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Data Binning
Data binning, also called discrete binning or bucketing, is a data pre-processingData preprocessing is an important step in the data mining process. The phrase GIGO, "garbage in, garbage out" is particularly applicable to data mining and machine learning projects. Data collection, Data-gathering methods are often loosely controll ... technique used to reduce the effects of minor observation errors. The original data values which fall into a given small interval, a bin, are replaced by a value representative of that interval, often the central value. It is a form of quantization. Statistical data binning is a way to group numbers of more or less continuous values into a smaller number of "bins". For example, if you have data about a group of people, you might want to arrange their ages into a smaller number of age intervals (for example, grouping every five years together). It can also be used in multivariate statistics Multivariate statistics is a subdivision of statistics ...
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Data Pre-processing
Data preprocessing can refer to manipulation or dropping of data before it is used in order to ensure or enhance performance, and is an important step in the data mining Data mining is a process of extracting and discovering patterns in large data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sens ... process. The phrase "garbage in, garbage out" is particularly applicable to data mining Data mining is a process of extracting and discovering patterns in large data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sens ... and machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorit ...
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Pattern Recognition
Pattern recognition is the automated recognition of pattern A pattern is a regularity in the world, in human-made design, or in abstract ideas. As such, the elements of a pattern repeat in a predictable manner. A geometric pattern is a kind of pattern formed of geometric Geometry (from the grc, γ ...s and regularities in data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), variables about one or .... It has applications in statistical data analysis Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modelling In general, a model is an informative representation of an object, person or system. The term originally denoted the plans of a building in late 16th-century Engl ..., signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering Electrical engineering ...
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Level Of Measurement
Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables. Psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens Stanley Smith Stevens (November 4, 1906 – January 18, 1973) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of ... developed the best-known classification with four levels, or scales, of measurement: nominal, ordinal Ordinal may refer to: * Ordinal data, a statistical data type consisting of numerical scores that exist on an arbitrary numerical scale * Ordinal date, a simple form of expressing a date using only the year and the day number within that year * Or ..., interval, and ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges ...
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Grouped Data
Grouped data are data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used ... formed by aggregating individual observations Observation is the active acquisition of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. Th ... of a variable into groups, so that a frequency distributionIn statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a ... of these groups serves as a convenient means of summarizing or analyzing Analysis is the process of break ...
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Scikit-learn
Scikit-learn (formerly scikits.learn and also known as sklearn) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty ... machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data ... library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily basis. A library provi ... for the Python Python may refer to: * Pythonidae The Pythonidae, commonly known as pythons, are a family of nonvenomous ...
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LightGBM
LightGBM, short for Light Gradient Boosting Machine, is a free and open source distributed gradient boosting framework for machine learning originally developed by Microsoft. It is based on decision tree algorithms and used for Learning to rank, ranking, Statistical classification, classification and other machine learning tasks. The development focus is on performance and scalability. Overview The LightGBM framework supports different algorithms including GBT, GBDT, Gradient-Boosted Regression Trees, GBRT, Gradient Boosting Machine, GBM, Multiple Additive Regression Trees, MART and Random forest, RF. LightGBM has many of XGBoost's advantages, including sparse optimization, parallel training, multiple loss functions, regularization, bagging, and early stopping. A major difference between the two lies in the construction of trees. LightGBM does not grow a tree level-wise — row by row — as most other implementations do. Instead it grows trees leaf-wise. It chooses the leaf it bel ...
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Microsoft
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office Productivity software#Office suite, suite, and the Internet Explorer and Microsoft Edge, Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers. Microsoft ranked No. 21 in the 2020 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue; it was the world's List of the largest software companies, largest software maker by revenue as of 2016. It is considered one of the Big Tech, Big Five companies in the U.S. information technology industry, along with Amazon (company), Amazon, Alphabet Inc., Alphabet (Google), Apple Inc., Apple, an ...
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Boosting (machine Learning)
In machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data ..., boosting is an ensemble Ensemble may refer to: Art * Musical ensemble * Ensemble cast (drama, comedy) * Ensemble (musical theatre), also known as the chorus * Ensemble (band), a project of Olivier Alary * Ensemble (album), ''Ensemble'' (album), Kendji Girac 2015 album ... meta-algorithm for primarily reducing bias Bias is a disproportionate weight ''in favor of'' or ''against'' an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded Open-mindedness is receptiveness to new ideas. Open-mindedness relates to the way in which people approach the views and kn ..., and also variance in supervised learning Supervised learning (SL) is the machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of compute ...
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Digital Camera
A digital camera is a camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and t ... that captures photographs in digital memory Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic semiconductor device A semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conduc .... Most cameras produced today are digital, largely replacing those that capture images on photographic film Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent coated on one side with a containing microscopically small light-sensitive crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast, and of the .... Digital cameras are now widely incorporated into mo ...
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Atomic Mass Unit
The dalton or unified atomic mass unit (symbols: Da or u) is a unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action, a discrete piece of action (or beat) in a theatrical presentation Music * Unit (album), ... of mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ... widely used in physics and chemistry. It is defined as of the mass of an unbound neutral atom of carbon-12 Carbon-12 (12C) is the more abundant of the two Stable isotope, stable isotopes of carbon (carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the Periodic table, element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is crea ... in its nuclear and electronic ground state The ...
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Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that is used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio The mass-to-charge ratio (''m''/''Q'') is a physical quantity A physical quantity is a physical property of a material or system that can be Quantification (science), quantified by measurement. A physical quantity can be expressed as a ''value'', ... of ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ...s. The results are presented as a ''mass spectrum mass spectrum of toluene Toluene (), also known as toluol (), is an aromatic hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, Water (molecule), water-insoluble liquid with the smell associated with paint thinners. It is a mono-substituted benzene derivative, con ...'', a plot of intensity as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. Mass spectrome ...
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Chemical Shift
In nuclear magnetic resonance Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ... (NMR) spectroscopy, the chemical shift is the resonant frequency Resonance describes the phenomenon of increased amplitude The amplitude of a Periodic function, periodic Variable (mathematics), variable is a measure of its change in a single Period (mathematics), period (such as frequency, time or Wavelen ... of a nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic cell, containing most of the cell's DNA ... relative to a standard in a magnetic field. Often the position and number of chemical shifts are diagnostic of the structure of ...
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