touchscreen
   HOME

TheInfoList



A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an
information processing system An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, sur ...
. The display is often an
LCD display. A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystal Liquid crystals (LCs) are a state of matter ...

LCD
,
AMOLED AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode, ) is a type of OLED display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or T ...
or
OLED An organic light-emitting diode (OLED or organic LED), also known as organic electroluminescent (organic EL) diode, is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound , CH4; is among ...
display while the system is usually a laptop, tablet, or smartphone. A user can give input or control the information processing system through simple or
multi-touch 250px, Finger touching a multi-touch screen In computing, multi-touch is technology that enables a surface (a touchpad or touchscreen) to recognize the presence of more than one somatosensory system, point of contact with the surface at the same t ...
gestures by touching the screen with a special
stylus A stylus (plural styli or styluses) is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery. It can also be a computer accessory that is used to assist in navigating or providing more Accuracy and ...
or one or more fingers. Some touchscreens use ordinary or specially coated gloves to work while others may only work using a special stylus or pen. The user can use the touchscreen to react to what is displayed and, if the software allows, to control how it is displayed; for example, zooming to increase the text size. The touchscreen enables the user to interact directly with what is displayed, rather than using a
mouse A mouse, plural mice, is a small mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which i ...
,
touchpad A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen. Touchpa ...

touchpad
, or other such devices (other than a stylus, which is optional for most modern touchscreens). Touchscreens are common in devices such as
game consoles A video game console is an electronic or computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as C ...
,
personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown) A personal com ...
s,
electronic voting machine A voting machine is a machine used to record or tally votes. The first voting machines were mechanical but it is increasingly more common to use electronic voting machines. Traditionally, a voting machine has been defined by its mechanism, and w ...
s, and
point-of-sale The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed. At the point of sale, the merchant calculates the amount owed by the customer, indicates that amount, may prepare an invoice :''S ...
(POS) systems. They can also be attached to computers or, as terminals, to networks. They play a prominent role in the design of digital appliances such as
personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs have been mostly displaced by the widespread adoption of highly capable smartph ...
s (PDAs) and some
e-reader An e-reader, also called an e-book reader or e-book device, is a mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading digital e-book An electronic book, also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made a ...
s. Touchscreens are also important in educational settings such as classrooms or on college campuses. The popularity of smartphones, tablets, and many types of
information appliance A Newton PDA An information appliance (IA) is an appliance that is designed to easily perform a specific electronic function such as playing music, photography Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by ...
s is driving the demand and acceptance of common touchscreens for portable and functional electronics. Touchscreens are found in the medical field,
heavy industry Heavy industry is an Industry (economics), industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and weight, heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, huge buildings and ...
,
automated teller machine An automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine (in British English) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, funds ...
s (ATMs), and kiosks such as museum displays or room automation, where
keyboard
keyboard
and
mouse A mouse, plural mice, is a small mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which i ...
systems do not allow a suitably intuitive, rapid, or accurate interaction by the user with the display's content. Historically, the touchscreen sensor and its accompanying controller-based
firmware In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softwa ...
have been made available by a wide array of after-market
system integrator A systems integrator (or system integrator) is a person or company that specializes in bringing together component subsystems into a whole and ensuring that those subsystems function together, a practice known as system integration. They also solv ...
s, and not by display, chip, or
motherboard A motherboard (also called mainboard, main circuit board, system board, baseboard, planar board, logic board, or mobo) is the main printed circuit board A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electrica ...

motherboard
manufacturers. Display manufacturers and chip manufacturers have acknowledged the trend toward acceptance of touchscreens as a
user interface 300px, The Reactable, an example of a tangible user interface In the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, a user interface (UI) is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction ...
component and have begun to integrate touchscreens into the fundamental design of their products.


History

One predecessor of the modern touch screen includes stylus based systems. In 1946, a patent was filed by Philco Company for a stylus designed for sports telecasting which, when placed against an intermediate cathode ray tube display (CRT) would amplify and add to the original signal. Effectively used for temporarily drawing arrows or circles onto a live television broadcast . Later inventions built upon this system to free telewriting styli from their mechanical bindings. By transcribing what a user draws onto a computer, it could be saved for future use . The first version of a touchscreen which operated independently of the light produced from the screen was patented by
AT&T Corporation AT&T Corporation, originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T Inc. that provides voice, video, data, and Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of ...
. This touchscreen utilized a matrix of collimated lights shining orthogonally across the touch surface. When a beam is interrupted by a stylus, the
photodetectors Photodetectors, also called photosensors, are sensors of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A photo detector has a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion ...
which no longer are receiving a signal can be used to determine where the interruption is. Later iterations of matrix based touchscreens built upon this by adding more emitters and detectors to improve resolution, pulsing emitters to improve optical
signal to noise ratio Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise Noise is unwanted sound considered unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing. From a ...
, and a nonorthogonal matrix to remove shadow readings when using multi-touch. The first finger driven touch screen was developed by Eric Johnson, of the
Royal Radar Establishment The Royal Radar Establishment was a research centre in Malvern, Worcestershire in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardi ...
, located in Malvern, England, described his work on capacitive touchscreens in a short article published in 1965 and then more fully—with photographs and diagrams—in an article published in 1967. The application of touch technology for air traffic control was described in an article published in 1968. Frank Beck and
Bent Stumpe Bent Stumpe (born 12 September, 1938, Copenhagen Copenhagen ( da, København ) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of 1 January 2020, the city had a population of 794,128 with 632,340 in Copenhagen Municipality, 104,305 in Fr ...

