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Entremet
An entremet or entremets (; ; from Old French, literally meaning "between servings") in French cuisine historically referred to small dishes served between courses but in modern times more commonly refers to a type of dessert. By the end of the Middle Ages, it had evolved almost entirely into dinner entertainment in the form of inedible ornaments or acted performances, often packed with symbolism of power and regality. In English it was more commonly known as a subtlety (also ''sotelty'' or ''soteltie'') and did not include acted entertainment, but most famously did have live blackbirds flying out of a pie, a scene immortalized in the folk song "Sing a Song of Sixpence". Originally an elaborate form of entertainment dish during the Late Middle Ages and the early modern period, an ''entremet'' marked the end of a course and could be anything from a simple frumenty (a type of wheat porridge) that was brightly colored and flavored with exotic and expensive spices to elaborate models ...
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Entremets Simples
An entremet or entremets (; ; from Old French, literally meaning "between servings") in French cuisine historically referred to small dishes served between courses but in modern times more commonly refers to a type of dessert. By the end of the Middle Ages, it had evolved almost entirely into dinner entertainment in the form of inedible ornaments or acted performances, often packed with symbolism of power and regality. In English it was more commonly known as a subtlety (also ''sotelty'' or ''soteltie'') and did not include acted entertainment, but most famously did have live blackbirds flying out of a pie, a scene immortalized in the folk song "Sing a Song of Sixpence". Originally an elaborate form of entertainment dish during the Late Middle Ages and the early modern period, an ''entremet'' marked the end of a course and could be anything from a simple frumenty (a type of wheat porridge) that was brightly colored and flavored with exotic and expensive spices to elaborate models ...
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French Cuisine
French cuisine () consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. French cuisine developed throughout the centuries influenced by the many surrounding cultures of Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and Belgium, in addition to its own food traditions on the long western coastlines of the Atlantic, the English Channel, Channel and inland. In the 14th century, Guillaume Tirel, a Court (royal), court chef known as "Taillevent", wrote ''Le Viandier'', one of the earliest recipe collections of France in the Middle Ages, medieval France. In the 17th century, chefs François Pierre La Varenne and Marie-Antoine Carême spearheaded movements that shifted French cooking away from its foreign influences and developed France's own indigenous style. French cheese, Cheese and French wine, wine are a major part of the cuisine. They play different roles regionally and nationally, with many variations and ''appellation d'origine contrôlée'' (AOC) (regulated appellation) laws. ...
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Viandier
''Le Viandier'' (often called ''Le Viandier de Taillevent'', ) is a cookbook, recipe collection generally credited to Guillaume Tirel, alias ''Taillevent''. However, the earliest version of the work was written around 1300, about 10 years before Tirel's birth. The original author is unknown, but it was common for medieval recipe collections to be plagiarism, plagiarized, complemented with additional material and presented as the work of later authors. ''Le Viandier'' is one of the earliest and best-known recipe collections of the Middle Ages, along with the Latin-language ''Liber de Coquina'' (early 14th century, believed to compile recipes from France and Italy) and the English ''Forme of Cury'' (c. 1390). Among other things, it contains the first detailed description of an entremet. Manuscripts There are four extant manuscripts of ''Le Viandier''.; Scully 1988 is the first edition to collate all four extant manuscripts; an English translation of the 220 recipes is included. ...
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Sing A Song Of Sixpence
"Sing a Song of Sixpence" is a well-known English nursery rhyme, perhaps originating in the 18th century. It is listed in the Roud Folk Song Index as number 13191. The Sixpence (British coin), sixpence in the rhyme is a British coin that was first minted in 1551. Origins The rhyme's origins are uncertain. References have been inferred in William Shakespeare, Shakespeare's ''Twelfth Night'' (c. 1602), (), where Sir Toby Belch tells a clown: "Come on; there is sixpence for you: let's have a song" and in Beaumont and Fletcher's 1614 play ''Bonduca'', which contains the line "Whoa, here's a stir now! Sing a song o' sixpence!" In the past it has often been attributed to George Steevens (1736–1800), who used it in a pun at the expense of Poet Laureate Henry James Pye (1745–1813) in 1790, but the first verse had already appeared in print in ''Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book'', published in London around 1744, in the form: Sing a Song of Sixpence, A bag full of Rye, Four and twenty N ...
