25, 1844 – May 8, 1866) was a Jewish people, Jewish German people, German student who attempted to assassinate Otto von Bismarck, then the Minister President of Prussia. He committed suicide shortly after his arrest. ...
makes a failed attempt to assassinate
Otto von Bismarck Otto, Prince of Bismarck, Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg (german: Otto Fürst von Bismarck, Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Herzog zu Lauenburg ; 1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), born Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, was a c ...

Otto von Bismarck
in
Unter den Linden Unter den Linden (, "under the linden trees") is a boulevard A boulevard ( French, originally meaning bastion, abbreviated as bd in Metropolitan French, boul in Canadian French, and Blvd in English), is a type of large road, circumnavig ...

Unter den Linden
in Berlin. *
May 10 Events Pre-1600 * 28 BC – A sunspot Sunspots are temporary celestial event, phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas. They are regions of reduced surface temperature caused by concentr ...
– London bank
Overend, Gurney and Company Overend, Gurney & Company was a London wholesale Wholesaling or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise Merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer A consumer is a person or a gr ...
collapses, precipitating
Panic of 1866The Panic of 1866 was an international financial downturn that accompanied the failure of Overend, Gurney and Company Overend, Gurney & Company was a London wholesale Wholesaling or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise Merchandi ...
. *
May 16 Events Pre-1600 * 946 Year 946 ( CMXLVI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in , was a reform of the Roman calendar. It to ...
– The
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
approves the minting of a nickel 5-cent coin (
nickel Nickel is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...
), eliminating its predecessor, the
half dime The half dime, or half disme, was a coin, silver coin, valued at five Cent (currency), cents, formerly Mint (facility), minted in the United States. Some numismatists consider the denomination to be the first business strike coin minted by the U ...
. *
May 24 Events Pre-1600 * – The nobles of and elect at the in as king of the . * – The leaves for . * – is crowned in . * – The ten-year-old is crowned in , Ireland, with the name of Edward VI in a bid to threaten 's ...
Battle of Tuyutí The Battle of Tuyutí (Tuiuti in Portuguese) was a Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America ...
: 32,000 soldiers of the Triple Alliance defeat 24,000 Paraguayan soldiers few miles north of the Paraná, Argentina in the
Paraguayan War The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance, was a South American South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather t ...
, with 16,000 casualties. *
May 26 Events Pre-1600 * 17 – Germanicus Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was a popular and prominent Roman general, known for his campaigns in Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''G ...
– First production of the
comic opera Comic opera, sometimes known as light opera, is a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending and often including spoken dialogue. Forms of comic opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater i ...
''
Cox and Box ''Cox and Box; or, The Long-Lost Brothers'', is a one-act comic opera with a libretto by Francis Cowley Burnand, F. C. Burnand and music by Arthur Sullivan, based on the 1847 farce ''Box and Cox (farce), Box and Cox'' by John Maddison Morton. It w ...
'' by
F. C. Burnand Sir Francis Cowley Burnand (29 November 1836 – 21 April 1917), usually known as F. C. Burnand, was an English comic writer and prolific playwright, best known today as the librettist of Arthur Sullivan's opera '' Cox and Box''. The son of ...
and
Arthur Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Royal Victorian Order, MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer. He is best known for 14 comic opera, operatic Gilbert and Sullivan, collaborations with the dramatist W. S. Gilbert, includin ...

Arthur Sullivan
at Moray Lodge,
Kensington Kensington is an affluent district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in the West End of London, West of Central London. The district's commercial heart is Kensington High Street, running on an east–west axis. The north-east is ...

Kensington
*
June 2 Events Pre-1600 * 455 __NOTOC__ Year 455 (Roman numerals, CDLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Valentinianus ...
Fenian The word ''Fenian'' () served as an umbrella term for the Irish Republican Brotherhood The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB; ) was a secret oath-bound fraternal organisation dedicated to the establishment of an "independent democratic ...
forces skirmish with Canadian militia at the battles of
Ridgeway
Ridgeway
and
Fort Erie Fort Erie is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin an ...
. *
June 5 Events Pre-1600 *1257 Year 1257 ( MCCLVII) was a common year starting on MondayA common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an ...
– Calculations indicate
Pluto Pluto (minor-planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of trans-Neptunian object, bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. It was the first and the largest Kuiper belt object to be discovered. After Pluto wa ...

