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Magnetic Stripe Card
The term digital card can refer to a physical item, such as a memory card on a camera, or, increasingly since 2017, to the digital content hosted as a virtual card or cloud card, as a digital virtual representation of a physical card. They share a common purpose: Identity Management, Credit card, or Debit card. A non-physical digital card, unlike a Magnetic stripe card can can emulate (imitate) any kind of card. Other common uses include loyalty card and health insurance card; physical driver's license and Social Security card are still mandated by some government agencies. A smartphone or smartwatch can store content from the card issuer; discount offers and news updates can be transmitted wirelessly, via Internet These virtual cards are used in very high volumes by the mass transit sector, replacing paper based tickets and earlier MagStrip cards. History Magnetic recording on steel tape and wire was invented by Valdemar Poulsen in Denmark around 1900 for recording aud ...
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The New York Times
''The New York Times'' (''the Times'', ''NYT'', or the Gray Lady) is a daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership reported in 2020 to comprise a declining 840,000 paid print subscribers, and a growing 6 million paid digital subscribers. It also is a producer of popular podcasts such as '' The Daily''. Founded in 1851 by Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones, it was initially published by Raymond, Jones & Company. The ''Times'' has won 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any newspaper, and has long been regarded as a national " newspaper of record". For print it is ranked 18th in the world by circulation and 3rd in the U.S. The paper is owned by the New York Times Company, which is publicly traded. It has been governed by the Sulzberger family since 1896, through a dual-class share structure after its shares became publicly traded. A. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher and the company's chairman, is the fifth generation of the family to head the ...
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IEEE
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a 501(c)(3) professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey. The mission of the IEEE is ''advancing technology for the benefit of humanity''. The IEEE was formed from the amalgamation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the Institute of Radio Engineers in 1963. Due to its expansion of scope into so many related fields, it is simply referred to by the letters I-E-E-E (pronounced I-triple-E), except on legal business documents. , it is the world's largest association of technical professionals with more than 423,000 members in over 160 countries around the world. Its objectives are the educational and technical advancement of electrical and electronic engineering, telecommunications, computer engineering and similar disciplines. History ...
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Magnetic Storage
Magnetic storage or magnetic recording is the storage of data on a magnetized medium. Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetisation in a magnetizable material to store data and is a form of non-volatile memory. The information is accessed using one or more read/write heads. Magnetic storage media, primarily hard disks, are widely used to store computer data as well as audio and video signals. In the field of computing, the term ''magnetic storage'' is preferred and in the field of audio and video production, the term ''magnetic recording'' is more commonly used. The distinction is less technical and more a matter of preference. Other examples of magnetic storage media include floppy disks, magnetic tape, and magnetic stripes on credit cards. History Magnetic storage in the form of wire recording—audio recording on a wire—was publicized by Oberlin Smith in the Sept 8, 1888 issue of ''Electrical World''. Smith had previously filed a patent in September, 187 ...
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Google Wallet
Google Wallet (or simply Wallet) is a digital wallet platform developed by Google. It is available for the Android, Wear OS, and Fitbit OS operating systems, and was announced on May 11, 2022, at the 2022 Google I/O keynote. It began rolling out on Android smartphones on July 18, co-existing with the 2020 Google Pay app and replacing the 2018 one. History The "Google Wallet" brand name was first used for the company's mobile payment system of the same name, which was introduced in 2011 before being merged with Android Pay into a new app called Google Pay in 2018. The old Wallet app, with its functionality reduced to a peer-to-peer payments service, was rebranded Google Pay Send before it was discontinued as well in 2020. In 2020, the Google Pay app underwent an extensive redesign based on Google's India-focused Tez app, expanding into an all-encompassing personal finance app. This replaced the Tez app on the Play Store, while the 2018 Google Pay app continued to ...
