A KNIGHT is a person granted an honorary title of _knighthood_ by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors . During the High Middle Ages , knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility . By the Late Middle Ages , the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry , a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback . Knighthood in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust ) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of _chivalry_, _cavalier_ and related terms (see Etymology section below). The special prestige accorded to mounted warriors finds a parallel in the _furusiyya _ in the Muslim world, and the Greek _hippeus _ (ἱππεύς) and Roman _eques _ of classical antiquity.
Royal, noble and chivalric ranks
* v * t * e
In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in several countries, such as the English Order of the Garter , the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim , and the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav . Each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head of state or monarch to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system , often for non-military service to the country. The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame .
Historically, the ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature , particularly the literary cycles known as the Matter of France , relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne , and the Matter of Britain , relating to the legend of King Arthur .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Evolution of medieval knighthood
* 3 Knightly culture in the Middle Ages
* 3.1 Training
* 3.1.1 Page * 3.1.2 Squire
* 4 Medieval and Renaissance chivalric literature * 5 Decline
* 6 Types of knighthood
* 6.1 Chivalric orders
* 6.1.1 Military orders * 6.1.2 Honorific orders of knighthood
* 6.2 Hereditary knighthoods
* 6.3 Women in orders of knighthood
* 7 Notable knights
* 8 See also
* 8.1 Counterparts in other cultures
* 9 Notes * 10 References
The word _knight_, from Old English _cniht_ ("boy" or "servant"), is a cognate of the German word _Knecht_ ("servant, bondsman"). This meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages (cf Old Frisian _kniucht_, Dutch _knecht_, Danish _knægt_, Swedish _knekt_, Norwegian _knekt_, Middle High German _kneht_, all meaning "boy, youth, lad", as well as German _Knecht_ "servant, bondsman, vassal"). Middle High German had the phrase _guoter kneht_, which also meant knight; but this meaning was in decline by about 1200.
The meaning of _cniht_ changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric 's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a _cniht_. While _cnihtas_ might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-saxon wills _cnihtas_ are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, Aelfmar, eight hides of land.
A _rādcniht_, "riding-servant", was a servant delivering messages or patrolling coastlines on horseback.
A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100. The specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years\' War . The verb "to knight" (to make someone a knight) appears around 1300; and, from the same time, the word "knighthood" shifted from "adolescence" to "rank or dignity of a knight".
An Equestrian ( Latin , from _eques_ "horseman", from _equus_ "horse") was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire . This class is often translated as "knight"; the medieval knight, however, was called _miles_ in Latin (which in classical Latin meant "soldier", normally infantry).
In the later Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, _equus_, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin _caballus_, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish _caballos_. From _caballus_ arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the (French-derived) English _cavalier_: Italian _cavaliere_, Spanish _caballero_, French _chevalier_ (whence _chivalry_), Portuguese _cavaleiro_, and Romanian _cavaler_. The Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English _rider_: German _Ritter_, and Dutch and Scandinavian _ridder_. These words are derived from Germanic _rīdan_, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root _reidh-_.
EVOLUTION OF MEDIEVAL KNIGHTHOOD
Further information: Bucellarius
In ancient Rome there was a knightly class _ Ordo Equestris _ (order of mounted nobles) from which European knighthood may have been derived. Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, and some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths , were mainly cavalry. However, it was the Franks who generally fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry , with an infantry elite, the comitatus , which often rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still largely infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight.
In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or _miles_ in Latin. The first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were generally on the attack, and larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks increasingly remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted infantry, with the discovery of the stirrup , and would continue to do so for centuries afterwards. Although in some nations the knight returned to foot combat in the 14th century, the association of the knight with mounted combat with a spear, and later a lance, remained a strong one. The older Carolingian ceremony of presenting a young man with weapons influenced the emergence of knighthood ceremonies, in which a noble would be ritually given weapons and declared to be a knight, usually amid some festivities. A Norman knight slaying Harold Godwinson ( Bayeux tapestry , c. 1070). The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries.
These mobile mounted warriors made Charlemagne’s far-flung conquests possible, and to secure their service he rewarded them with grants of land called benefices . These were given to the captains directly by the Emperor to reward their efforts in the conquests, and they in turn were to grant benefices to their warrior contingents, who were a mix of free and unfree men. In the century or so following Charlemagne's death, his newly empowered warrior class grew stronger still, and Charles the Bald declared their fiefs to be hereditary. The period of chaos in the 9th and 10th centuries, between the fall of the Carolingian central authority and the rise of separate Western and Eastern Frankish kingdoms (later to become France and Germany respectively) only entrenched this newly landed warrior class. This was because governing power and defense against Viking , Magyar and Saracen attack became an essentially local affair which revolved around these new hereditary local lords and their _demesnes _.
The battle between the Turks and Christian knights during the Ottoman wars in Europe .
In the course of the 12th century knighthood became a social rank, with a distinction being made between _milites gregarii_ (non-noble cavalrymen) and _milites nobiles_ (true knights). As the term "knight" became increasingly confined to denoting a social rank, the military role of fully armoured cavalryman gained a separate term, "man-at-arms ". Although any medieval knight going to war would automatically serve as a man-at-arms, not all men-at-arms were knights. The first military orders of knighthood were those of the Knights Hospitallers and of the Holy Sepulchre , both founded at the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Order of Saint Lazarus (1100), Knights Templars (1118) and the Teutonic Knights (1190). At the time of their foundation, these were intended as monastic orders , whose members would act as simple soldiers protecting pilgrims. It was only over the following century, with the successful conquest of the Holy Land and the rise of the crusader states , that these orders became powerful and prestigious.