Bent Stumpe
, engineers from
CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research (french: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; ; derived from the name ), is a Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large lan ...
(European Organization for Nuclear Research), developed a transparent touchscreen in the early 1970s, based on Stumpe's work at a television factory in the early 1960s. Then manufactured by CERN, and shortly after by industry partners, it was put to use in 1973. In the mid 1960s, another precursor of touchscreens, an ultrasonic-curtain-based pointing device in front of a terminal display, had been developed by a team around at
Telefunken Telefunken was a Germany, German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the AEG, Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG) (''General electricity company''). Brief overview T ...

Telefunken
for an air traffic control system. In 1970, this evolved into a device named "Touchinput-" ("touch input facility") for the SIG 50 terminal utilizing a conductively coated glass screen in front of the display. This was patented in 1971 and the patent was granted a couple of years later. The same team had already invented and marketed the mouse RKS 100-86 for the SIG 100-86 a couple of years earlier. In 1972, a group at the
University of Illinois The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (U of I, Illinois, or colloquially the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. ...
filed for a patent on an optical touchscreen that became a standard part of the
Magnavox Magnavox (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
Plato IV Student Terminal and thousands were built for this purpose. These touchscreens had a crossed array of 16×16
infrared Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with wavelengths longer than those of visible light. It is therefore invisible to the human eye. IR is generally understood to encompass wavelengths from the n ...

infrared
position sensors, each composed of an
LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic copper, ...
on one edge of the screen and a matched
phototransistor A photodiode is a semiconductor p-n junction device that converts light into an electric current, electrical current. The current is generated when photons are absorbed in the photodiode. Photodiodes may contain optical filters, built-in lenses, ...

phototransistor
on the other edge, all mounted in front of a monochrome
plasma displayA plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display that uses small cells containing Plasma (physics), plasma: ionized gas that responds to electric fields. Plasma TVs were the first large (over 32 inches diagonal) flat panel displays to b ...

plasma display
panel. This arrangement could sense any fingertip-sized opaque object in close proximity to the screen. A similar touchscreen was used on the starting in 1983. The HP 150 was one of the world's earliest commercial touchscreen computers. HP mounted their
infrared Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with wavelengths longer than those of visible light. It is therefore invisible to the human eye. IR is generally understood to encompass wavelengths from the n ...

infrared
transmitter In electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow by amplifier, amplifi ...
s and receivers around the bezel of a 9-inch
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multi ...

Sony
cathode ray tube (CRT). In 1977, an American company, Elographics – in partnership with Siemens – began work on developing a transparent implementation of an existing opaque touchpad technology, US patent  3,911,215, October 7, 1975, which had been developed by Elographics' founder George Samuel Hurst. The resulting resistive technology touch screen was first shown in 1982. That company, now called Elo Touch Solutions continues to operate today as a leading provider of interactive devices for business applications. In 1984,
Fujitsu is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign sta ...

Fujitsu
released a touch pad for the Micro 16 to accommodate the complexity of
kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scripts ''hiragana'' and ''katakana''. The Japanese term ''kanji'' for the Chinese ch ...

kanji
characters, which were stored as tiled graphics. In 1985,
Sega is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign s ...

Sega
released the Terebi Oekaki, also known as the Sega Graphic Board, for the
SG-1000 The is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home consoles are generally ...

SG-1000
video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/output In computing, input/output (I/O, or informally io or IO) is the communication between an information proc ...
and
SC-3000 The is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home consoles are generally ...
home computer Home computers were a class of microcomputers that entered the market in 1977 and became common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a si ...

home computer
. It consisted of a plastic pen and a plastic board with a transparent window where pen presses are detected. It was used primarily with a drawing software application. A graphic touch tablet was released for the Sega AI computer in 1986. Touch-sensitive control-display units (CDUs) were evaluated for commercial aircraft flight decks in the early 1980s. Initial research showed that a touch interface would reduce pilot workload as the crew could then select waypoints, functions and actions, rather than be "head down" typing latitudes, longitudes, and waypoint codes on a keyboard. An effective integration of this technology was aimed at helping flight crews maintain a high level of situational awareness of all major aspects of the vehicle operations including the flight path, the functioning of various aircraft systems, and moment-to-moment human interactions. In the early 1980s,
General Motors General Motors Company (GM) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, United States. It was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 ...

General Motors
tasked its
Delco Electronics Delco Electronics Corporation was the automotive electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to ...
division with a project aimed at replacing an automobile's non-essential functions (i.e. other than
throttle A throttle is the mechanism by which fluid flow In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, i ...

throttle
,
transmission Transmission may refer to: Science and technology * Power transmissionPower transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to perform useful Mechanical work, work. Power (physics), Power is d ...
,
braking A brake is a machine, mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for Acceleration, slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its motion, most often accomplished by means of f ...
, and
steering s) Steering is a system of components, linkages, etc. that allows a vehicle to follow a desired course. An exception is the case of rail transport, by which rail tracks combined with railroad switches (also known as 'points' in British English) p ...
) from mechanical or electro-mechanical systems with solid state alternatives wherever possible. The finished device was dubbed the ECC for "Electronic Control Center", a
digital computer A computer is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural ...
and
software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operatio ...