Pluto
(not known at this time) reaches its only
aphelion upright=1.15, The two-body system of interacting primary body A primary (also called a gravitational primary, primary body, or central body) is the main physical body of a gravity, gravitationally bound, multi-object system. This object consti ...

aphelion
(furthest point from the
Sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...

Sun
) between
1618 Events January–June * March 8 Events Pre-1600 * 1010 – Ferdowsi , image = File:Statue of Ferdowsi in Tus, Iran 3 (cropped2).jpg , image_size = , caption = Statue of Ferdowsi in Tus, Iran, Tus by Abolhassan Sad ...
and August 2113. *
June 8 Events Pre-1600 * 218 Year 218 ( CCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar ...
– The
Parliament of Canada The Parliament of Canada (french: Parlement du Canada) is the federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of gov ...

Parliament of Canada
meets for the first time in
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are ...

Ottawa
. *
June 11 Events Pre-1600 * 173 Year 173 ( CLXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday A common year starting on Thursday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar ...
– The Agra High Court is established (later shifted to the
Allahabad High Court The Allahabad High Court, also known as High Court of Judicature at Allahabad is the high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, oft ...

Allahabad High Court
). *
June 14 Events Pre-1600 *1158 Year 1158 (Roman numerals, MCLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place Byzantine Empire * Autumn – Emperor Manuel I ...
– The
Austro-Prussian War The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War, known in Germany as ("German War") and by a variety of other names, was fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was ...
begins, when the Austrians and most of the medium German states declare war on Prussia. *
June 20 In the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of c ...
– The Kingdom of Italy declares war on Austria. *
June 22 On this day the Summer solstice The summer solstice, also known as estival solstice or midsummer, occurs when one of Earth's geographical pole, poles has its maximum tilt toward the Sun. It happens twice yearly, once in each Hemispheres of ...
– In
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
, the
Riksdag of the Estates Riksdag of the Estates (formally sv, Riksens ständer; informally sv, Ståndsriksdagen) was the name used for the Estates The Estates, also known as the States (french: États, german: Landstände, nl, Staten), was the assembly of the repres ...
votes to replace itself by an elected two-chamber
Riksdag The Riksdag (, ; also sv, riksdagen or ''Sveriges riksdag'' ) is the national legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, cou ...

Riksdag
. *
June 27 Events Pre-1600 *1358 Year 1358 (Roman numerals, MCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events January–December * February 18 – Treaty of Zadar, betwe ...
29Battle of Langensalza: The Prussians defeat the Hanoverian army.


July–September

*
July 3 Events Pre-1600 * 324 __NOTOC__ Year 324 ( CCCXXIV) was a leap year starting on WednesdayA leap year starting on Wednesday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Wednesday 1 January and ends on Thursday 31 ...
Battle of Königgrätz The Battle of Königgrätz (or Sadowa) was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire. It took place on July 3, 1866, near the Bohemia, Bohemian towns of Königgrätz, (now Hradec ...
: the
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
n army under
King Wilhelm
King Wilhelm
and Helmuth von Moltke defeats the Austrian army of
Ludwig von Benedek Ludwig August Ritter von Benedek (14 July 1804 – 27 April 1881), also known as Lajos Benedek, was an Austrian general (Feldzeugmeister ''Feldzeugmeister'' was a historical military rank in some German and the Austro-Hungarian Army, Austro-Hun ...
, leading to a decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War. *
July 5 Events Pre-1600 * 328 – The official opening of Constantine's Bridge (Danube), Constantine's Bridge built over the Danube between Sucidava (Corabia, Romania) and Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria) by the Roman Empire, Roman architect Theophilus Pa ...
Princess Helena
Princess Helena
, third daughter of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
, marries
Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (Frederick Christian Charles Augustus; 22 January 1831 – 28 October 1917) was a minor Danish-born German prince who became a member of the British Royal Family The British royal family comprises ...

Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
. *
July 13 Events Pre-1600 *587 BC – Babylon's Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC), siege of Jerusalem ends following the destruction of Solomon's Temple. *1174 – William the Lion, William I of Scotland, a key Rebellion, rebel in the Revolt of 1173– ...
(July 1
Old Style Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) indicate a dating system from before and after a calendar change, respectively. Usually this is the change from the to the as enacted in various European countries between 1582 and the 20th century. In ...

Old Style
) – The first Constitution of
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
is issued. *
July 20 Events Pre-1600 * 70 – Siege of Jerusalem: Titus Titus Caesar Vespasianus ( ; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting i ...
– Naval Battle of Lissa: The Austrian fleet under
Wilhelm von Tegetthoff Wilhelm von Tegetthoff (23 December 18277 April 1871) was an Austrian admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United ...
defeats the Italian fleet of
Carlo di Persano Count Carlo Pellion di Persano (11 March 1806 – 28 July 1883) was an Italian admiral and politician, who was commander of the Regia Marina, Italian fleet at the 1866 Battle of Lissa (1866), Battle of Lissa. Persano was born at Vercelli, Piedmont ...
. * July 24 – Reconstruction Era, Reconstruction: Tennessee becomes the first U.S. state to be readmitted to the United States, Union following the American Civil War. * July 25 – The
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army (now called "5-star general"); Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to have this rank. * July 27 – The successfully completes laying the transatlantic telegraph cable between Valentia Island, Ireland and Heart's Content, Newfoundland and Labrador, Heart's Content, Newfoundland, permanently restoring a communications link. * July 28 – The ''Metric Act of 1866'' becomes law and legalizes the standardization of weights and measures in the United States. * August 23 – The Peace of Prague (1866), Treaty of Prague ends the
Austro-Prussian War The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War, known in Germany as ("German War") and by a variety of other names, was fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was ...
. The Limburg (Netherlands), Duchy of Limburg leaves the German Confederation. * September – The Great Tea Race of 1866 ends in London, narrowly won by the clipper ship ''Taeping''. * September 22 – Paraguay successfully Battle of Curupayty, defends Curupayty against the Triple Alliance in the
Paraguayan War The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance, was a South American South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather t ...
, killing more than 5,000 with just about 50 casualties.


October–December

* October 12 – The Treaty of Vienna (1866), Treaty of Vienna ends the war between Austria and Italy; it formalizes the annexation of Venetia (region), Venetia by Italy. * October 14 – French troops under the command of Rear Admiral Pierre-Gustave Roze land at Ganghwa Island, Korea as part of French campaign against Korea (1866), a punitive expedition against that kingdom for the execution of French Jesuit priests. It is the first military contact between Korea and a Western force. * October 22 – The office of State President of the South African Republic is created by constitutional amendment approved at a session of the ''Volksraad''.Archontology.org: A Guide for Study of Historical Offices, South African Republic (Transvaal): Heads of State: 1857–1877
(Accessed on 14 April 2017)
* November 7 – The Ruse–Varna, Bulgaria, Varna railway line (the first railway in Bulgaria) officially opens. * December 12– Oaks explosion: The worst mining disaster in England kills 383 miners and rescuers. * December 18 – The College of Wooster is founded in Ohio.


Date unknown

* Federalist revolts occur in Argentina. * Alfred Nobel invents dynamite in Germany. * Foundation of the predecessors of Nestlé S.A., the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company and Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé. * The Minneapolis Milling Company, predecessor of General Mills, builds its own mills. * Marcus Jastrow arrives in the United States to become rabbi of Congregation Rodeph Shalom in Philadelphia. * The recommendations of the state Girls' School Committee of 1866 result in a series of progressive reforms in women's rights in Sweden. * The Famine of 1866–68 begins in Finland. * Erasmus Jacobs discovers the Eureka Diamond near Hopetown on the banks of the Orange River in the Cape of Good Hope.