The great European legends of warriors such as the paladins , the Matter of France and the Matter of Britain popularized the notion of chivalry among the warrior class. The ideal of chivalry as the ethos of the Christian warrior, and the transmutation of the term "knight" from the meaning "servant, soldier", and of _chevalier_ "mounted soldier", to refer to a member of this ideal class, is significantly influenced by the Crusades , on one hand inspired by the military orders of monastic warriors, and on the other hand also cross-influenced by Islamic ( Saracen ) ideals of _furusiyya _.
KNIGHTLY CULTURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES
The institution of knights was already well-established by the 10th century. While the knight was essentially a title denoting a military office, the term could also be used for positions of higher nobility such as landholders. The higher nobles grant the vassals their portions of land (fiefs ) in return for their loyalty, protection, and service. The nobles also provided their knights with necessities, such as lodging, food, armour, weapons, horses, and money. The knight generally held his lands by military tenure which was measured through military service that usually lasted 40 days a year. The military service was the _quid pro quo _ for each knight's fief . Vassals and lords could maintain any number of knights, although knights with more military experience were those most sought after. Thus, all petty nobles intending to become prosperous knights needed a great deal of military experience. A knight fighting under another's banner was called a _knight bachelor _ while a knight fighting under his own banner was a _knight banneret _.
A knight had to be born of nobility – typically sons of knights or lords. In some cases commoners could also be knighted as a reward for extraordinary military service. Children of the nobility were cared for by noble foster-mothers in castles until they reached age seven.
The seven-year-old boys were given the title of _page _ and turned over to the care of the castle's lords. They were placed on an early training regime of hunting with huntsmen and falconers , and academic studies with priests or chaplains. Pages then become assistants to older knights in battle, carrying and cleaning armour, taking care of the horses, and packing the baggage. They would accompany the knights on expeditions, even into foreign lands. Older pages were instructed by knights in swordsmanship , equestrianism , chivalry, warfare, and combat (but using wooden swords and spears).
When the young boy turned 15, he became a _squire _. In a religious ceremony the new squire swore on a sword consecrated by a bishop or priest, and attended to assigned duties in his lord’s household. During this time the squires continued training in combat and were allowed to own armour (rather than borrowing it). David I of Scotland knighting a squire
Squires were required to master the “_seven points of agilities _” – riding, swimming and diving, shooting different types of weapons, climbing, participation in tournaments, wrestling , fencing , long jumping , and dancing – the prerequisite skills for knighthood. All of these were even performed while wearing armour.
Upon turning 21, the squire was eligible to be knighted.
Main article: Accolade
The accolade or knighting ceremony was usually held during one of the great feasts or holidays, like Christmas or Easter , and sometimes at the wedding of a noble or royal. The knighting ceremony usually involved a ritual bath on the eve of the ceremony and a prayer vigil during the night. On the day of the ceremony, the would-be knight would swear an oath and the master of the ceremony would dub the new knight on the shoulders with a sword. Squires could also be conferred knighthood early if they showed valor and efficiency in battle.
_ The miles Christianus _ allegory (mid 13th century), showing a knight armed with virtues and facing the vices in mortal combat. The parts of his armour are identified with Christian virtues, thus correlating essential military equipment with the religious values of chivalry: The helmet is _spes futuri gaudii_ (hope of future bliss), the shield (here the shield of the Trinity ) is _fides_ (faith), the armour is _caritas_ (charity), the lance is _perseverantia_ (perseverance), the sword is _verbum Dei_ (the word of God), the banner is _regni celestis desiderium_ (desire for the kingdom of heaven ), the horse is _bona voluntas_ (good will), the saddle is _Christiana religio_ (Christian religion), the saddlecloth is _humilitas_ (humility), the reins are _discretio_ (discretion), the spurs are _disciplina_ (discipline), the stirrups are _propositum boni operis_ (proposition of good work), and the horse's four hooves are _delectatio, consensus, bonum opus, consuetudo_ (delight, consent, good work, and exercise). Main article: Chivalry
Knights were expected, above all, to fight bravely and to display military professionalism and courtesy. When knights were taken as prisoners of war, they were customarily held for ransom in somewhat comfortable surroundings. This same standard of conduct did not apply to non-knights (archers, peasants, foot-soldiers, etc.) who were often slaughtered after capture, and who were viewed during battle as mere impediments to knights' getting to other knights to fight them.
Chivalry developed as an early standard of professional ethics for knights, who were relatively affluent horse owners and were expected to provide military services in exchange for landed property . Early notions of chivalry entailed loyalty to one's liege lord and bravery in battle, similar to the values of the Heroic Age . During the Middle Ages, this grew from simple military professionalism into a social code including the values of gentility, nobility and treating others reasonably. In _ The Song of Roland _ (c. 1100), Roland is portrayed as the ideal knight, demonstrating unwavering loyalty, military prowess and social fellowship. In Wolfram von Eschenbach 's _Parzival _ (c. 1205), chivalry had become a blend of religious duties, love and military service. Ramon Llull 's _Book of the Order of Chivalry_ (1275) demonstrates that by the end of the 13th century, chivalry entailed a litany of very specific duties, including riding warhorses, jousting , attending tournaments , holding Round Tables and hunting, as well as aspiring to the more æthereal virtues of "faith, hope, charity, justice, strength, moderation and loyalty."
Knights of the late medieval era were expected by society to maintain all these skills and many more, as outlined in Baldassare Castiglione 's _ The Book of the Courtier _, though the book's protagonist, Count Ludovico, states the "first and true profession" of the ideal courtier "must be that of arms." _Chivalry_, derived from the French word _chevalier_ ('cavalier'), simultaneously denoted skilled horsemanship and military service, and these remained the primary occupations of knighthood throughout the Middle Ages.
Chivalry and religion were mutually influenced during the period of the Crusades . The early Crusades helped to clarify the moral code of chivalry as it related to religion. As a result, Christian armies began to devote their efforts to sacred purposes. As time passed, clergy instituted religious vows which required knights to use their weapons chiefly for the protection of the weak and defenseless, especially women and orphans, and of churches.