software
control system hardwired to various
peripheral A peripheral or peripheral device is an auxiliary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer. The term peripheral device refers to all hardware components that are attached to a computer and are controlled by the co ...
sensors In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always ...
,
servos In control engineering Control engineering or control systems engineering is an engineering discipline that applies control theory to design equipment and systems with desired behaviors in Control theory, control environments. The discipline of c ...

servos
,
solenoids A solenoid (, from the Greek ''sōlēnoeidḗs'', "pipe-shaped") is a type of electromagnet Magnetic field produced by a solenoid (coil of wire). This drawing shows a cross section through the center of the coil. The crosses are wires in ...
,
antenna Antenna (pl. antennas or antennae) may refer to: Science and engineering * Antenna (radio) In radio engineering, an antenna or aerial is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal con ...
and a
monochrome during the 1889 Exposition Universelle rendered with a monochrome palette of a limited number of shades File:Mp3 player.jpg, A Philips branded digital audio player with a monochrome display with green backlit, common on older such devices in ...

monochrome
CRT touchscreen that functioned both as display and sole method of input. The ECC replaced the traditional mechanical
stereo File:Carsoundstereoshift.png, Time difference in a stereophonic recording of a car going past, 250px Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that recreates a multi-directional, 3-dimensional audible per ...
, fan, heater and
air conditioner Air conditioning (also A/C, air conditioner) is the process of removing heat and controlling the humidity as well as removing dust in some cases of the air within a building or vehicle to achieve a more comfortable interior environment. This ma ...
controls and displays, and was capable of providing very detailed and specific information about the vehicle's cumulative and current operating status in real time. The ECC was standard equipment on the 1985–1989
Buick Riviera The Buick Riviera is a personal luxury car that was marketed by Buick Buick () is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM). Started by automotive pioneer David Dunbar Buick, it was among the first American Brand ...
and later the 1988–1989
Buick Reatta The Buick Reatta is a low-volume transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive, two-door, two-seater grand tourer A grand tourer (GT) is a type of sports car that is designed for high speed and long-distance driving, due to a combination of perf ...

Buick Reatta
, but was unpopular with consumers—partly due to the
technophobia Technophobia (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mil ...
of some traditional
Buick Buick () is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM). Started by automotive pioneer David Dunbar Buick, it was among the first American Brand, marques of automobiles, and was the company that established General Mo ...

Buick
customers, but mostly because of costly technical problems suffered by the ECC's touchscreen which would render climate control or stereo operation impossible.
Multi-touch 250px, Finger touching a multi-touch screen In computing, multi-touch is technology that enables a surface (a touchpad or touchscreen) to recognize the presence of more than one somatosensory system, point of contact with the surface at the same t ...
technology began in 1982, when the
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a public university, public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park (Toronto), Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 ...

University of Toronto
's Input Research Group developed the first human-input multi-touch system, using a frosted-glass panel with a camera placed behind the glass. In 1985, the University of Toronto group, including Bill Buxton, developed a multi-touch tablet that used capacitance rather than bulky camera-based optical sensing systems (see History of multi-touch). The first commercially available graphical
point-of-sale The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed. At the point of sale, the merchant calculates the amount owed by the customer, indicates that amount, may prepare an invoice :''S ...
(POS) software was demonstrated on the 16-bit
Atari 520ST The Atari ST is a line of home computer Home computers were a class of microcomputers that entered the market in 1977 and became common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the fir ...
color computer. It featured a color touchscreen widget-driven interface. The ViewTouch POS software was first shown by its developer, Gene Mosher, at the Atari Computer demonstration area of the Fall
COMDEX COMDEX (an abbreviation of COMputer Dealers' EXhibition) was a computer expo trade show held in the Las Vegas Valley of Nevada, United States, each November from 1979 to 2003. It was one of the largest computer trade shows in the world, usually ...
expo in 1986. In 1987, Casio launched the pocket computer with a touchscreen consisting of a 4×4 matrix, resulting in 16 touch areas in its small LCD graphic screen. Touchscreens had a bad reputation of being imprecise until 1988. Most user-interface books would state that touchscreen selections were limited to targets larger than the average finger. At the time, selections were done in such a way that a target was selected as soon as the finger came over it, and the corresponding action was performed immediately. Errors were common, due to parallax or calibration problems, leading to user frustration. "Lift-off strategy" was introduced by researchers at the
University of Maryland Human–Computer Interaction Lab The Human–Computer Interaction Lab (HCIL) at the University of Maryland, College Park is an academic research center specializing in the field of Human–computer interaction, human-computer interaction (HCI). Founded in 1983 by Ben Shneiderman, ...
(HCIL). As users touch the screen, feedback is provided as to what will be selected: users can adjust the position of the finger, and the action takes place only when the finger is lifted off the screen. This allowed the selection of small targets, down to a single pixel on a 640×480
Video Graphics Array Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a video display controller and accompanying de facto graphics standard, first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, which became ubiquitous in the PC industry within three years. The term can no ...
(VGA) screen (a standard of that time). Sears et al. (1990) gave a review of academic research on single and multi-touch
human–computer interaction Human–computer interaction (HCI) studies the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people ( users) and computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or lo ...
of the time, describing gestures such as rotating knobs, adjusting sliders, and swiping the screen to activate a switch (or a U-shaped gesture for a toggle switch). The HCIL team developed and studied small touchscreen keyboards (including a study that showed users could type at 25 on a touchscreen keyboard), aiding their introduction on mobile devices. They also designed and implemented multi-touch gestures such as selecting a range of a line, connecting objects, and a "tap-click" gesture to select while maintaining location with another finger. In 1990, HCIL demonstrated a touchscreen slider, which was later cited as prior art in the
lock screen A lock screen is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. ...
patent litigation between Apple and other touchscreen mobile phone vendors (in relation to ). In 1991–1992, the
Sun The Sun is the star A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma (physics), plasma held together by its own gravity. The List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many othe ...
Star7 prototype
PDA The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs have been mostly displaced by the widespread adoption of highly capable smartp ...
implemented a touchscreen with inertial scrolling. In 1993, IBM released the
IBM Simon The IBM Simon Personal Communicator (simply known as IBM Simon) is a handheld, touchscreen PDA The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal inform ...
the first touchscreen phone. An early attempt at a
handheld game console A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console A video game console is an electronic or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game A ...

