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Dynamic Linking
In computing, a dynamic linker is the part of an operating system that Loader (computing), loads and Linker (computing), links the shared libraries needed by an executable when it is executed (at "Run time (program lifecycle phase), run time"), by copying the content of libraries from persistent storage to RAM, filling jump tables and relocating Pointer (computer programming), pointers. The specific operating system and executable format determine how the dynamic linker functions and how it is implemented. Linking is often referred to as a process that is performed when the executable is compile time, compiled, while a dynamic linker is a special part of an operating system that loads external shared libraries into a running Process (computing), process and then Dynamic dispatch, binds those shared libraries dynamically to the running process. This approach is also called dynamic linking or late linking. Implementations Microsoft Windows Dynamic-link library, or DLL, is Mic ...
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Computing
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computer, computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes, and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. Computing has scientific, engineering, mathematical, technological and social aspects. Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, computer science, cybersecurity, data science, information systems, information technology and software engineering. The term "computing" is also synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by Mechanical computer, mechanical computing machines, and before that, to human computers. History The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper (or for chalk and slate) with or without the aid of tables. Computing is intimately tied to the represe ...
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OS/2
OS/2 (Operating System/2) is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci. As a result of a feud between the two companies over how to position OS/2 relative to Microsoft's new Windows 3.1 operating environment, the two companies severed the relationship in 1992 and OS/2 development fell to IBM exclusively. The name stands for "Operating System/2", because it was introduced as part of the same generation change release as IBM's "IBM Personal System/2, Personal System/2 (PS/2)" line of second-generation personal computers. The first version of OS/2 was released in December 1987 and newer versions were released until December 2001. OS/2 was intended as a protected mode, protected-mode successor of IBM PC DOS, PC DOS. Notably, basic system calls were modeled after MS-DOS calls; their names even started with "Dos" and it was possible to create "Family Mode" applications – text mode ap ...
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File Format
A file format is a Computer standard, standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It specifies how bits are used to encode information in a digital storage medium. File formats may be either proprietary format, proprietary or open format, free. Some file formats are designed for very particular types of data: Portable Network Graphics, PNG files, for example, store Raster graphics, bitmapped Graphics file format, images using lossless data compression. Other file formats, however, are designed for storage of several different types of data: the Ogg format can act as a container format (digital), container for different types of multimedia including any combination of sound, audio and video, with or without text (such as subtitles), and metadata. A text file can contain any stream of characters, including possible control characters, and is encoded in one of various Character encoding, character encoding schemes. Some file formats, such as HTML, sca ...
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Computer File
A computer file is a System resource, computer resource for recording Data (computing), data in a Computer data storage, computer storage device, primarily identified by its Filename, file name. Just as words can be written to paper, so can data be written to a computer file. Files can be shared with and transferred between computers and mobile devices via removable media, Computer networks, networks, or the Internet. Different File format, types of computer files are designed for different purposes. A file may be designed to store an Digital image, Image, a written message, a Digital video, video, a computer program, or any wide variety of other kinds of data. Certain files can store multiple data types at once. By using computer programs, a person can open, read, change, save, and close a computer file. Computer files may be reopened, modified, and file copying, copied an arbitrary number of times. Files are typically organized in a file system, which tracks file locations on ...
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Resource (Windows)
In Microsoft Windows Windows is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporatio ..., resources are read-only data In the pursuit of knowledge, data (; ) is a collection of discrete values that convey information, describing quantity, quality, fact, statistics, other basic units of meaning, or simply sequences of symbols that may be further interp ... embedded in portable executable The Portable Executable (PE) format is a file format for executables, object file, object code, Dynamic-link library, DLLs and others used in 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Microsoft Windows, Windows operating systems. The PE format is a data str ... files like .exe, DLL, CPL, SCR, SYS or (beginning with Windows Vista) MUI files. The Windows API The Windows API, informally WinAPI, is Microsoft ...
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Data (computing)
In computer science, data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols; datum is a single symbol of data. Data requires interpretation to become information. Digital data is data that is represented using the binary number system of ones (1) and zeros (0), instead of analog signal, analog representation. In modern (post-1960) computer systems, all data is digital. Data exists in three states: data at rest, data in transit and data in use. Data within a computer, in most cases, Parallel communication, moves as parallel data. Data moving to or from a computer, in most cases, Serial communication, moves as serial data. Data sourced from an analog device, such as a temperature sensor, may be converted to digital using an analog-to-digital converter. Data representing Quantity, quantities, characters, or symbols on which operations are performed by a computer are Data storage, stored and Record (computer science), recorded on magnetic tape ...
