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Online Botany Databases
In computer technology and telecommunications, online indicates a state of connectivity and offline indicates a disconnected state. In modern terminology, this usually refers to an Internet connection, but (especially when expressed "on line" or "on the line") could refer to any piece of equipment or functional unit that is connected to a larger system. Being online means that the equipment or subsystem is connected, or that it is ready for use. "Online" has come to describe activities performed on and data available on the Internet, for example: "online identity", "online predator", "online gambling", "online shopping", "online banking", and "E-learning, online learning". Similar meaning is also given by the prefixes "cyber" and "e", as in the words "cyberspace", "cybercrime", "email", and "ecommerce". In contrast, "offline" can refer to either computing activities performed while disconnected from the Internet, or alternatives to Internet activities (such as shopping in brick ...
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Telecommunications
Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that feasible with the human voice, but with a similar scale of expediency; thus, slow systems (such as postal mail) are excluded from the field. The transmission media in telecommunication have evolved through numerous stages of technology, from beacons and other visual signals (such as smoke signals, semaphore line, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs), to electrical cable and electromagnetic radiation, including light. Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels, which afford the advantages of multiplexing multiple concurrent Session (computer science), communication sessions. ''Telecommunication'' is often used in its plural form. Other examples of pre-modern ...
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Dial-up Internet Access
Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the using s, s, and other devices; and to access services such as and the . Internet access is sold by s (ISPs) delivering connectivity at a wide range of via vari ... that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network The public switched telephone network (PSTN) provides Communications infrastructure, infrastructure and services for public telecommunication. The PSTN is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by nati ... (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides a myriad of services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that ... (ISP) by dialing a telephone number A telep ...
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Computer-mediated Communication
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any human communication that occurs through the use of two or more electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow b ... devices. While the term has traditionally referred to those communications that occur via computer-mediated formats (e.g., instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time text, real-time transmission of text-based, text messages from sender to receiver. Chat ..., email upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("m ...
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Sociology
Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biol ... that focuses on society, human social behaviour Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) is the Action (philosophy), actions and mannerisms made by individ ..., patterns of social relationships Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ..., social interaction In social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted t ...
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Computer Data Storage
Computer data storage is a technology consisting of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ... components and recording media On a reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), the recorder is data storage equipment and the magnetic tape is a data storage medium. Data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertaint ... that are used to retain digital data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used .... It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. The central processing unit A ...
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Offline Storage
Computer data storage is a technology consisting of computer components and Data storage device, recording media that are used to retain digital data (computing), data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a memory hierarchy, storage hierarchy, which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but less expensive and larger options further away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". Even the first computer designs, Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine and Percy Ludgate's Analytical Machine, clearly distinguished between processing and memory (Babbage stored numbers as rotations of gears, while Ludgate stored numbers as displacements of rods in shuttles ...
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Internet Archive
The Internet Archive is an American digital library A digital library, also called an online library, an internet library, a digital repository, or a digital collection is an online databaseAn online database is a database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefit ... with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge". It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and millions of books. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating a free and open Internet. As of December 2021, the Internet Archive holds over 34 million books and texts, 7.4 million movies, videos and TV shows, 797,000 software programs, 13,991,923 audio files, 4.1 million images, and 640 billion web pages in the Wayback Machine The Wayback Machine is a digital archive An archive is an accumulation ...
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EGranary
The eGranary Digital Library is a product of the WiderNet Project, a non-profit aimed at providing access to information technology and library services in developing countries 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the IMF and the United Nations, UN from 2008 A developing country is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, .... History In 2000 Cliff Missen and Michael McNulty founded WiderNet to "provide training and research in low-cost, high impact uses of information technologies in developing countries". Missen developed the idea after studying at the University of Jos A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which govern the behavior Behavio ... in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria Nigeria (), offici ...
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Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, (from August 16, 1995 to March 30, 2021) commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a discontinued series of graphical user interface, graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Microsoft Plus!, Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in-service packs, and included in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) service releases of Windows 95 and later versions of Windows. New feature development for the browser was discontinued in 2016 in favor of new browser Microsoft Edge. Since Internet Explorer is a Windows component and is included in long-term lifecycle versions of Windows such as Windows Server 2019, it will continue to receive security updates until at least 2029. Microsoft 365 ended support for Internet Explorer on ...
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Browser Cache
A Web cache (or HTTP cache) is a system for optimizing the World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational .... It is implemented both client-side Client-side refers to operations that are performed by the client in a client–server relationship in a computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to ... and server-side In the client–server model Client-server model is a distributed application Distributed computing is a field of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures .... The caching of image An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception ...
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Web Browser
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software for accessing the World Wide Web. When a User (computing), user requests a web page from a particular website, the web browser retrieves the necessary content from a web server and then displays the page on the user's device. A web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are often confused. A search engine is a website that provides hyperlink, links to other websites. However, to connect to a website's server and display its web pages, a user must have a web browser installed. Web browsers are used on a range of devices, including desktop computer, desktops, laptops, tablet computer, tablets, and smartphones. In 2020, an estimated 4.9 billion people used a browser. The Usage share of web browsers, most used browser is Google Chrome, with a 65% global market share on all devices, followed by Safari (web browser), Safari with 18%. Function The purpose of a web browser is to fetch c ...
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Word Sync
Word sync is a technique for synchronizing digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typically encoded as numerical Sampling (signal processing), s ... signals between high-end professional devices such as CD players, audio I/O cards etc. It allows all the components in the signal path to process the data and remain synchronized with each other. In simplest terms, one drummer beating out a pattern 10110 is great, but if two or three drummers beat that same 10110 pattern, but do not all start at exactly the same point in time, or keep exactly the same tempo as they are doing it, the result is a very muddy message for other devices which might need to listen to all three at once (e.g. a digital audio capture card on a computer or other multi-track recording device). See also *Syncword In computer network A computer net ...
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