With the rise of Renaissance humanism and moral relativism , the knight–and chivalry along with him–lost much of his relevance to society, and the idealism of chivalric romance was fundamentally rejected in Niccolò Machiavelli 's _Il Principe _ (1532) and more directly derided in Miguel de Cervantes 's _ Don Quixote _ (1605–1615). The medieval literary genre of chivalric romance had been the high-water mark of idealism and romanticism in literature, but in the 16th century Machiavelli instructed aspiring political rulers to be ruthlessly pragmatic and to apply the principle that the ends justify the means , directly counter to the high-flown idealism of late medieval chivalry. Later, the high-flown values of chivalric romance were heavily satirized in Cervantes's _Don Quixote_, which portrayed the charmingly idealistic protagonist as a lovable but hopelessly delusional imbecile.
Main article: Tournament (medieval) _ Tournament from the Codex Manesse _, depicting the mêlée.
In peacetime, knights often demonstrated their martial skills in tournaments, which usually took place on the grounds of a castle. Knights can parade their armour and banner to the whole court as the tournament commence. Medieval tournaments were made up of martial sports called _hastiludes _, and were not only a major spectator sport but also played as a real combat simulation. It usually ended with many knights either injured or even killed. One contest was a free-for-all battle called a _melee _, where large groups of knights numbering hundreds assembled and fought one another, and the last knight standing was the winner. The most popular and romanticized contest for knights was the _joust _. In this competition, two knights charge each other with blunt wooden lances in an effort to break their lance on the opponent's head or body, or unhorse them completely. The loser in these tournaments had to turn his armour and horse over to the victor. The last day was filled with feasting, dancing and minstrel singing.
Besides formal tournaments, they were also unformalized judicial duels done by knights and squires to end various disputes. Countries like Germany , Britain and Ireland practiced this tradition. Judicial combat were of two forms in medieval society, the feat of arms and chivalric combat. The feat of arms were done to settle hostilities between two large parties and supervised by a judge. The chivalric combat was fought when one party's honor was disrespected or challenged upon in which the conflict cannot be resolved in court. Weapons were standardized and must be of the same caliber. The duel lasted until the other party was too weak to fight back and in early cases, the defeated party were then subsequently executed. Examples of these brutal duels were the judicial combat known as the Combat of the Thirty in 1351, and the trial by combat fought by Jean de Carrouges in 1386. A far more chivalric duel which became popular in the Late Middle Ages was the _pas d\'armes _ or "passage of arms". In this hastilude , a knight or a group of knights would claim a bridge, lane or city gate, and challenge other passing knights to fight or be disgraced. If a lady passed unescorted, she would leave behind a glove or scarf, to be rescued and returned to her by a future knight who passed that way.
One of the greatest distinguishing marks of the knightly class was the flying of coloured banners, to display power and to distinguish knights in battle and in tournaments. Knights are generally _armigerous_ (bearing a coat of arms ), and indeed they played an essential role in the development of heraldry . As heavier armour, including enlarged shields and enclosed helmets, developed in the Middle Ages, the need for marks of identification arose, and with coloured shields and surcoats , coat armoury was born. Armourial rolls were created to record the knights of various regions or those who participated in various tournaments .
MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE CHIVALRIC LITERATURE
Page from King René\'s Tournament Book (BnF Ms Fr 2695) Main article: Knight-errant Further information: Chivalry , Romance (heroic literature) , Matter of Britain , Matter of France , Minnesang , and Jinete
Knights and the ideals of knighthood featured largely in medieval and Renaissance literature , and have secured a permanent place in literary romance . While chivalric romances abound, particularly notable literary portrayals of knighthood include _The Song of Roland _, Cantar de Mio Cid , The Twelve of England , Geoffrey Chaucer 's _The Knight\'s Tale _, Baldassare Castiglione 's _The Book of the Courtier _, and Miguel de Cervantes ' _ Don Quixote _, as well as Sir Thomas Malory\'s _Le Morte d\'Arthur _ and other Arthurian tales ( Geoffrey of Monmouth 's _ Historia Regum Britanniae _, the Pearl Poet 's _ Sir Gawain and the Green Knight _, etc.).
Geoffrey of Monmouth 's _ Historia Regum Britanniae _ (_History of the Kings of Britain_), written in the 1130s, introduced the legend of King Arthur , which was to be important to the development of chivalric ideals in literature. Sir Thomas Malory\'s _Le Morte d\'Arthur _ (_The Death of Arthur_), written in 1485, was important in defining the ideal of chivalry, which is essential to the modern concept of the knight, as an elite warrior sworn to uphold the values of faith , loyalty , courage , and honour .
Instructional literature was also created. Geoffroi de Charny 's "Book of Chivalry " expounded upon the importance of Christian faith in every area of a knight's life, though still laying stress on the primarily military focus of knighthood.
In the early Renaissance greater emphasis is laid upon courtliness. The ideal courtier—the chivalrous knight—of Baldassarre Castiglione's _ The Book of the Courtier _ became a model of the ideal virtues of nobility. Castiglione's tale took the form of a discussion among the nobility of the court of the Duke of Urbino, in which the characters determine that the ideal knight should be renowned not only for his bravery and prowess in battle, but also as a skilled dancer, athlete, singer and orator, and he should also be well-read in the Humanities and classical Greek and Latin literature.
Later Renaissance literature, such as Miguel de Cervantes 's _Don Quixote _, rejected the code of chivalry as unrealistic idealism. The rise of Christian humanism in Renaissance literature demonstrated a marked departure from the chivalric romance of late medieval literature, and the chivalric ideal ceased to influence literature over successive centuries until it saw some pockets of revival in post-Victorian literature.