handheld game console
with touchscreen was
Sega is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign s ...

Sega
's intended successor to the
Game Gear The is an 8-bit fourth generation handheld game console released by Sega on October 6, 1990 in Japan, in April 1991 throughout North America and Europe, and during 1992 in Australia. The Game Gear primarily competed with Nintendo is ...
, though the device was ultimately shelved and never released due to the expensive cost of touchscreen technology in the early 1990s. The first
mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive telephone call, calls over a radio frequency link wh ...

mobile phone
with a capacitive touchscreen was released in May 2007 (which was before the first
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro in Sierra Blue , developer = Apple Inc. , manufacturer = Foxconn, Pegatron, Wistron (contract manufacturers) , type = Sma ...
). Touchscreens would not be popularly used for video games until the release of the
Nintendo DS The is a handheld game console produced by Nintendo, released globally across 2004 and 2005. The DS, an initialism for "Developers' System" or "Dual Screen", introduced distinctive new features to handheld games: two LCD screens working in tand ...

Nintendo DS
in 2004. Until recently, most consumer touchscreens could only sense one point of contact at a time, and few have had the capability to sense how hard one is touching. This has changed with the commercialization of multi-touch technology, and the
Apple Watch Apple Watch is a line of smartwatch A smartwatch is a wearable computer in the form of a watch; modern smartwatches provide a local touchscreen interface for daily use, while an associated smartphone app provides for management and telemetry ( ...
being released with a force-sensitive display in April 2015. In 2007, 93% of touchscreens shipped were resistive and only 4% were projected capacitance. In 2013, 3% of touchscreens shipped were resistive and 90% were projected capacitance.


Technologies

There are a variety of touchscreen technologies with different methods of sensing touch.


Resistive

A
resistive In electronics and electromagnetism, the electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the flow of electric current. The Multiplicative inverse, reciprocal quantity is , and is the ease with which an electric current passe ...
touchscreen panel comprises several thin layers, the most important of which are two transparent electrically resistive layers facing each other with a thin gap between. The top layer (that which is touched) has a coating on the underside surface; just beneath it is a similar resistive layer on top of its substrate. One layer has conductive connections along its sides, the other along top and bottom. A voltage is applied to one layer and sensed by the other. When an object, such as a fingertip or stylus tip, presses down onto the outer surface, the two layers touch to become connected at that point. The panel then behaves as a pair of
voltage divider In electronics, a voltage divider (also known as a potential divider) is a passive circuit, passive linear circuit that produces an output voltage (''V''out) that is a fraction of its input voltage (''V''in). Voltage division is the result of distr ...

voltage divider
s, one axis at a time. By rapidly switching between each layer, the position of pressure on the screen can be detected. Resistive touch is used in restaurants, factories and hospitals due to its high tolerance for liquids and contaminants. A major benefit of resistive-touch technology is its low cost. Additionally, as only sufficient pressure is necessary for the touch to be sensed, they may be used with gloves on, or by using anything rigid as a finger substitute. Disadvantages include the need to press down, and a risk of damage by sharp objects. Resistive touchscreens also suffer from poorer contrast, due to having additional reflections (i.e. glare) from the layers of material placed over the screen. This is the type of touchscreen that was used by Nintendo in the DS family, the 3DS family, and the Wii U GamePad.


Surface acoustic wave

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology uses waves that pass over the touchscreen panel. When the panel is touched, a portion of the wave is absorbed. The change in ultrasonic waves is processed by the
controller Controller may refer to: Occupations * Controller or financial controller, or in government accounting comptroller A comptroller is a management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a ...
to determine the position of the touch event. Surface acoustic wave touchscreen panels can be damaged by outside elements. Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touchscreen. SAW devices have a wide range of applications, including delay lines, filters, correlators and DC to DC converters.