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Intermède
Intermède (also intermédie, intramède, entremets) is a French language, French term for a musical or theatrical performance involving song and dance, also an 18th-century opera genre. The context in which the 'intermède' was performed has changed over time. During the 16th century they were court entertainments in which ballet was an important element. The intermède was sometimes given between the acts of spoken plays, especially in the 17th century when they were performed with the works of Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine. During the Age of Enlightenment, the term was used for one-act Italian operas, as performed in 18th-century France, either in the original language or in French translation (such as ''La servante maîtresse'', the French version of Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Pergolesi's ''La serva padrona''), but also for original French works of similar style in one or two acts, with or without spoken dialogue. During the course of the century, the intermède gradually ...
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Edward I Of England
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ( la, Malleus Scotorum), was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the , his ... from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was commonly referred to as The Lord Edward. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved from an early age in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English baron Baron is a rank of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the ...s. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial refor ...
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Haute Cuisine
''Haute cuisine'' (; ) or ''grande cuisine'' is the cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, List of cooking techniques, techniques and dish (food), dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region. Regional food preparation traditions ... of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels. ''Haute cuisine'' is characterized by the meticulous preparation and careful presentation of food at a high price. Early history ''Haute cuisine'' represents the cooking and eating of carefully prepared food from regular and premium ingredients, prepared by specialists, and commissioned by those with the financial means to do so. It has had a long evolution through the monarchy and the bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of ...
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Avignon Papacy
The Avignon Papacy, also known as the Babylonian Captivity, was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...s resided in Avignon Avignon (, ; ; oc, Avinhon, label=Provençal dialect, Provençal or , ; la, Avenio) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Vaucluse Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region of So ... (then in the Kingdom of Arles The Kingdom of Arles (also known as Arelat) was a dominion established in 933 by the merger of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Burgundy under King Rudolf II. The kingdom came to be named after the Lower Burgundian residence at Arles Arles (, ..., part of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empir ...
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Chanson De Geste
The ''chanson de geste'' (, from Latin 'deeds, actions accomplished') is a medieval narrative, a type of epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem Narrative poetry is a form of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of l ... that appears at the dawn of French literature French literature () generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak traditional languages of France Of the languages .... The earliest known poems of this genre date from the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, shortly before the emergence of the lyric poetry Modern lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person. It is not equivalent to song lyrics, thoug ...
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Capon
A capon (from la, caponem) is a cockerel The chicken (''Gallus gallus domesticus''), a subspecies of the red junglefowl, is a type of domestication, domesticated fowl, originally from Asia. Rooster or cock is a term for an adult male bird. A younger male may be called a cockerel; a ... (rooster) that has been castrated or neutered Neutering, from the Latin ''neuter'' ('of neither sex'), is the removal of an animal's reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part. "Neutering" is often used incorrectly to refer only to male animals, but the term actually ap ..., either physically or chemically, to improve the quality of its flesh for food, and, in some countries like Spain, fattened by forced feeding. History The origins of caponised chickens are contested. They were known in ancient China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Ear ...
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Knight
A knight is a person granted an honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted between the firs ... of knighthood by a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ... (including the pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...) or representative for service to the monarch, the church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church b ...
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Swan
Swans are birds of the family (biology), family Anatidae within the genus ''Cygnus''. The swans' closest relatives include the goose, geese and ducks. Swans are grouped with the closely related geese in the subfamily Anserinae where they form the tribe (biology), tribe Cygnini. Sometimes, they are considered a distinct subfamily, Cygninae. There are six living and many extinct species of swan; in addition, there is a species known as the coscoroba swan which is no longer considered one of the true swans. Swans usually mate for life, although "divorce" sometimes occurs, particularly following nesting failure, and if a mate dies, the remaining swan will take up with another. The number of bird egg, eggs in each :wikt:clutch, clutch ranges from three to eight. Etymology and terminology The English word ''swan'', akin to the German language, German , Dutch language, Dutch and Swedish language, Swedish , is derived from Indo-European root ' ('to sound, to sing'). Young swans are kno ...
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