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Google
Google LLC () is an American Multinational corporation, multinational technology company focusing on Search Engine, search engine technology, online advertising, cloud computing, software, computer software, quantum computing, e-commerce, artificial intelligence, and Computer hardware, consumer electronics. It has been referred to as "the most powerful company in the world" and one of the world's List of most valuable brands, most valuable brands due to its market dominance, data collection, and technological advantages in the area of artificial intelligence. Its parent company Alphabet Inc., Alphabet is considered one of the Big Tech, Big Five American information technology companies, alongside Amazon (company), Amazon, Apple Inc., Apple, Meta Platforms, Meta, and Microsoft. Google was founded on September 4, 1998, by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Doctor of Philosophy, PhD students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14% of its publicl ...
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Handhelds
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer small enough to hold and operate in the hand. Mobile devices typically have a flat LCD or OLED screen, a touchscreen interface, and digital or physical buttons. They may also have a physical keyboard. Many such devices can connect to the Internet and connect with other devices such as car entertainment systems or headsets via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular networks or near field communication (NFC). Integrated cameras, the ability to place and receive voice and video telephone calls, video games, and Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities are common. Power is typically provided by a lithium-ion battery. Mobile devices may run mobile operating systems that allow third-party applications to be installed and run. Early smartphones were joined in the late 2000s by larger tablets. Input and output is usually via a touch-screen interface. Phones/tablets and personal digital assistants may provide much of the functionality of a l ...
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ISO/IEC 4909
ISO/IEC 4909 is a 2006 international standard produced by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for ''Identification cards — Financial transaction cards — Magnetic stripe data content for track 3''. It was reviewed in 2018. The original ISO 4909 standard appeared in 1987. It is one of a number of international bank card standards. The standard is used for credit cards. The standard has been adopted in many countries, including (for example) Denmark, Germany, India, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales and ..., etc. References 2006 introductions #04909 Identity documents Payment cards Magnetic devices {{engineering-stub ...
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ISO 8583
ISO 8583 is an international standard for ''financial transaction card originated'' interchange messaging. It is the International Organization for Standardization standard for systems that exchange electronic transactions initiated by cardholders using payment cards. ISO 8583 defines a message format and a communication flow so that different systems can exchange these transaction requests and responses. The vast majority of transactions made when a customer uses a card to make a payment in a store ( EFTPOS) use ISO 8583 at some point in the communication chain, as do transactions made at ATMs. In particular, the Mastercard, Visa and Verve networks base their authorization communications on the ISO 8583 standard, as do many other institutions and networks. Although ISO 8583 defines a common standard, it is not typically used directly by systems or networks. It defines many standard fields (data elements) which remain the same in all systems or networks, and leaves a few ad ...
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ISO/IEC 7813
ISO/IEC 7813 is an international standard codified by the International Organization for Standardization and International Electrotechnical Commission that defines properties of financial transaction cards, such as ATM or credit cards. Scope The standard defines: * physical characteristics, such as size, shape, location of magnetic stripe, etc. * magnetic track data structures Physical characteristics ISO/IEC 7813 specifies the following physical characteristics of the card, mostly by reference to other standards: ; Embossed characters : by reference to ISO/IEC 7811 ; Embossing of expiration date : the format (MM/YY or MM-YY) ; Magnetic stripe : by reference to ISO/IEC 7811 ; Integrated circuit with contacts : by reference to ISO/IEC 7816-1 ; Integrated circuit without contacts : by reference to ISO/IEC 10536-1, ISO/IEC 14443-1, and ISO/IEC 15693-1 Magnetic tracks Track 1 The Track 1 structure is specified as: * STX : Start sentinel "%" * FC : Format code "B" (The format ...
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ISO/IEC 7812
ISO/IEC 7812 ''Identification cards – Identification of issuers'' is an international standard published jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). It specifies "a numbering system for the identification of the card issuers, the format of the issuer identification number (IIN) and the primary account number (PAN)", and procedures for registering IINs. It was first published in 1989. ISO/IEC 7812 has two parts: * ''Part 1: Numbering system'' * ''Part 2: Application and registration procedures'' The registration authority for Issuer Identification Numbers (IINs) is the American Bankers Association. An IIN is currently six digits in length. The leading digit is the ''major industry identifier'' (MII), followed by 5 digits, which together make up the IIN. This IIN is paired with an ''individual account identification'' number, and a single digit checksum. In 2015, the industry began work on implem ...
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