Food Additive
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Food Additive
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve Taste, flavor or enhance taste, appearance, or other sensory qualities. Some additives have been used for centuries as part of an effort to preserve food, for example vinegar (pickling), salt (salting), smoke (Smoking (cooking), smoking), sugar (crystallization), etc. This allows for longer-lasting foods such as bacon, Candy, sweets or wines. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the twentieth century, many additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin. Food additives also include substances that may be introduced to food indirectly (called "indirect additives") in the manufacturing process, through food packaging, packaging, or during storage or transport. Numbering To regulate these additives and inform consumers, each additive is assigned a unique number called an "E number", which is used in Europe for all approved additives. This numbering scheme has now been adopted and exte ...
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Acetic Acid
Acetic acid , systematically named ethanoic acid , is an acidic, colourless liquid and organic compound with the chemical formula (also written as , , or ). Vinegar is at least 4% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water and other trace elements. Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid (after formic acid). It is an important chemical reagent and industrial chemical, used primarily in the production of cellulose acetate for photographic film, polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, and synthetic fibres and fabrics. In households, diluted acetic acid is often used in descaling agents. In the food industry, acetic acid is controlled by the food additive code E260 as an acidity regulator and as a condiment. In biochemistry, the acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A, it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. The global demand for acetic aci ...
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Fumaric Acid
Fumaric acid is an organic compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. A white solid, fumaric acid occurs widely in nature. It has a fruit-like taste and has been used as a food additive. Its E number is E297. The salts and esters are known as fumarates. Fumarate can also refer to the ion (in solution). Fumaric acid is the trans isomer of butenedioic acid, while maleic acid is the cis isomer. Biosynthesis and occurrence It is produced in eukaryotic organisms from succinate in complex 2 of the electron transport chain via the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. It is one of two isomeric unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, the other being maleic acid. In fumaric acid the carboxylic acid groups are ''trans'' (''E'') and in maleic acid they are ''cis'' (''Z''). Fumaric acid is found in fumitory (''Fumaria officinalis''), bolete mushrooms (specifically ''Boletus fomentarius var. pseudo-igniarius''), lichen, and Iceland moss. Fumarate is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle us ...
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Malic Acid
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula . It is a dicarboxylic acid that is made by all living organisms, contributes to the sour taste of fruits, and is used as a food additive. Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. The salts and esters of malic acid are known as malates. The malate anion is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. Etymology The word 'malic' is derived from Latin ' mālum', meaning 'apple'. The related Latin word , meaning 'apple tree', is used as the name of the genus ''Malus'', which includes all apples and crabapples; and the origin of other taxonomic classifications such as Maloideae, Malinae, and Maleae. Biochemistry L-Malic acid is the naturally occurring form, whereas a mixture of L- and D-malic acid is produced synthetically. File:L-Äpfelsäure.svg, L-Malic acid File:D-Äpfelsäure.svg, D-Malic acid Malate plays an important role in biochemistry. In the C4 ...
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Tartaric Acid
Tartaric acid is a white, crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds, and citrus. Its salt, potassium bitartrate, commonly known as cream of tartar, develops naturally in the process of fermentation. It is commonly mixed with sodium bicarbonate and is sold as baking powder used as a leavening agent in food preparation. The acid itself is added to foods as an antioxidant E334 and to impart its distinctive sour taste. Naturally occurring tartaric acid is a useful raw material in organic chemical synthesis. Tartaric acid is an alpha-hydroxy-carboxylic acid, is diprotic and aldaric in acid characteristics, and is a dihydroxyl derivative of succinic acid. History Tartaric acid has been known to winemakers for centuries. However, the chemical process for extraction was developed in 1769 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Tartaric acid played an important role in the discovery of chemical ...
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Citric Acid
Citric acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula HOC(CO2H)(CH2CO2H)2. It is a colorless weak organic acid. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms. More than two million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring, and a chelating agent. A citrate is a derivative of citric acid; that is, the salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion found in solution. An example of the former, a salt is trisodium citrate; an ester is triethyl citrate. When part of a salt, the formula of the citrate anion is written as or . Natural occurrence and industrial production Citric acid occurs in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. Lemons and limes have particularly high concentrations of the acid; it can constitute as much as 8% of the dry weight of these fruits (about 47 g/ ...
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Acidulant
Acidulants are chemical compounds that give a tart, sour, or acidic flavor to foods or enhance the perceived sweetness of foods. Acidulants can also function as leavening agents and emulsifiers in some kinds of processed foods.Berry, S.K.. (2001). Role of acidulants in food industry. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 38. 93-104. Though acidulants can lower pH they do differ from acidity regulators, which are food additives specifically intended to modify the stability of food or enzymes within it. Typical acidulants are acetic acid (e.g. in pickles) and citric acid. Many beverages, such as colas, contain phosphoric acid. Sour candies often are formulated with malic acid.Erich Lück and Gert-Wolfhard von Rymon Lipinski "Foods, 3. Food Additives" in ''Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry'', 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. Other acidulants used in food production include: fumaric acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid and gluconic acid. See also *Food additive *List of foo ...
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List Of Food Additives
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities. Purposes Additives are used for many purposes but the main uses are: ;Acids : Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants. Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, folic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid. ;Acidity regulators : Acidity regulators are used to change or otherwise control the acidity and alkalinity of foods. ;Anticaking agents : Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking. ;Antifoaming agents : Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods. ;Antioxidants : Antioxidants such as vitamin C act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen on food, and can be beneficial to health. ;Bulking agents : Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its nutritional value. ;Food co ...
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Code Of Federal Regulations
In the law of the United States, the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (''CFR'') is the codification of the general and permanent regulations promulgated by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation. The CFR annual edition is published as a special issue of the '' Federal Register'' by the Office of the Federal Register (part of the National Archives and Records Administration) and the Government Publishing Office. In addition to this annual edition, the CFR is published online on the Electronic CFR (eCFR) website, which is updated daily. Background Congress frequently delegates authority to an executive branch agency to issue regulations to govern some sphere. These statutes are called "enabling legislation." Enabling legislation typically has two parts: a substantive scope (typically using language such as "The Secretary shall promulgate r ...
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Chemical Abstracts Service
CAS (formerly Chemical Abstracts Service) is a division of the American Chemical Society. It is a source of chemical information. CAS is located in Columbus, Ohio, United States. Print periodicals ''Chemical Abstracts'' is a periodical index that provides numerous tools such as SciFinder as well as tagged keywords, summaries, indexes of disclosures, and structures of compounds in recently published scientific documents. Approximately 8,000 journals, technical reports, dissertations, conference proceedings, and new books, available in at least 50 different languages, are monitored yearly, as are patent specifications from 27 countries and two international organizations. ''Chemical Abstracts'' ceased print publication on January 1, 2010. Databases The two principal databases that support the different products are CAplus and Registry. CAS References CAS References consists of bibliographic information and abstracts for all articles in chemical journals worldwide, and chemist ...
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Food And Drug Administration
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA or US FDA) is a federal agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, caffeine products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed and veterinary products. The FDA's primary focus is enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C), but the agency also enforces other laws, notably Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act, as well as associated regulations. Much of this regulatory-enforcement work is not directly related to food or drugs, but involves such things as regulating lasers, cellular phones, and condoms, as well as control of disease in contexts var ...
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