Capacitive

A capacitive touchscreen panel consists of an
insulator Insulator may refer to: * Insulator (electricity), a substance that resists electricity ** Pin insulator, a device that isolates a wire from a physical support such as a pin on a utility pole ** Strain insulator, a device that is designed to work i ...
, such as
glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most often formed by ...

glass
, coated with a transparent
conductor Conductor or conduction may refer to: Music * Conductor (music), a person who leads a musical ensemble like, for example, an orchestra. * Conductor (album), ''Conductor'' (album), an album by indie rock band The Comas * Conduction, a type of ...
, such as
indium tin oxideIndium tin oxide (ITO) is a ternary composition of indium, tin and oxygen in varying proportions. Depending on the oxygen content, it can either be described as a ceramic or alloy. Indium tin oxide is typically encountered as an oxygen-saturated comp ...
(ITO). As the human body is also an electrical conductor, touching the surface of the screen results in a distortion of the screen's
electrostatic Electrostatics is a branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related enti ...
field, measurable as a change in
capacitance Capacitance is the ratio of the amount of electric charge Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charge: ''positive'' an ...
. Different technologies may be used to determine the location of the touch. The location is then sent to the controller for processing. Touchscreens that use silver instead of ITO exist, as ITO causes several environmental problems due to the use of indium. The controller is typically a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)
application-specific integrated circuit An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC ) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, ...
(ASIC) chip, which in turn usually sends the signals to a CMOS
digital signal processor A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, or a small number of integrated circuits. The ...
(DSP) for processing. Unlike a resistive touchscreen, some capacitive touchscreens cannot be used to detect a finger through electrically insulating material, such as gloves. This disadvantage especially affects usability in consumer electronics, such as touch tablet PCs and capacitive smartphones in cold weather when people may be wearing gloves. It can be overcome with a special capacitive stylus, or a special-application glove with an embroidered patch of conductive thread allowing electrical contact with the user's fingertip. A low-quality switching-mode power supply unit with an accordingly unstable, noisy
voltage Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension is the difference in electric potential The electric potential (also called the ''electric field potential'', potential drop, the electrostatic potential) is the ...

voltage
may temporarily interfere with the precision, accuracy and sensitivity of capacitive touch screens. Some capacitive display manufacturers continue to develop thinner and more accurate touchscreens. Those for
mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known a ...
s are now being produced with 'in-cell' technology, such as in Samsung's
Super AMOLED AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode, ) is a type of OLED An organic light-emitting diode (OLED or organic LED), also known as organic electroluminescent (organic EL) diode, is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emiss ...

Super AMOLED
screens, that eliminates a layer by building the capacitors inside the display itself. This type of touchscreen reduces the visible distance between the user's finger and what the user is touching on the screen, reducing the thickness and weight of the display, which is desirable in
smartphone A smartphone is a mobile device that combines cellular and mobile computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitat ...

smartphone
s. A simple parallel-plate capacitor has two conductors separated by a dielectric layer. Most of the energy in this system is concentrated directly between the plates. Some of the energy spills over into the area outside the plates, and the electric field lines associated with this effect are called fringing fields. Part of the challenge of making a practical capacitive sensor is to design a set of printed circuit traces which direct fringing fields into an active sensing area accessible to a user. A parallel-plate capacitor is not a good choice for such a sensor pattern. Placing a finger near fringing electric fields adds conductive surface area to the capacitive system. The additional charge storage capacity added by the finger is known as finger capacitance, or CF. The capacitance of the sensor without a finger present is known as parasitic capacitance, or CP.


Surface capacitance

In this basic technology, only one side of the insulator is coated with a conductive layer. A small voltage is applied to the layer, resulting in a uniform electrostatic field. When a conductor, such as a human finger, touches the uncoated surface, a capacitor is dynamically formed. The sensor's controller can determine the location of the touch indirectly from the change in the capacitance as measured from the four corners of the panel. As it has no moving parts, it is moderately durable but has limited resolution, is prone to false signals from parasitic
capacitive coupling Capacitive coupling is the transfer of energy within an electrical network or between distant networks by means of displacement current In electromagnetism Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic ...
, and needs
calibration In measurement technology and metrology, calibration is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a Standard (metrology), calibration standard of known accuracy. Such a standard could be another measuremen ...

calibration
during manufacture. It is therefore most often used in simple applications such as industrial controls and
kiosks Historically, a kiosk () was a small garden pavilion open on some or all sides common in Iran, Persia, the Indian subcontinent, and in the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century onward. Today, several examples of this type of kiosk still exist ...
. Although some standard capacitance detection methods are projective, in the sense that they can be used to detect a finger through a non-conductive surface, they are very sensitive to fluctuations in temperature, which expand or contract the sensing plates, causing fluctuations in the capacitance of these plates. These fluctuations result in a lot of background noise, so a strong finger signal is required for accurate detection. This limits applications to those where the finger directly touches the sensing element or is sensed through a relatively thin non-conductive surface.


