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Adelges
''Adelges'' is a genus of insects which feed on conifers. Excepting galls formed by the spruce gall midge, galls are caused by aphid-like insects of the superfamily Phylloxeroidea (family Adelgidae) commonly known as the spruce gall adelgids. They have complex life cycles, some species feeding exclusively on spruce, others feeding on spruce and an alternate Pinophyta, conifer. However, galls characteristic of each species are formed only on spruce. Six generations are usually needed to complete the 2-year cycle, and in the case of species having an alternate host, winged adults about 2 mm long are formed only in the generations that move from one host to the other. The spruce gall adelgid (''Adelges lariciatus'' Patch) occurs in alternate years on spruce and larch from Alberta to the Maritimes and in adjacent parts of the United States. The pale spruce gall adelgid (''Adelges strobilobius'' Kaltenbach) has a similar range but prefers Picea mariana, black spruce or Picea rub ...
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Adelges Abietis
The Pineapple gall adelgid (''Adelges abietis'') is a type of conifer-feeding insect that forms pineapple-shaped plant galls on its host species, commonly Norway spruce, Norway and Sitka spruce. The adelgids (genus ''Adelges'') are pear-shaped, soft-bodied green insects with long antennae, closely related to the aphid. "Adelges" lays up to one hundred eggs at a time, one on each needle. ''Adelges abietis'' (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most common species; synonyms are ''A. gallarum-abietis'', ''Chermes abietis'' and ''Sacciphantes abietis''. The pineapple or pseudocone gallDarlington, Arnold (1975) ''The Pocket Encyclopaedia of Plant Galls in Colour.'' Pub. Blandford Press. Poole. . P. 114. is a type of insect-formed gall, or abnormal outgrowth of plant tissue, that develops as a chemically induced distortion of needles, observed mostly on Norway spruce and Sitka spruce. Terminology and distribution Prominent in appearance, the pineapple or pseudocone gall is often confused wi ...
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Pineapple Gall Adelgid
The Pineapple gall adelgid (''Adelges abietis'') is a type of conifer-feeding insect that forms pineapple-shaped plant galls on its host species, commonly Norway spruce, Norway and Sitka spruce. The adelgids (genus ''Adelges'') are pear-shaped, soft-bodied green insects with long antennae, closely related to the aphid. "Adelges" lays up to one hundred eggs at a time, one on each needle. ''Adelges abietis'' (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most common species; synonyms are ''A. gallarum-abietis'', ''Chermes abietis'' and ''Sacciphantes abietis''. The pineapple or pseudocone gallDarlington, Arnold (1975) ''The Pocket Encyclopaedia of Plant Galls in Colour.'' Pub. Blandford Press. Poole. . P. 114. is a type of insect-formed gall, or abnormal outgrowth of plant tissue, that develops as a chemically induced distortion of needles, observed mostly on Norway spruce and Sitka spruce. Terminology and distribution Prominent in appearance, the pineapple or pseudocone gall is often confused wi ...
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Gall Adelgid
The gall adelgid (''Adelges cooleyi'') is an adelgid species that produces gall Galls (from Latin ''galla'', 'oak-apple') or ''cecidia'' (from Greek ''kēkidion'', anything gushing out) are a kind of swelling growth on the external Tissue (biology), tissues of plants, fungi, or animals. Plant galls are abnormal outgrowths ...s in spruce trees. They infect the new bud In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the A ...s of native spruce trees in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with simila ... in the spring. They also attack blue spruce ...
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Adelges Tsugae
The hemlock woolly adelgid (; ''Adelges tsugae''), or HWA, is an insect of the order Hemiptera (true bugs) native to East Asia. It feeds by sucking sap from hemlock and spruce trees (''Tsuga'' spp.; ''Picea'' spp.). In its native range, HWA is not a serious pest because populations are managed by natural predators and parasitoids and by host resistance. In eastern North America it is a destructive Pest (organism), pest that threatens the eastern hemlock (''Tsuga canadensis'') and the Carolina hemlock (''Tsuga caroliniana''). HWA is also found in western North America, where it has likely been present for thousands of years. In western North America, it primarily attacks western hemlock ''Tsuga heterophylla'' and has only caused minor damage due to natural predators and host resistance. Accidentally introduced to North America from Japan, HWA was first found in the eastern United States near Richmond, Virginia, in 1951. The pest is now found from northern Georgia to coastal Mai ...