Births


January–March

* January 5 – William B. Hanna, American sportswriter (d. 1930) * January 13 ** Emilia Broomé, Swedish politician, feminist and pacifist (d. 1925) ** George Gurdjieff, Russian spiritual teacher (d. 1949) ** Vasily Kalinnikov, Russian composer (d. 1901) * January 15 ** Nathan Söderblom, Swedish archbishop, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1931) ** Horatio Dresser, American New Thought religious leader and writer (d. 1954) * January 16 – Percy Pilcher, English inventor and pioneer aviator (d. 1899) * January 19 – Harry Davenport (actor), Harry Davenport, American actor (d. 1949) * January 29 ** Romain Rolland, French writer, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1944) ** Frank Tudor, Australian politician (d. 1922) * February 1 – Agda Meyerson, Swedish nurse and healthcare profession activist (d. 1924) * February 2 – Enrique Simonet, Spanish painter (d. 1927) * February 9 – George Ade, American writer, newspaper columnist and playwright (d. 1944) * February 18 – Janko Vukotić, Montenegrin general (d. 1927) * February 19 – Louis-Henri Foreau, French painter (d. 1938) *
February 26 Events Pre-1600 *740s BC, 747 BC – Epoch (reference date), Epoch (origin) of Ptolemy's Nabonassar Era. *364 – Valentinian I is proclaimed Roman emperor. *1266 – Battle of Benevento: An army led by Charles I of Naples, Charles ...
– Herbert Henry Dow, Canadian chemical industrialist (d. 1930) * March 5 – Arthur Leopold Busch, English-born American submarine pioneer (d. 1956) * March 7 – Hans Fruhstorfer, German lepidopterist (d. 1922) * March 15 – Matthew Charlton, Australian politician (d. 1948) * March 17 – Pierce Butler (justice), Pierce Butler, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1939) * March 19 – Emilio de Bono, Italian general and fascist activist (d. 1944) * March 21 – James Harbord, American general (d. 1947) * March 30 – George Van Haltren, American baseball player (d. 1945)


April–June

* April 1 ** William Blomfield, New Zealand cartoonist (d. 1938) ** Ferruccio Busoni, Italian pianist and composer (d. 1924) * April 3 – J. B. M. Hertzog, Boer General and 3rd Prime Minister of South Africa (d. 1942) *
April 8 Events * 217 – Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is descr ...
– Alfred Allen (actor), Alfred Allen, American actor (d. 1947) * April 12 – Zainal Abidin III of Terengganu, Zainal Abidin III, Sultan of Terengganu (d. 1918) * April 13 – Butch Cassidy, American outlaw (k. 1909) * April 14 – Anne Sullivan, American tutor of Helen Keller (d. 1936) * April 17 – Ernest Starling, English physiologist (d. 1927) * April 21 – Josefa Toledo de Aguerri, Nicaraguan pioneer educator (d. 1962) * April 22 – Hans von Seeckt, German general (d. 1936) * April 24 ** Claude C. Hopkins, American advertising executive (d. 1932) ** Ishii Kikujirō, Japanese diplomat (d. 1945) * April 30 – Mary Haviland Stilwell Kuesel, American pioneer dentist (d. 1936) * May 5 – Thomas B. Thrige, Danish industrialist (d. 1938) *
May 10 Events Pre-1600 * 28 BC – A sunspot Sunspots are temporary celestial event, phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas. They are regions of reduced surface temperature caused by concentr ...
** Richard H. Jackson, four-star admiral (d. 1971) ** Constance Piers, Canadian journalist, poet and editor (d. 1939) * May 17 – Erik Satie, French composer (d. 1925) * May 22 – Charles F. Haanel, American New Thought author and businessman (d. 1949) * June 4 – Miina Sillanpää, Finnish politician (d. 1952) * June 26 ** George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon, English financier of Egyptian excavations (d. 1923) ** Josef Swickard, German actor (d. 1940) * June 29 – Bartholomeus Roodenburch, Dutch swimmer (d. 1939)