Projected capacitance

Schema of projected-capacitive touchscreen Projected capacitive touch (PCT; also PCAP) technology is a variant of capacitive touch technology but where sensitivity to touch, accuracy, resolution and speed of touch have been greatly improved by the use of a simple form of "Artificial Intelligence". This intelligent processing enables finger sensing to be projected, accurately and reliably, through very thick glass and even double glazing. Some modern PCT touch screens are composed of thousands of discrete keys, but most PCT touch screens are made of an x/y matrix of rows and columns of conductive material, layered on sheets of glass. This can be done either by
etching , who is believed to have been the first to apply the technique to printmaking. '', an etching by Rembrandt (c. 1648). Rembrandt is generally considered the greatest etcher in the history of the medium (as an art in its own right). His most im ...
a single conductive layer to form a grid pattern of
electrode An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between tha ...
s, by etching two separate, perpendicular layers of conductive material with parallel lines or tracks to form a grid, or by forming an x/y grid of fine, insulation coated wires in a single layer . The number of fingers that can be detected simultaneously is determined by the number of cross-over points (x * y) . However, the number of cross-over points can be almost doubled by using a diagonal lattice layout, where, instead of x elements only ever crossing y elements, each conductive element crosses every other element . The conductive layer is often transparent, being made of
Indium tin oxideIndium tin oxide (ITO) is a ternary composition of indium, tin and oxygen in varying proportions. Depending on the oxygen content, it can either be described as a ceramic or alloy. Indium tin oxide is typically encountered as an oxygen-saturated comp ...
(ITO), a transparent electrical conductor. In some designs, voltage applied to this grid creates a uniform electrostatic field, which can be measured. When a conductive object, such as a finger, comes into contact with a PCT panel, it distorts the local electrostatic field at that point. This is measurable as a change in capacitance. If a finger bridges the gap between two of the "tracks", the charge field is further interrupted and detected by the controller. The capacitance can be changed and measured at every individual point on the grid. This system is able to accurately track touches. Due to the top layer of a PCT being glass, it is sturdier than less-expensive resistive touch technology. Unlike traditional capacitive touch technology, it is possible for a PCT system to sense a passive stylus or gloved finger. However, moisture on the surface of the panel, high humidity, or collected dust can interfere with performance. These environmental factors, however, are not a problem with 'fine wire' based touchscreens due to the fact that wire based touchscreens have a much lower 'parasitic' capacitance, and there is greater distance between neighbouring conductors. There are two types of PCT: mutual capacitance and self-capacitance.


=Mutual capacitance

= This is a common PCT approach, which makes use of the fact that most conductive objects are able to hold a charge if they are very close together. In mutual capacitive sensors, a capacitor is inherently formed by the row trace and column trace at each intersection of the grid. A 16×14 array, for example, would have 224 independent capacitors. A voltage is applied to the rows or columns. Bringing a finger or conductive stylus close to the surface of the sensor changes the local electrostatic field, which in turn reduces the mutual capacitance. The capacitance change at every individual point on the grid can be measured to accurately determine the touch location by measuring the voltage in the other axis. Mutual capacitance allows multi-touch operation where multiple fingers, palms or styli can be accurately tracked at the same time.


Self-capacitance

Self-capacitance sensors can have the same X-Y grid as mutual capacitance sensors, but the columns and rows operate independently. With self-capacitance, the capacitive load of a finger is measured on each column or row electrode by a current meter, or the change in frequency of an RC oscillator. A finger may be detected anywhere along the whole length of a row. If that finger is also detected by a column, then it can be assumed that the finger position is at the intersection of this row/column pair. This allows for the speedy and accurate detection of a single finger, but it causes some ambiguity if more than one finger is to be detected. Two fingers may have four possible detection positions, only two of which are true. However, by selectively de-sensitizing any touch-points in contention, conflicting results are easily eliminated. This enables "Self Capacitance" to be used for multi-touch operation. Alternatively, ambiguity can be avoided by applying a "de-sensitizing" signal to all but one of the columns . This leaves just a short section of any row sensitive to touch. By selecting a sequence of these sections along the row, it is possible to determine the accurate position of multiple fingers along that row. This process can then be repeated for all the other rows until the whole screen has been scanned. Self-capacitive touch screen layers are used on mobile phones such as the Sony Xperia Sola, the
Samsung Galaxy S4 The Samsung Galaxy S4 is an Android smartphone A smartphone is a mobile device that combines cellular and mobile computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and e ...

Samsung Galaxy S4
, Galaxy Note 3, Galaxy S5, and . Self capacitance is far more sensitive than mutual capacitance and is mainly used for single touch, simple gesturing and proximity sensing where the finger does not even have to touch the glass surface. Mutual capacitance is mainly used for multitouch applications. Many touchscreen manufacturers use both self and mutual capacitance technologies in the same product, thereby combining their individual benefits.


Use of stylus on capacitive screens

Capacitive touchscreens do not necessarily need to be operated by a finger, but until recently the special styli required could be quite expensive to purchase. The cost of this technology has fallen greatly in recent years and capacitive styli are now widely available for a nominal charge, and often given away free with mobile accessories. These consist of an electrically conductive shaft with a soft conductive rubber tip, thereby resistively connecting the fingers to the tip of the stylus.


Infrared grid

Image:Platovterm1981.jpg, Infrared sensors mounted around the display watch for a user's touchscreen input on this PLATO V terminal in 1981. The monochromatic plasma display's characteristic orange glow is illustrated. An
infrared Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with wavelengths longer than those of visible light. It is therefore invisible to the human eye. IR is generally understood to encompass wavelengths from the n ...

infrared
touchscreen uses an array of X-Y infrared
LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic copper, ...
and photodetector pairs around the edges of the screen to detect a disruption in the pattern of LED beams. These LED beams cross each other in vertical and horizontal patterns. This helps the sensors pick up the exact location of the touch. A major benefit of such a system is that it can detect essentially any opaque object including a finger, gloved finger, stylus or pen. It is generally used in outdoor applications and POS systems that cannot rely on a conductor (such as a bare finger) to activate the touchscreen. Unlike capacitive sensing, capacitive touchscreens, infrared touchscreens do not require any patterning on the glass which increases durability and optical clarity of the overall system. Infrared touchscreens are sensitive to dirt and dust that can interfere with the infrared beams, and suffer from parallax in curved surfaces and accidental press when the user hovers a finger over the screen while searching for the item to be selected.