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Conifer
Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single extant class (biology), class, Pinopsida. All Neontology, extant conifers are perennial plant, perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs. Examples include Cedrus, cedars, Pseudotsuga, Douglas-firs, Cupressaceae, cypresses, firs, junipers, Agathis, kauri, larches, pines, Tsuga, hemlocks, Sequoioideae, redwoods, spruces, and Taxaceae, yews.Campbell, Reece, "Phylum Coniferophyta". Biology. 7th. 2005. Print. P. 595 As of 1998, the division Pinophyta was estimated to contain eight families, 68 genera, and 629 living species. Although the total number of species is relatively small, conifers are ecology, ecologically important. They are the dominant plants over large areas of land, most no ...
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Spruce Gall Midge
''Mayetiola piceae'', the spruce gall midge, is a species of gall-forming flies in the Cecidomyiidae family. An outbreak of spruce gall midge occurred in northern Alberta and adjacent areas in the Northwest Territories in 1992 (Brandt 2000).Brandt, J.P. 2000. A sequential sampling plan for classification of damage caused by spruce gall midge (''Mayetiola piceae'' [Felt]). Nat. Resour. Can., Can. For. Serv., Edmonton AB, For. Manage. Note 65. 7 p. The infestation was widespread in white spruce stands, with 84% of surveyed sites infested and twig mortality as high as 81% among current-year shoots. Earlier, Rose and Lindquist (1985)Rose, A.H.; Lindquist, O.H. 1985. Insects of eastern spruces, fir and, hemlock, revised edition. Gov’t Can., Can. For. Serv., Ottawa, For. Tech. Rep. 23. 159 p. (cited in Coates et al. 1994, cited orig ed 1977) had noted that severe injury to spruce is unusual, and had been recorded only from a number of locations in Yukon Territory. Levels of damage in ...
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Phylloxeroidea
The PhylloxeroideaHerrich-Schaeffer (1854) In Koch. ''Vorwort des Herausgebers. Die Pflanzenläuse Aphiden getreu nach dem Leben abgebildet und beschrieben, Verlag von J. L. Lotzbeck, Nürnberg'' 1:III-VIII is a small superfamily of the Hemiptera within the infraorder Aphidomorpha which is closely related to the aphids which are traditionally included in the Aphidoidea, which is the sister taxon. The two extant families are the pine and spruce aphids (Adelgidae, including the former family Chermesidae, or "Chermidae") and the phylloxerans (Phylloxeridae), including Phylloxera, vine phylloxera, a serious pest of grapevines. References External links Aphid species file
* * Phylloxeroidea, Sternorrhyncha Agricultural pest insects {{Sternorrhyncha-stub ...
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Adelgidae
The Adelgidae are a small family of the Hemiptera closely related to the aphids, and often included in the Aphidoidea with the Phylloxeridae or placed within the superfamily Phylloxeroidea as a sister of the Aphidoidea within the infraorder Aphidomorpha. The family is composed of species associated with pine, spruce, or other conifers, known respectively as "pine aphids" or "spruce aphids". This family includes the former family Chermesidae, or "Chermidae", the name of which was declared invalid by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, ICZN in 1955. There is still considerable debate as to the number of genera within the family, and the classification is still unstable and inconsistent among competing authors. There are about fifty species of adelgids known. All of them are native to the northern hemisphere, although some have been introduced to the southern hemisphere as invasive species. Unlike aphids, the adelgids have no tail-like Cauda (other), c ...
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Spruce
A spruce is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ... of the genus ''Picea'' , a genus of about 35 species of conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single e ...ous evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ... trees in the family Pinaceae The Pinaceae, pine family, are conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyt ...
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Pinophyta
Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants The spermatophytes (; ), also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to E ..., a subset of gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also ...s. Scientifically, they make up the division Division or divider may refer to: Mathematics *Division (mathematics), the inverse of multiplication *Division algorithm, a method for computing the result of mathematical division Military *Division (military), a formation typically consisting o ... Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single extant class Class or Th ...
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Picea Mariana
''Picea mariana'', the black spruce, is a North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...n species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ... of spruce A spruce is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including ... tree in the pine family. It is widespread across Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a contin ...
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Picea Rubens
A spruce is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ... of the genus ''Picea'' , a genus of about 35 species of conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single ex ...ous evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ... trees in the family Pinaceae The Pinaceae, pine family, are conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyt ...
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