By the end of the 15th century, knights were becoming obsolete as countries started creating their own professional armies that were quicker to train, cheaper and easier to mobilize. The advancement of high-powered firearms eradicated the use of plate armour, as the time it takes to train soldiers with guns is much less compared to that of the knight. The cost of equipment is also significantly lower and guns give a reasonable chance to easily penetrate a knight's armour. In the 14th century the use of infantrymen armed with pikes and fighting in close formation also proved effective against heavy cavalry. An example of this was seen in the Battle of Nancy , when Charles the Bold and his armoured cavalry were decimated by Swiss soldiers only armed with pikes. As the feudal system came to an end, lords saw no further use of knights. Many landowners found the duties of knighthood too expensive and so contented themselves with the use of squires. Mercenaries also became an economic alternative to knights when conflicts arose.
Armies of the time started adopting a more realistic approach to warfare than the honor-bound code of chivalry. Soon, the remaining knights were absorbed into professional armies. Although they have a higher rank than most soldiers because of their valuable lineage, they have lost their distinctive identity that previously set them apart from other common soldiers. As the age of knights dissolved, some still survived as knightly orders who still exist even by the end of the Medieval Age. They adopted newer technology while still retaining their age-old chivalric traditions. Examples of holy orders that existed beyond the Middle Ages were the Knights Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights .
TYPES OF KNIGHTHOOD
For more details on this topic, see Chivalric order .
For more details on this topic, see Military order (society) .
* Sovereign Military Order of Malta , founded during the First Crusade , 1099 * Order of the Holy Sepulchre , also founded during the First Crusade in circa 1099 * Order of Saint Lazarus established about 1100, defunct in 16th century * Knights Templar , founded 1118, disbanded 1307 * Teutonic Knights , established about 1190, and ruled the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia until 1525
* Order of Aviz , established in Avis in 1143 * Order of Alcántara , established in Alcántara in 1156 * Order of Calatrava , established in Calatrava in 1158 * Order of Santiago , established in Santiago in 1164.
Honorific Orders Of Knighthood
After the Crusades , the military orders became idealized and romanticized, resulting in the late medieval notion of chivalry , as reflected in the Arthurian romances of the time. The creation of chivalric orders was fashionable among the nobility in the 14th and 15th centuries, and this is still reflected in contemporary honours systems, including the term _order _ itself. Examples of notable orders of chivalry are:
* the Order of Saint George , founded by Charles I of Hungary in 1325/6 * the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation , founded by Count Amadeus VI in 1346 * the Order of the Garter , founded by Edward III of England around 1348 * the Order of the Dragon , founded by King Sigismund of Luxemburg in 1408 * the Order of the Golden Fleece , founded by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1430 * the Order of Saint Michael , founded by Louis XI of France in 1469 * the Order of the Thistle , founded by King James VII of Scotland (also known as James II of England ) in 1687 * the Order of the Elephant , which may have been first founded by Christian I of Denmark , but was founded in its current form by King Christian V in 1693 * the Order of the Bath , founded by George I in 1725
From roughly 1560, purely honorific orders were established, as a way to confer prestige and distinction, unrelated to military service and chivalry in the more narrow sense. Such orders were particularly popular in the 17th and 18th centuries, and knighthood continues to be conferred in various countries:
* The United Kingdom (see British honours system ) and some Commonwealth of Nations countries such as New Zealand ; * Some European countries, such as The Netherlands and Belgium (see below). * The Holy See — see Papal Orders of Chivalry .
There are other monarchies and also republics that also follow this practice. Modern knighthoods are typically conferred in recognition for services rendered to society, which are not necessarily martial in nature. The British musician Elton John , for example, is a Knight Bachelor , thus entitled to be called Sir Elton. The female equivalent is a _ Dame _, for example Dame Julie Andrews .
In the United Kingdom , honorific knighthood may be conferred in two different ways:
The first is by membership of one of the _pure_ Orders of Chivalry such as the Order of the Garter , the Order of the Thistle and the dormant Order of Saint Patrick , of which all members are knighted. In addition, many British Orders of Merit , namely the Order of the Bath , the Order of St Michael and St George , the Royal Victorian Order and the Order of the British Empire are part of the British honours system , and the award of their highest ranks (Knight/ Dame Commander and Knight/ Dame Grand Cross), comes together with an honorific knighthood, making them a cross between orders of chivalry and orders of merit. By contrast, membership of other British Orders of Merit , such as the Distinguished Service Order , the Order of Merit and the Order of the Companions of Honour does not confer a knighthood.
The second is being granted honorific knighthood by the British sovereign without membership of an order, the recipient being called Knight Bachelor .
In the British honours system the knightly style of _Sir_ is accompanied by the given name , and optionally the surname . So, Elton John may be called _Sir Elton_ or _Sir Elton John_, but never _Sir John_. Similarly, actress Judi Dench DBE may be addressed as _Dame Judi_ or _ Dame Judi Dench_, but never _ Dame Dench_.
Wives of knights, however, are entitled to the honorific pre-nominal "Lady" before their husband's surname. Thus Sir Paul McCartney 's ex-wife was formally styled _Lady McCartney_ (rather than _Lady Paul McCartney_ or _Lady Heather McCartney_). The style _ Dame Heather McCartney_ could be used for the wife of a knight; however, this style is largely archaic and is only used in the most formal of documents, or where the wife is a Dame in her own right (such as Dame Norma Major , who gained her title six years before her husband Sir John Major was knighted). The husbands of Dames have no honorific pre-nominal, so Dame Norma's husband remained John Major until he received his own knighthood. The English fighting the French knights at the Battle of Crécy in 1346.
Since the reign of Edward VII a clerk in holy orders in the Church of England has not normally received the accolade on being appointed to a degree of knighthood. He receives the insignia of his honour and may place the appropriate letters after his name or title but he may not be called Sir and his wife may not be called Lady. This custom is not observed in Australia and New Zealand, where knighted Anglican clergymen routinely use the title "Sir". Ministers of other Christian Churches are entitled to receive the accolade. For example, Sir Norman Cardinal Gilroy did receive the accolade on his appointment as Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in 1969. A knight who is subsequently ordained does not lose his title. A famous example of this situation was The Revd Sir Derek Pattinson , who was ordained just a year after he was appointed Knight Bachelor , apparently somewhat to the consternation of officials at Buckingham Palace. A woman clerk in holy orders may be made a Dame in exactly the same way as any other woman since there are no military connotations attached to the honour. A clerk in holy orders who is a baronet is entitled to use the title Sir.