Infrared acrylic projection

A translucent acrylic sheet is used as a rear-projection screen to display information. The edges of the acrylic sheet are illuminated by infrared LEDs, and infrared cameras are focused on the back of the sheet. Objects placed on the sheet are detectable by the cameras. When the sheet is touched by the user, the deformation results in leakage of infrared light which peaks at the points of maximum pressure, indicating the user's touch location. Microsoft's Microsoft PixelSense, PixelSense tablets use this technology.


Optical imaging

Optical touchscreens are a relatively modern development in touchscreen technology, in which two or more image sensors (such as CMOS sensors) are placed around the edges (mostly the corners) of the screen. Infrared backlights are placed in the sensor’s field of view on the opposite side of the screen. A touch blocks some lights from the sensors, and the location and size of the touching object can be calculated (see Visual hull#In two dimensions, visual hull). This technology is growing in popularity due to its scalability, versatility, and affordability for larger touchscreens.


Dispersive signal technology

Introduced in 2002 by 3M, this system detects a touch by using sensors to measure the piezoelectricity in the glass. Complex algorithms interpret this information and provide the actual location of the touch. The technology is unaffected by dust and other outside elements, including scratches. Since there is no need for additional elements on screen, it also claims to provide excellent optical clarity. Any object can be used to generate touch events, including gloved fingers. A downside is that after the initial touch, the system cannot detect a motionless finger. However, for the same reason, resting objects do not disrupt touch recognition.


Acoustic pulse recognition

The key to this technology is that a touch at any one position on the surface generates a sound wave in the substrate which then produces a unique combined signal as measured by three or more tiny transducers attached to the edges of the touchscreen. The digitized signal is compared to a list corresponding to every position on the surface, determining the touch location. A moving touch is tracked by rapid repetition of this process. Extraneous and ambient sounds are ignored since they do not match any stored sound profile. The technology differs from other sound-based technologies by using a simple look-up method rather than expensive signal-processing hardware. As with the dispersive signal technology system, a motionless finger cannot be detected after the initial touch. However, for the same reason, the touch recognition is not disrupted by any resting objects. The technology was created by SoundTouch Ltd in the early 2000s, as described by the patent family EP1852772, and introduced to the market by Tyco International's Elo division in 2006 as Acoustic Pulse Recognition. The touchscreen used by Elo is made of ordinary glass, giving good durability and optical clarity. The technology usually retains accuracy with scratches and dust on the screen. The technology is also well suited to displays that are physically larger.


Construction

There are several principal ways to build a touchscreen. The key goals are to recognize one or more fingers touching a display, to interpret the command that this represents, and to communicate the command to the appropriate application. In the resistive approach, which used to be the most popular technique, there are typically four layers: # Top polyester-coated layer with a transparent metallic-conductive coating on the bottom. # Adhesive spacer # Glass layer coated with a transparent metallic-conductive coating on the top # Adhesive layer on the backside of the glass for mounting. When a user touches the surface, the system records the change in the electric current that flows through the display. Dispersive-signal technology measures the piezoelectric effect—the voltage generated when mechanical force is applied to a material—that occurs chemically when a strengthened glass substrate is touched. There are two infrared-based approaches. In one, an array of sensors detects a finger touching or almost touching the display, thereby interrupting infrared light beams projected over the screen. In the other, bottom-mounted thermographic camera, infrared cameras record heat from screen touches. In each case, the system determines the intended command based on the controls showing on the screen at the time and the location of the touch.


Development

The development of multi-touch screens facilitated the tracking of more than one finger on the screen; thus, operations that require more than one finger are possible. These devices also allow multiple users to interact with the touchscreen simultaneously. With the growing use of touchscreens, the cost of touchscreen technology is routinely absorbed into the products that incorporate it and is nearly eliminated. Touchscreen technology has demonstrated reliability and is found in airplanes, automobiles, gaming consoles, machine control systems, appliances, and handheld display devices including cellphones; the touchscreen market for mobile devices was projected to produce US$5 billion by 2009. The ability to accurately point on the screen itself is also advancing with the emerging graphics tablet, graphics tablet-screen hybrids. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVFD) plays a major role in this innovation due its high piezoelectric properties, which allow the tablet to sense pressure, making such things as digital painting behave more like paper and pencil. TapSense, announced in October 2011, allows touchscreens to distinguish what part of the hand was used for input, such as the fingertip, knuckle and fingernail. This could be used in a variety of ways, for example, to copy and paste, to capitalize letters, to activate different drawing modes, etc. A real practical integration between television-images and the functions of a normal modern PC could be an innovation in the near future: for example "all-live-information" on the internet about a film or the actors on video, a list of other music during a normal video clip of a song or news about a person.