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Machine Code
In computer programming Computer programming is the process of performing a particular computation (or more generally, accomplishing a specific computing result), usually by designing and building an executable computer program. Programming involves tasks such as anal ..., machine code is any low-level programming language, consisting of machine language instructions, which are used to control a computer's central processing unit A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just Processor (computing), processor, is the electronic circuitry that executes Instruction (computing), instructions comprising a computer program. The CPU per ... (CPU). Each instruction causes the CPU to perform a very specific task, such as a load, a store, a jump, or an arithmetic logic unit In computing, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a Combinational logic, combinational digital circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer ...
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16-bit
16-bit microcomputers are microcomputers that use 16-bit microprocessors. A 16-bit register can store 216 different values. The range (computer programming), range of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits depends on the Integer (computer science)#Value and representation, integer representation used. With the two most common representations, the range is 0 through 65,535 (216 − 1) for representation as an (signedness, unsigned) binary number, and −32,768 (−1 × 215) through 32,767 (215 − 1) for representation as two's complement. Since 216 is 65,536, a processor with 16-bit memory addresses can directly access 64 kilobyte, KB (65,536 bytes) of Byte addressing, byte-addressable memory. If a system uses Memory segmentation, segmentation with 16-bit segment offsets, more can be accessed. 16-bit architecture The Whirlwind I, MIT Whirlwind ( 1951) was quite possibly the first-ever 16-bit computer. It was an unusual word size for the era; most systems used six-bit chara ...
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New Executable
The New Executable (abbreviated NE or NewEXE) is a 16-bit 16-bit microcomputers are microcomputers that use 16-bit microprocessors. A 16-bit register can store 216 different values. The range (computer programming), range of integer values that can be stored in 16 bits depends on the Integer (computer ... .exe file format A file format is a Computer standard, standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It specifies how bits are used to encode information in a digital storage medium. File formats may be either proprietary format, pr ..., a successor to the DOS MZ executable format. It was used in Windows Windows is a group of several Proprietary software, proprietary graphical user interface, graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. For example, W ... 1.0–3.x, Windows 9x Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microso ...
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64-bit
In computer architecture, 64-bit Integer (computer science), integers, memory addresses, or other Data (computing), data units are those that are 64 bits wide. Also, 64-bit central processing unit, CPUs and arithmetic logic unit, ALUs are those that are based on processor registers, address buses, or Bus (computing), data buses of that size. A computer that uses such a processor is a 64-bit computer. From the software perspective, 64-bit computing means the use of machine code with 64-bit virtual memory addresses. However, not all 64-bit instruction sets support full 64-bit virtual memory addresses; x86-64 and ARMv8, for example, support only 48 bits of virtual address, with the remaining 16 bits of the virtual address required to be all 0's or all 1's, and several 64-bit instruction sets support fewer than 64 bits of physical memory address. The term ''64-bit'' also describes a generation of computers in which 64-bit processors are the norm. 64 bits is a Word (computer archit ...
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32-bit
In computer architecture In computer engineering, computer architecture is a description of the structure of a computer system made from component parts. It can sometimes be a high-level description that ignores details of the implementation. At a more detailed level, the ..., 32-bit computing refers to computer systems with a processor, memory Memory is the faculty of the mind by which data or information is Encoding (memory), encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If Foresight (psycholo ..., and other major system components that operate on data in 32- bit units. Compared to smaller bit widths, 32-bit computers can perform large calculations more efficiently and process more data per clock cycle. Typical 32-bit personal computers also have a 32-bit address bus In computer architecture, a bus (shortened form of the Latin ''wikt:omnibus, omnibus'', and historically also ...
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Portable Executable
The Portable Executable (PE) format is a file format for executables, object file, object code, Dynamic-link library, DLLs and others used in 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Microsoft Windows, Windows operating systems. The PE format is a data structure that encapsulates the information necessary for the Windows OS loader to manage the wrapped Executable, executable code. This includes Library (computer science)#Dynamic linking, dynamic library references for linking, Application programming interface, API export and import tables, resource management data and thread-local storage (TLS) data. On Windows NT, NT operating systems, the PE format is used for EXE, Dynamic-link library, DLL, .sys, SYS (device driver), .mui, MUI and other file types. The Unified Extensible Firmware Interface, Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) specification states that PE is the standard executable format in EFI environments. On Windows NT operating systems, PE currently supports the x86-32, x86 ...
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