Outside the British honours system it is usually considered improper to address a knighted person as 'Sir' or 'Dame'. Some countries, however, historically _did_ have equivalent honorifics for knights, such as Cavaliere in Italy (e.g. _Cavaliere_ Benito Mussolini ), and Ritter in Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire (e.g. Georg _Ritter_ von Trapp ). _ Miniature from Jean Froissart Chronicles _ depicting the Battle of Montiel (Castillian Civil War, in the Hundred Years\' War )
State Knighthoods in the Netherlands are issued in three orders, the Order of William , the Order of the Netherlands Lion , and the Order of Orange Nassau . Additionally there remain a few hereditary knights in the Netherlands.
In Belgium , honorific knighthood (not hereditary) can be conferred by the King on particularly meritorious individuals such as scientists or eminent businessmen, or for instance to astronaut Frank De Winne , the second Belgian in space. This practice is similar to the conferal of the dignity of Knight Bachelor in the United Kingdom . In addition, there still are a number of hereditary knights in Belgium (see below).
In France and Belgium , one of the ranks conferred in some Orders of Merit , such as the Légion d\'Honneur , the Ordre National du Mérite , the Ordre des Palmes académiques and the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in France, and the Order of Leopold , Order of the Crown and Order of Leopold II in Belgium, is that of _Chevalier_ (in French) or _Ridder_ (in Dutch), meaning Knight.
In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth the monarchs tried to establish chivalric orders but the hereditary lords who controlled the Union did not agree and managed to ban such assemblies. They feared the King would use Orders to gain support for absolutist goals and to make formal distinctions among the peerage which could lead to its legal breakup into two separate classes, and that the King would later play one against the other and eventually limit the legal privileges of hereditary nobility. But finally in 1705 King August II managed to establish the Order of the White Eagle which remains Poland's most prestigious order of that kind. The head of state (now the President as the acting Grand Master) confers knighthoods of the Order to distinguished citizens, foreign monarchs and other heads of state. The Order has its Chapter. There were no particular honorifics that would accompany a knight's name as historically all (or at least by far most) its members would be royals or hereditary lords anyway. So today, a knight is simply referred to as "Name Surname, knight of the White Eagle (Order)".
In continental Europe different systems of hereditary knighthood have existed or do exist. _Ridder _, Dutch for "knight", is a hereditary noble title in the Netherlands . It is the lowest title within the nobility system and ranks below that of " Baron " but above " Jonkheer " (the latter is not a title, but a Dutch honorific to show that someone belongs to the untitled nobility). The collective term for its holders in a certain locality is the Ridderschap (e.g. Ridderschap van Holland, Ridderschap van Friesland, etc.). In the Netherlands no female equivalent exists. Before 1814, the history of nobility is separate for each of the eleven provinces that make up the Kingdom of the Netherlands . In each of these, there were in the early Middle Ages a number of feudal lords who often were just as powerful, and sometimes more so than the rulers themselves. In old times, no other title existed but that of knight. In the Netherlands only 10 knightly families are still extant, a number which steadily decreases because in that country ennoblement or incorporation into the nobility is not possible anymore.
Likewise _Ridder _, Dutch for "knight", or the equivalent French _Chevalier_ is a hereditary noble title in Belgium . It is the second lowest title within the nobility system above _Écuyer_ or _Jonkheer/Jonkvrouw_ and below _ Baron _. Like in the Netherlands, no female equivalent to the title exists. Belgium still does have about 232 registered knightly families .
The German and Austrian equivalent of an hereditary knight is a _ Ritter _. This designation is used as a title of nobility in all German-speaking areas. Traditionally it denotes the second lowest rank within the nobility, standing above " Edler " (Noble) and below " Freiherr " (baron). For its historical association with warfare and the landed gentry in the Middle Ages, it can be considered roughly equal to the titles of "Knight" or "Baronet".
The Royal House of Portugal historically bestowed hereditary knighthoods to holders of the highest ranks in the Royal Orders. Today, the head of the Royal House of Portugal HRH Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza bestows hereditary knighthoods for extraordinary acts of sacrifice and service to the Royal House. There are very few hereditary knights and they are entitled to wear a breast star with the crest of the House of Braganza.
In France, the hereditary knighthood existed in regions formerly under Holy Roman Empire control. One family ennobled with that title is the house of Hauteclocque (by letters patents of 1752), even if its most recent members used a pontifical title of count.
Italy and Poland also had the hereditary knighthood that existed within the nobility system.
There are traces of the Continental system of hereditary knighthood in Ireland. Notably all three of the following belong to the Welsh-Norman FitzGerald dynasty , created by the Earls of Desmond , acting as Earls Palatine , for their kinsmen.
* Knight of Kerry or Green Knight (FitzGerald of Kerry) — the current holder is Sir Adrian FitzGerald , 6th Baronet of Valencia, 24th Knight of Kerry. He is also a Knight of Malta , and currently President of the Irish Association of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta . * Knight of Glin or Black Knight (FitzGerald of Limerick) — now dormant. * White Knight (see Edmund Fitzgibbon ) — now dormant.
Another Irish family were the O\'Shaughnessys , who were created knights in 1553 under the policy of Surrender and regrant (first established by Henry VIII of England ). They were attainted in 1697 for participation on the Jacobite side in the Williamite wars.
