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Grpe
GrpE (''Gro-P'' like protein E) is a bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell The cell (from Latin ''cella'', meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. Cells are the sm ...l nucleotide exchange factor Nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) are proteins that stimulate the exchange (replacement) of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins. Function Many cellular proteins cleave (hydrolysis, hydrolyze) nucleoside tr ... that is important for regulation of protein folding Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that are comprised of one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a vast array of func ... machinery, as well as the heat shock responseThe heat shock response (HSR) is a cell stress response that incre ...
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Chaperone DnaJ
In molecular biology, chaperone DnaJ, also known as Hsp40 (heat shock protein 40 kD), is a molecular chaperone protein. It is expressed in a wide variety of organisms from bacteria to humans. Function Molecular chaperones are a diverse family of proteins that function to protect proteins from irreversible aggregation during synthesis and in times of cellular stress. The bacterial molecular chaperone Hsp70, DnaK is an enzyme that couples cycles of Adenosine triphosphate, ATP binding, hydrolysis, and Adenosine diphosphate, ADP release by an N-terminal ATP-hydrolyzing domain to cycles of sequestration and release of unfolded proteins by a C-terminal substrate binding domain. Dimeric GrpE is the co-chaperone for DnaK, and acts as a nucleotide exchange factor, stimulating the rate of ADP release 5000-fold. DnaK is itself a weak ATPase; ATP hydrolysis by DnaK is stimulated by its interaction with another co-chaperone, DnaJ. Thus the co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE are capable of tightly re ...
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Bacteria
Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, Hot spring, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep biosphere of Earth's crust. Bacteria are vital in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients such as the nitrogen fixation, fixation of nitrogen from the Earth's atmosphere, atmosphere. The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of cadaver, dead bodies; bacteria are responsible for the putrefaction stage in this process. In the biological communities surrounding hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, extremophile bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, ...
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Transient Kinetic Isotope Fractionation
Transient kinetic isotope effects (or fractionation) occur when the Chemical reaction, reaction leading to isotope fractionation does not follow pure First order kinetics, first-order kinetics and therefore isotopic effects cannot be described with the classical equilibrium fractionation equations or with steady-state Kinetic isotope effect, kinetic fractionation equations (also known as the Rayleigh equation). In these instances, the general equations for biochemical isotope kinetics (GEBIK) and the general equations for biochemical isotope fractionation (GEBIF) can be used. The GEBIK and GEBIF equations are the most generalized approach to describe isotopic effects in any Chemical reaction, chemical, Chemical reaction#Catalysis, catalytic reaction and Chemical reaction#Biochemical reactions, biochemical reactions because they can describe isotopic effects in equilibrium reactions, kinetic chemical reactions and kinetic biochemical reactions. In the latter two cases, they can des ...
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Eukaryote
Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological me ...s whose cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religious recluse lives * Prison cell, a room used to hold peopl ... have a nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic cell, containing most of the cell's DNA ... enclosed within a nuclear envelope The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) ...
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BAG1
BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ''BAG1'' gene. Function The oncogene BCL2 is a membrane protein that blocks a step in a pathway leading to apoptosis or programmed cell death. The protein encoded by this gene binds to BCL2 and is referred to as BCL2-associated athanogene. It enhances the anti-apoptotic effects of BCL2 and represents a link between growth factor receptors and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. At least three protein isoforms are encoded by this mRNA through the use of alternative Translation (biology), translation initiation sites, including a non-start codon, AUG site. Clinical significance BAG gene has been implicated in age related neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's. It has been demonstrated that BAG1 and BAG 3 regulate the proteasome, proteasomal and lysosome, lysosomal protein elimination pathways, respectively. Interactions BAG1 has been shown to Protein-protein interaction, interact with: * An ...
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Mitochondrion
A mitochondrion (; ) is a double-membrane A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or other small particles. Biological membranes include cell membranes (outer coverings of cells or organelles that all ...-bound organelle In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, ... found in most eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ... organisms. Mitochondria generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an organic compound In , ...
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Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'' () is a species of yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classifie ... (single-celled fungus A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ve ... microorganisms). The species has been instrumental in winemaking Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its Ethanol fermentation, fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid. The history of wine-making stretches over millennia. The ..., baking Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, ...
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Protease
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme Enzymes () are s that act as s (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate . The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called , and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as . Almost all in the need in order to occu ... that catalyzes that utilizes a low-temperature oxidation catalyst to convert carbon monoxide to less toxic carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is a colorless gas with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide molecules ... (increases reaction rate has a ''low'' reaction rate. This process is slow. The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the IUPAC nomenclature for organic transformations, chemical trans ... or "speeds up") proteolysis Proteolysis is the breakdown of protein Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that ...
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Sigma Factor
A sigma factor (σ factor or specificity factor) is a protein needed for initiation of transcription in bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typ .... It is a bacterial transcription Bacterial transcription is the process in which a segment of bacterial DNA is copied into a newly synthesized strand of messenger RNA Image:MRNA-interaction.png, 500px, The "life cycle" of an mRNA in a eukaryote, eukaryotic cell. RNA is transcripti ... initiation factor that enables specific binding of RNA polymerase In molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology that seeks to understand the molecule, molecular basis of biological activity in and between Cell (biology), cells, including biomolecule, molecular synthesis, modification, m ... (RNAP) to gene promote ...
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RNA Polymerase
In molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology that seeks to understand the molecule, molecular basis of biological activity in and between Cell (biology), cells, including biomolecule, molecular synthesis, modification, mechanisms, and interaction ..., RNA polymerase (abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, and officially DNA-directed (dependent) RNA polymerase), is an enzyme Enzymes () are protein Proteins are large s and s that comprise one or more long chains of . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including , , , providing and , and from one location to another. Proteins diff ... that synthesizes RNA from a DNA template. Using the enzyme helicase, RNAP locally opens the double-stranded DNA so that one strand of the exposed nucleotides can be used as a template for the synthesis of RNA, a process called transcription (biology), transcription. A transcription factor and its associated transcription mediator complex must be ...
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TATA Box
In molecular biology, the TATA box (also called the Goldberg–Hogness box) is a DNA sequence, sequence of DNA found in the Promoter (genetics), core promoter region of genes in archaea and eukaryotes. The bacterial homolog of the TATA box is called the Pribnow box which has a shorter consensus sequence. The TATA box is considered a Noncoding DNA, non-coding DNA Nucleic acid sequence, sequence (also known as a cis-regulatory element). It was termed the "TATA box" as it contains a consensus sequence characterized by repeating T and A base pairs. How the term "box" originated is unclear. In the 1980s, while investigating Nucleic acid sequence, nucleotide sequences in mouse genome Locus (genetics), loci, the Hogness box sequence was found and "boxed in" at the -31 position. When Consensus sequence, consensus nucleotides and alternative ones were compared, homologous regions were "boxed" by the researchers. The boxing in of sequences sheds light on the origin of the term "box". The ...
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Promoter (genetics)
In genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, ..., a promoter is a sequence of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral gro ... to which proteins bind that initiate transcription of a single RNA Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many Re ... from the DNA downstream of it. This RNA may encode a protein, or can have a function in and of itself, such as tRNA T ...
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