July–September

*
July 3 Events Pre-1600 * 324 __NOTOC__ Year 324 ( CCCXXIV) was a leap year starting on WednesdayA leap year starting on Wednesday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Wednesday 1 January and ends on Thursday 31 ...
– Albert Gottschalk, Danish painter (d. 1906) * July 6 – Charles Mangin, French general (d. 1925) * July 9 – Macklyn Arbuckle, American actor (d. 1931) *
July 13 Events Pre-1600 *587 BC – Babylon's Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC), siege of Jerusalem ends following the destruction of Solomon's Temple. *1174 – William the Lion, William I of Scotland, a key Rebellion, rebel in the Revolt of 1173– ...
– La Goulue, French dancer (d. 1929) * July 14 – Juliette Wytsman, Belgian painter (d. 1925) * July 22 – Mary Onahan Gallery, American critic (d. 1941) * July 25 – Frederick Blackman, English plant physiologist (d. 1947) * July 27 – António José de Almeida, 6th President of Portugal and 64th Prime Minister of Portugal (d. 1929) * July 28 – Beatrix Potter, English children's author (''Peter Rabbit'' and ''The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck, Jemima Puddle-Duck'') (d. 1943) * August 2 – Adrien de Gerlache, Belgian naval officer and explorer (d. 1934) * August 4 **Gheorghe Mărdărescu, Romanian general and politician (d. 1938) **Maurice Schutz, French actor (d. 1955) * August 5 – Carl Harries, German chemist (d. 1923) * August 6 – Chief Thunderbird, Native American actor (d. 1946) * August 8 – Matthew Henson, African-American explorer (d. 1955) * August 12 – Jacinto Benavente, Spanish writer, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1954) * August 14 – Dmitry Merezhkovsky, Russian novelist, poet and religious thinker (d. 1941) * September 1 :* James J. Corbett, American boxer (d. 1933) :* Rosa Lee Tucker, American librarian (d. 1946) :* Thomas F. Woodlock, editor of ''The Wall Street Journal'' and Interstate Commerce Commission commissioner (d. 1945) * September 7 – Tristan Bernard, French writer (d. 1947) * September 10 – Jeppe Aakjær, Danish poet and novelist (d. 1930) * September 16 – Joe Vila, American sportswriter (d. 1934) * September 21 ** Charles Nicolle, French bacteriologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1936) ** H. G. Wells, English writer (d. 1946) * September 22 – Witmer Stone, American ornithologist and botanist (d. 1939) * September 27 – Eurosia Fabris, Italian Catholic ''Blessed'' (d. 1932) * September 25 – Thomas Hunt Morgan, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1945)


October–December

* October 6 – Reginald Fessenden, Canadian inventor (d. 1932) ** Nina Bang, Danish politician (d. 1928) * October 12 – Ramsay MacDonald, Scottish Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1937) * October 29 ** Dmitri Parsky, Russian general (d. 1921) ** Antonio Luna, Filipino general (d. 1899) * November 3 – Paul Lincke, German composer (d. 1946) * November 11 – Martha Annie Whiteley, English chemist and mathematician (d. 1956) * November 12 – Sun Yat-sen, Chinese revolutionary (d. 1925) * November 16 – Cornelia Sorabji, Indian-born lawyer (d. 1954) * November 27 – George H. Reed, African-American screen actor (d. 1952) * November 28 ** Sy Sanborn, American sportswriter (d. 1934) ** David Warfield, American stage actor (d. 1951) * November 30 ** Robert Broom, Scottish paleontologist (d. 1951) ** Andrey Lyapchev, 22nd Prime Minister of Bulgaria (d. 1933) * December 2 – Constantin Cristescu, Romanian general (d. 1923) * December 11 - Ada Baker, Australian soprano, singing teacher and vaudeville star (d. 1949) * December 12 – Alfred Werner, German chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1919) * December 16 (December 4 O.S.) – Wassily Kandinsky, Russian-born painter (d. 1944) * December 17 – Kazys Grinius, 5th Prime Minister of Lithuania (d. 1950) * December 29 – Marie Cahill, American singer and actress (d. 1933)