Since 1611, the British Crown has awarded a hereditary title in the form of the Baronetcy . Like knights, baronets are accorded the title _Sir_. Baronets are not peers of the Realm, and have never been entitled to sit in the House of Lords, therefore like knights they remain commoners in the view of the British legal system. However, unlike knights, the title is hereditary and the recipient does not receive an accolade. The position is therefore more comparable with hereditary knighthoods in continental European orders of nobility, such as _ritter _, than with knighthoods under the British orders of chivalry.
WOMEN IN ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD
England And The United Kingdom
Women were appointed to the Order of the Garter almost from the start. In all, 68 women were appointed between 1358 and 1488, including all consorts. Though many were women of royal blood, or wives of knights of the Garter, some women were neither. They wore the garter on the left arm, and some are shown on their tombstones with this arrangement. After 1488, no other appointments of women are known, although it is said that the Garter was conferred upon Neapolitan poet Laura Bacio Terricina, by King Edward VI . In 1638, a proposal was made to revive the use of robes for the wives of knights in ceremonies, but this did not occur. Queen consorts have been made Ladies of the Garter since 1901 (Queens Alexandra in 1901, Mary in 1910 and Elizabeth in 1937). The first non-royal woman to be made Lady Companion of the Garter was The Duchess of Norfolk in 1990, the second was The Baroness Thatcher in 1995 (post-nominal: LG). On 30 November 1996, Lady Fraser was made Lady of the Thistle , the first non-royal woman (post-nominal: LT). (See Edmund Fellowes, Knights of the Garter, 1939; and Beltz: Memorials of the Order of the Garter). The first woman to be granted a knighthood in modern Britain seems to have been H.H. Nawab Sikandar Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal, who became a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India (GCSI) in 1861, at the foundation of the order. Her daughter received the same honor in 1872, as well as her granddaughter in 1910. The order was open to "princes and chiefs" without distinction of gender. The first European woman to have been granted an order of knighthood was Queen Mary, when she was made a Knight Grand Commander of the same order, by special statute, in celebration of the Delhi Durbar of 1911. She was also granted a damehood in 1917 as a Dame Grand Cross , when the Order of the British Empire was created (it was the first order explicitly open to women). The Royal Victorian Order was opened to women in 1936, and the Orders of the Bath and Saint Michael and Saint George in 1965 and 1971 respectively.
_ Helmeted Knight of France, illustration by Paul Mercuri in Costumes Historiques_ (Paris, 1860–1861)
Medieval French had two words, chevaleresse and chevalière, which were used in two ways: one was for the wife of a knight, and this usage goes back to the 14th century. The other was possibly for a female knight. Here is a quote from Menestrier, a 17th-century writer on chivalry: "It was not always necessary to be the wife of a knight in order to take this title. Sometimes, when some male fiefs were conceded by special privilege to women, they took the rank of chevaleresse, as one sees plainly in Hemricourt where women who were not wives of knights are called chevaleresses." Modern French orders of knighthood include women, for example the Légion d'Honneur (Legion of Honor ) since the mid-19th century, but they are usually called chevaliers. The first documented case is that of Angélique Brûlon (1772–1859), who fought in the Revolutionary Wars, received a military disability pension in 1798, the rank of 2nd lieutenant in 1822, and the Legion of Honor in 1852. A recipient of the Ordre National du Mérite recently requested from the order's Chancery the permission to call herself "chevalière," and the request was granted (AFP dispatch, Jan 28, 2000).
As related in _Orders of Knighthood, Awards and the Holy See_ by H.E. Cardinale (1983), the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary was founded by two Bolognese nobles Loderingo degli Andalò and Catalano di Guido in 1233, and approved by pope Alexander IV in 1261. It was the first religious order of knighthood to grant the rank of militissa to women. However, this order was suppressed by Sixtus V in 1558.
The Low Countries
At the initiative of Catherine Baw in 1441, and 10 years later of Elizabeth, Mary, and Isabella of the house of Hornes, orders were founded which were open exclusively to women of noble birth, who received the French title of chevalière or the Latin title of equitissa. In his Glossarium (s.v. militissa), Du Cange notes that still in his day (17th century), the female canons of the canonical monastery of St. Gertrude in Nivelles (Brabant), after a probation of 3 years, are made knights (militissae) at the altar, by a (male) knight called in for that purpose, who gives them the accolade with a sword and pronounces the usual words.