Ergonomics and usage


Touchscreen enable

For touchscreens to be effective input devices, users must be able to accurately select targets and avoid accidental selection of adjacent targets. The design of touchscreen interfaces should reflect technical capabilities of the system, Human factors and ergonomics, ergonomics, cognitive psychology and human physiology. Guidelines for touchscreen designs were first developed in the 2021s, based on early research and actual use of older systems, typically using infrared grids—which were highly dependent on the size of the user's fingers. These guidelines are less relevant for the bulk of modern touch devices which use capacitive or resistive touch technology. From the mid-2000s, makers of operating systems for smartphones have promulgated standards, but these vary between manufacturers, and allow for significant variation in size based on technology changes, so are unsuitable from a Human factors and ergonomics, human factors perspective. Much more important is the accuracy humans have in selecting targets with their finger or a pen stylus. The accuracy of user selection varies by position on the screen: users are most accurate at the center, less so at the left and right edges, and least accurate at the top edge and especially the bottom edge. The Circular error probable, R95 accuracy (required radius for 95% target accuracy) varies from in the center to in the lower corners. Users are subconsciously aware of this, and take more time to select targets which are smaller or at the edges or corners of the touchscreen. This user inaccuracy is a result of parallax, visual acuity and the speed of the feedback loop between the eyes and fingers. The precision of the human finger alone is much, much higher than this, so when assistive technologies are provided—such as on-screen magnifiers—users can move their finger (once in contact with the screen) with precision as small as 0.1 mm (0.004 in).


Hand position, digit used and switching

Users of handheld and portable touchscreen devices hold them in a variety of ways, and routinely change their method of holding and selection to suit the position and type of input. There are four basic types of handheld interaction: * Holding at least in part with both hands, tapping with a single thumb * Holding with two hands and tapping with both thumbs * Holding with one hand, tapping with the finger (or rarely, thumb) of another hand * Holding the device in one hand, and tapping with the thumb from that same hand Use rates vary widely. While two-thumb tapping is encountered rarely (1–3%) for many general interactions, it is used for 41% of typing interaction. In addition, devices are often placed on surfaces (desks or tables) and tablets especially are used in stands. The user may point, select or gesture in these cases with their finger or thumb, and vary use of these methods.


Combined with haptics

Touchscreens are often used with haptic technology, haptic response systems. A common example of this technology is the vibratory feedback provided when a button on the touchscreen is tapped. Haptics are used to improve the user's experience with touchscreens by providing simulated tactile feedback, and can be designed to react immediately, partly countering on-screen response latency. Research from the University of Glasgow (Brewster, Chohan, and Brown, 2007; and more recently Hogan) demonstrates that touchscreen users reduce input errors (by 20%), increase input speed (by 20%), and lower their cognitive load (by 40%) when touchscreens are combined with haptics or tactile feedback. On top of this, a study conducted in 2013 by Boston College explored the effects that touchscreens haptic stimulation had on triggering psychological ownership of a product. Their research concluded that a touchscreens ability to incorporate high amounts of haptic involvement resulted in customers feeling more endowment to the products they were designing or buying. The study also reported that consumers using a touchscreen were willing to accept a higher price point for the items they were purchasing.


Customer Service

Touchscreen technology has become integrated into many aspects of customer service industry in the 21st century. The restaurant industry is a good example of touchscreen implementation into this domain. Chain restaurants such as Taco Bell, Panera Bread, and McDonald's offer touchscreens as an option when customers are ordering items off the menu. While the addition of touchscreens is a development for this industry, customers may choose to bypass the touchscreen and order from a traditional cashier. To take this a step further, a restaurant in Bangalore has attempted to completely automate the ordering process. Customers sit down to a table embedded with touchscreens and order off an extensive menu. Once the order is placed it is sent electronically to the kitchen. These types of touchscreens fit under the Point of Sale (POS) systems mentioned in the lead section.


"Gorilla arm"

Extended use of gestural interfaces without the ability of the user to rest their arm is referred to as "gorilla arm". It can result in fatigue, and even repetitive stress injury when routinely used in a work setting. Certain early pen-based interfaces required the operator to work in this position for much of the workday. Allowing the user to rest their hand or arm on the input device or a frame around it is a solution for this in many contexts. This phenomenon is often cited as an example of movements to be minimized by proper ergonomic design. Unsupported touchscreens are still fairly common in applications such as Automated teller machine, ATMs and data kiosks, but are not an issue as the typical user only engages for brief and widely spaced periods.


Fingerprints

Touchscreens can suffer from the problem of fingerprints on the display. This can be mitigated by the use of materials with optical coatings designed to reduce the visible effects of fingerprint oils. Most modern smartphones have oleophobic coatings, which lessen the amount of oil residue. Another option is to install a matte-finish anti-glare screen protector, which creates a slightly roughened surface that does not easily retain smudges.


Glove touch

Touchscreens do not work most of the time when the user wears gloves. The thickness of the glove and the material they are made of play a significant role on that and the ability of a touchscreen to pick up a touch.


See also

* Dual-touchscreen * Pen computing * Energy harvesting * Flexible keyboard * Gestural interface * Graphics tablet * Light pen * List of touch-solution manufacturers * Lock screen * Tablet computer * Touch switch * Touchscreen remote control *
Multi-touch 250px, Finger touching a multi-touch screen In computing, multi-touch is technology that enables a surface (a touchpad or touchscreen) to recognize the presence of more than one somatosensory system, point of contact with the surface at the same t ...
* Omnitouch * Pointing device gesture * Sensacell * SixthSense *
Nintendo DS The is a handheld game console produced by Nintendo, released globally across 2004 and 2005. The DS, an initialism for "Developers' System" or "Dual Screen", introduced distinctive new features to handheld games: two LCD screens working in tand ...

Nintendo DS


References


Sources

* * * * *


External links

{{Authority control American inventions European inventions Touchscreens, Display devices