Date unknown

* William M. Dalton, American Old West outlaw (d. 1894)


Deaths


January–June

* January (date unknown) – Thomas Baldwin Marsh, American religious leader (b. 1799) * January 16 – Phineas Quimby, American physician (b. 1802) * January 19 – Harriet Ludlow Clarke, British artist * January 23 – Thomas Love Peacock, English satirist (b. 1785) * January 31 – Friedrich Rückert, German poet, translator and professor of Oriental languages (b. 1788) * February 25 – Sarah Ann Gill, Barbadian national heroine (b. 1795) * March 4 – Alexander Campbell (clergyman), Alexander Campbell, Irish/U.S. founder of the Disciples of Christ (b. 1788) * March 6 – William Whewell, English scientist, philosopher and historian of science (b. 1794) * March 20 – Rikard Nordraak, Norwegian composer (b. 1842) * March 21 – Nadezhda Durova, first female Russian military officer (b. 1783) * March 28 – Solomon Foot, American politician (b. 1802) * March 29 – John Keble, British churchman (b. 1792) * April 1 – Elizabeth Jesser Reid, English social reformer, founder of Bedford College (London), Bedford College (b. 1789) *
April 4 On the Roman calendar The Roman calendar was the used by the and . The term often includes the established by the reforms of the and in the late 1stcenturyBC and sometimes includes any system dated by towards months' , , and in ...
– William Dick (veterinarian), William Dick, founder of Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Edinburgh Veterinary College (b. 1793) * April 5 – Thomas Hodgkin, British physician (b. 1798) * April 7 – Johann Sedlatzek, German flautist (b. 1789) * April 12 – Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood, English Member of Parliament and developer (b. 1801) * May 13 – Nikolai Brashman, Russian mathematician of Czech origin (b. 1796) * May 29 – Winfield Scott, American general and presidential candidate (b. 1786) * June 7 – Chief Sealth, Native American for whom Seattle is named (b. c. 1786) * June 17 – Lewis Cass, American military officer, politician, and statesman (b. 1782)


July–December

*
July 20 Events Pre-1600 * 70 – Siege of Jerusalem: Titus Titus Caesar Vespasianus ( ; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting i ...
– Bernhard Riemann, German mathematician (b. 1826) * July 25 – Floride Calhoun, Second Lady of the United States (b. 1792) * July 29 – Madame Clicquot Ponsardin, French champagne producer (b. 1777) * August 1 – John Ross, long-serving principal chief of the Cherokee Nation, of natural causes, in Washington D. C. (born 1790 in Cherokee Nation East). * August 6 – Christian Eric Fahlcrantz, Swedish writer (b. 1790) * August 20 – Maria De Mattias, Italian Catholic saint (b. 1805) * August 29 – Tokugawa Iemochi, 14th ''shōgun'' of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan (b. 1846) * October 13 – Celadon Leeds Daboll, American merchant and inventor (b. 1818) * October 18 – Manuel Bulnes, Chilean general and politician, President of Chile (b. 1799) * November 11 – Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide y Huarte, Prince Imperial of Mexico (b. 1807) * November 14 – King Miguel I of Portugal (b. 1802) * November 26 – Jean-Jacques Willmar, Luxembourg politician (b. 1792) * December 1 – George Everest, Welsh geodesist (b. 1790) * December 21 – William J. Fetterman, United States Army officer (b. 1835?) * December 21 – Mercedes Marín del Solar, Chilean poet, reform educator (b. 1804)


Date unknown

*Du Bois Agett, early settler of Western Australia (b. 1796)


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:1866 1866,