The inhabitants being at length reduced to great streights, desired relief of the Earl, but he, being not in a condition to give them any, they entertained some thoughts of making a surrender. Which the Women hearing of, to prevent the disaster threatening their City, themselves, and Children, put on men's Clothes, and by a resolute sally, forced the Moors to raise the Siege. The Earl, finding himself obliged, by the gallentry of the action, thought fit to make his acknowlegements thereof, by granting them several Privileges and Immunities, and to perpetuate the memory of so signal an attempt, instituted an Order, somewhat like a Military Order, into which were admitted only those Brave Women, deriving the honour to their Descendants, and assigned them for a Badge, a thing like a Fryars Capouche, sharp at the top, after the form of a Torch, and of a crimson colour, to be worn upon their Head-clothes. He also ordained, that at all publick meetings, the women should have precedence of the Men. That they should be exempted from all Taxes, and that all the Apparel and Jewels, though of never so great value, left by their dead Husbands, should be their own. These Women having thus acquired this Honour by their personal Valour, carried themselves after the Military Knights of those days. — Elias Ashmole , The Institution, Laws, and Ceremony of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (1672), Ch. 3, sect. 3
* William Marshal * John Hawkwood * Henry Percy (Hotspur) * William Wallace * El Cid * Godfrey of Bouillon * Bertrand du Guesclin * Jean Le Maingre * Geoffroi de Charny * Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard * Joanot Martorell * Jean III d\'Aa of Gruuthuse * Suero de Quinones * Adrian von Bubenberg * Franz von Sickingen * Götz von Berlichingen * Heinrich von Winkelried * Philip Riedesel zu Camberg * Heinrich von Bulow (Grotekop) * Zawisza Czarny * Stibor of Stiboricz
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* Accolade * _ Auxilium ad filium militem faciendum et filiam maritandam _ * Chivalric orders * Spanish military orders * Destrier * Heavy Cavalry * Knightly Virtues * Knight-errant * Knight banneret * Knight bachelor * Black knight * Imperial Knight * Medieval warfare * Nobility * Orders, decorations, and medals of the United Kingdom * Papal Orders of Chivalry
COUNTERPARTS IN OTHER CULTURES
* ^ Clark, p. 1. * ^ Carnine, Douglas; et al. (2006). _World History:Medieval and Early Modern Times_. USA: McDougal Littell. pp. 300–301. ISBN 978-0-618-27747-6 . Knights were often vassals, or lesser nobles, who fought on behalf of lords in return for land. * ^ Paddock, David Edge & John Miles (1995). _Arms & armor of the medieval knight : an illustrated history of weaponry in the Middle Ages_ (Reprinted. ed.). New York: Crescent Books. p. 3. ISBN 0-517-10319-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Knight". _Online Etymology Dictionary_. Retrieved 2009-04-07. * ^ "Knecht". _LEO German-English dictionary_. Retrieved 2009-04-07. * ^ William Henry Jackson. "Aspects of Knighthood in Hartmann's Adaptations of Chretien's Romances and in the Social Context." In _Chretien de Troyes and the German Middle Ages: Papers from an International Symposium_, ed. Martin H. Jones and Roy Wisbey. Suffolk: D. S. Brewer, 1993. 37–55. * ^ Coss, Peter R (1996). _The knight in medieval England, 1000-1400_. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books. Retrieved 2017-06-18. – via Questia (subscription required) * ^ "Equestrian". _The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed_. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000. * ^ D'A. J. D. Boulton, "Classic Knighthood as Nobiliary Dignity", in Stephen Church, Ruth Harvey (ed.), _Medieval knighthood V: papers from the sixth Strawberry Hill Conference 1994_, Boydell & Brewer, 1995, pp. 41–100. * ^ Frank Anthony Carl Mantello, A. G. Rigg, _Medieval Latin: an introduction and bibliographical guide_, UA Press, 1996, p. 448. * ^ Charlton Thomas Lewis, _An elementary Latin dictionary_, Harper & Brothers, 1899, p. 505. * ^ Xavier Delamarre, entry on _caballos_ in _Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise_ (Éditions Errance, 2003), p. 96. The entry on _cabullus_ in the _Oxford Latin Dictionary _ (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982, 1985 reprinting), p. 246, does not give a probable origin, and merely compares Old Bulgarian _kobyla_ and Old Russian _komońb_. * ^ "Cavalier". _The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed_. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000. * ^ "Reidh- ". _The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed_. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000. * ^ Royal Household staff. "The Monarchy Today > Queen and public > Honours > Knighthoods". The British Monarchy website. Retrieved 22 August 2012. * ^ Peterse, Leif Inge Ree. _Siege Warfare and Military Organization in the Successor States (400-800 A.D.)_. BRILL (September 1, 2013). pp. 177-180, 243, 310-311. ISBN 978-9004251991 * ^ Church, Stephen (1995). _Papers from the sixth Strawberry Hill Conference 1994_. Woodbridge, England: Boydell. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-85115-628-6 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Nelson, Ken (2015). "Middle Ages: History of the Medieval Knight". _Ducksters_. Technological Solutions, Inc. (TSI). * ^ _A_ _B_ Saul, Nigel (September 6, 2011). "Knighthood As It Was, Not As We Wish It Were". _Origins_. * ^ Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D."How Knights Work". _How Stuff Works_. January 22, 2008. * ^ "The Knight in Armour: 8th-14th century". _History World_. * ^ Bumke, Joachim (1991). _Courtly Culture: Literature and Society in the High Middle Ages_. Berkeley, US and Los Angeles US: University of California Press. pp. 231–233. ISBN 9780520066342 . * ^ Church, Stephen (1995). _Papers from the sixth Strawberry Hill Conference 1994_. Woodbridge, England: Boydell. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-85115-628-6 . * ^ The Middle Ages: Charlemagne * ^ _A_ _B_ Hermes, Nizar (December 4, 2007). " King Arthur in the Lands of the Saracen" (PDF). _Nebula_. * ^ Richard Francis Burton wrote "I should attribute the origins of love to the influences of the Arabs' poetry and chivalry upon European ideas rather than to medieval Christianity." Burton, Richard Francis (2007). Charles Anderson Read, ed. _The Cabinet of Irish Literature, Vol. IV_. p. 94. ISBN 1-4067-8001-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Knight.". _The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed_. November 15, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D."How Knights Work". _How Stuff Works_. 22 January 2008. * ^ Lixey L.C., Kevin. _Sport and Christianity: A Sign of the Times in the Light of Faith_. The Catholic University of America Press (October 31, 2012). p. 26. ISBN 978-0813219936 . * ^ See Marcia L. Colish, _The Mirror of Language: A Study in the Medieval Theory of Knowledge_; University of Nebraska Press, 1983. p. 105. * ^ Keen, Maurice Keen. Chivalry. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press (February 11, 2005). pp. 7-17. ISBN 978-0300107678 * ^ Fritze, Ronald; Robison, William, eds. (2002). _Historical Dictionary of Late Medieval England: 1272–1485_. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 105. ISBN 9780313291241 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Deats, Sarah; Logan, Robert (2002). _Marlowe's Empery: Expanding His Critical Contexts_. Cranbury, NJ: Rosemont Publishing & Printing–Associated University Presses. p. 137. * ^ Keen, p. 138. * ^ Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D."How Knights Work". _How Stuff Works_. January 22, 2008. * ^ Johnston, Ruth A. _All Things Medieval: An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World, Volume 1_. Greenwood (August 15, 2011). pp. 690-700. ASIN: B005JIQEL2. * ^ _A_ _B_ David Levinson and Karen Christensen. _Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present_. Oxford University Press; 1st edition (July 22, 1999). pp. 206. ISBN 978-0195131956 . * ^ Clifford J. Rogers, Kelly DeVries and John Franc. _Journal of Medieval Military History: Volume VIII_. Boydell Press (November 18, 2010). pp. 157-160. ISBN 978-1843835967 * ^ Hubbard, Ben. _Gladiators: From Spartacus to Spitfires_. Canary Press (August 15, 2011). Chapter: Pas D'armes. ASIN: B005HJTS8O. * ^ Crouch, David (1993). _The image of aristocracy in Britain, 1000-1300_ (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-415-01911-8 . Retrieved 4 December 2011. * ^ Platts, Beryl. _Origins of Heraldry_. (Procter Press, London: 1980). p. 32. ISBN 978-0906650004 * ^ Norris, Michael (October 2001). "Feudalism and Knights in Medieval Europe". 'Department of Education, The Metropolitan Museum of Art_.__ _ * ^ W. P. Ker , _Epic And Romance: Essays on Medieval Literature_ p 52-53 * ^ Hare (1908), p. 201. * ^ Hare (1908), pp. 211-218. * ^ Daniel Eisenberg, _A Study of "Don Quixote"_, Newark, Delaware, Juan de la Cuesta,1987, ISBN 0936388315 , pp. 41-77, revised Spanish translation in Biblioteca Virtual Cervantes . * ^ _A_ _B_ Gies, Francis. _The Knight in History_. Harper Perennial (July 26, 2011). pp. Introduction: What is a Knight. ISBN 978-0060914134 * ^ "The History of Knights". _All Things Medieval_. * ^ "History of Knights". _How Stuff Works_. * ^ "Malta History 1000 AD–present". Carnaval.com. Retrieved 2008-10-12. * ^ "Michael De-La-Noy, obituary in". _The Independent_. London. 2006-10-17. Archived from the original on 2007-11-23. Retrieved 2009-11-19. * ^ John O\'Donovan , "The Descendants of the Last Earls of Desmond", _Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Volume 6_. 1858. * ^ The History and Antiquities of the Diocese of Kilmacduagh by Jerome Fahey 1893 p.326 * ^ Burke, Bernard & Ashworth Burke (1914). _General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire_. London: Burke's Peerage Limited. p. 7. Retrieved 4 December 2011. The hereditary Order of Baronets was erected by patent in England by King James I in 1611, extended to Ireland by the same Monarch in 1619, and first conferred in Scotland by King Charles I in 1625. * ^ "No. 27284". _ The London Gazette _ (Supplement). 13 February 1901. p. 1139. * ^ "No. 52120". _ The London Gazette _. 24 April 1990. p. 8251. * ^ "No. 54017". _ The London Gazette _. 25 April 1995. p. 6023. * ^ "No. 54597". _ The London Gazette _. 3 December 1996. p. 15995. * ^ Biddle, Daniel A. _Knights of Christ : Living today with the Virtues of Ancient Knighthood_ (Kindle Edition). West Bow Press. (May 22, 2012). p.xxx. ASIN: B00A4Z2FUY * ^ "No. 30250". _ The London Gazette _ (Supplement). 24 August 1917. p. 8794. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Women Knights". Heraldica.org. Retrieved 2011-08-23.
* Arnold, Benjamin. _German Knighthood, 1050-1300_. Oxford: Clarendon Press , 1985. ISBN 0-19-821960-1 LCCN 85-235009 * Bloch, Marc. _Feudal Society_, 2nd ed. Translated by Manyon. London: Routledge Allfree, Joshua B; Cairns, John. _Warfare in the Medieval World_, UK: Pen & Sword Military, June 2006. ISBN 1-84415-339-8 * Church, S. and Harvey, R. (Eds.) (1994) Medieval knighthood V: papers from the sixth Strawberry Hill Conference 1994. Boydell Press, Woodbidge * Clark, Hugh (1784). _A Concise History of Knighthood: Containing the Religious and Military Orders which have been Instituted in Europe_. London. * Edge, David; John Miles Paddock (1988) _Arms & Armor of the Medieval Knight_. Greenwich, CT: Bison Books Corp. ISBN 0-517-10319-2 * Edwards, J. C. "What Earthly Reason? The replacement of the longbow by handguns." _ Medieval History Magazine _, Is. 7, March 2004. * Embleton, Gerry. _Medieval Military Costume_. UK: Crowood Press, 2001. ISBN 1-86126-371-6 * Forey, Alan John. _The Military Orders: From the Twelfth to the Early Fourteenth Centuries_. Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Macmillan Education, 1992. ISBN 0-333-46234-3 * Hare, Christopher. _Courts & camps of the Italian renaissance_. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. LCCN 08-31670 * Kaeuper, Richard and Kennedy, Elspeth _The Book of Chivalry of Geoffrey De Charny : Text, Context, and Translation._ 1996. * Keen, Maurice. "Chivalry". Yale University Press, 2005. * Laing, Lloyd and Jennifer Laing. _Medieval Britain: The Age of Chivalry_. New York: St. Martin\'s Press , 1996. ISBN 0-312-16278-2 * Oakeshott, Ewart . _A Knight and his Horse_, 2nd ed. Chester Springs, PA: Dufour Editions, 1998. ISBN 0-8023-1297-7 LCCN 98-32049 * Robards, Brooks. _The Medieval Knight at War_. London: Tiger Books, 1997. ISBN 1-85501-919-1 * Shaw, William A. (1906). _The Knights of England: A Complete Record from the Earliest Time_. London: Central Chancery. (Republished Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1970). ISBN 0-8063-0443-X LCCN 74-129966 * Williams, Alan. "The Metallurgy of Medieval Arms and Armour", in _Companion to Medieval Arms and Armour_. Nicolle, David , ed. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 2002. ISBN 0-85115-872-2 LCCN 2002-3680
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