bibliographic database
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A bibliographic database is a
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softw ...
of
bibliographic recordA bibliographic record is an entry in a bibliographic index (or a library catalog) which represents and describes a specific resource. A bibliographic record contains the data elements necessary to help users identify and retrieve that resource, as w ...
s, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including
journal A journal, from the Old French ''journal'' (meaning "daily"), may refer to: *Bullet journal, a method of personal organizations *Diary, a record of what happened over the course of a day or other period *Daybook, also known as a general journal, a ...
and
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ...

newspaper
articles, conference
proceedings In academia and librarianship, conference proceeding is a collection of academic paper Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content availab ...

proceedings
, reports, government and legal publications,
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention for a limited period of years in exchange for publishing an sufficiency of disclosure, enabling disclo ...

patent
s,
book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. The conc ...

book
s, etc. In contrast to
library catalog A library catalog (or library catalogue in British English) is a register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A catalog for a group of libraries is also cal ...
ue entries, a large proportion of the bibliographic records in bibliographic databases describe articles, conference papers, etc., rather than complete
monograph A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference work A reference work is a work such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it a ...

monograph
s, and they generally contain very rich subject descriptions in the form of keywords, subject classification terms, or abstracts. A bibliographic database may be general in scope or cover a specific
academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined (in part) and recognized by the academic journals in which research is pu ...
like
computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algorithm, algorithmic proc ...
. A significant number of bibliographic databases are proprietary, available by licensing agreement from vendors, or directly from the
indexing and abstracting service An abstracting service is a service that provides Abstract (summary), abstracts of publications, often on a subject or group of related subjects, usually on a subscription basis. An indexing service is a service that assigns descriptors and other k ...
s that create them. Many bibliographic databases have evolved into digital libraries, providing the full text of the indexed contents: for instance
CORE Core or cores may refer to: Science and technology * Core (anatomy) In common parlance, the core of the body is broadly considered to be the torso. Functional movements are highly dependent on this part of the body, and lack of core muscular dev ...
also mirrors and indexes the full text of scholarly articles and
Our Research Our Research, formerly known as ImpactStory, is a nonprofit organization which creates and distributes tools and services for libraries, institutions and researchers. The organization follows open practices with their data (to the extent allowed by ...
develops a search engine for
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. With open access strictly defined (according to the 2001 definition), or Gratis versu ...

open access
content found by
Unpaywall OurResearch, formerly known as ImpactStory, is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
. Others converge with non-bibliographic scholarly databases to create more complete disciplinary
search engine A search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out Web search query, web searches. They search the World Wide Web in a systematic way for particular information specified in a textual web search query. The Search engine results ...
systems, such as
Chemical Abstracts Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry Chemistry i ...
or
Entrez 120px, The Entrez logo The Entrez (pronounced ''ɒnˈtreɪ'') Global Query Cross-Database Search System is a federated search engine, or web portal that allows users to search many discrete health sciences databases at the National Center for Biote ...

Entrez
.


History

Prior to the mid-20th century, individuals searching for published literature had to rely on printed
bibliographic index A bibliographic index is a bibliography intended to help find a publication. Citations are usually listed by author and subject in separate sections, or in a single alphabetical sequence under a system of authorized headings collectively known as ...
es, generated manually from
index card . This type of cataloging has mostly been supplanted by computerization. Image:notecard.jpg, 200px, A ruled index card An index card (or record card in British English and system cards in Australian English) consists of card stock (heavy paper) ...
s. "During the early 1960s computers were used to digitize text for the first time; the purpose was to reduce the cost and time required to publish two American abstracting journals, the ''
Index Medicus ''Index Medicus'' (''IM'') is a content curation, curated subset of MEDLINE, which is a bibliographic database of list of life sciences, life science and biomedical sciences, biomedical science information, principally scientific journal articles. ...
'' of the
National Library of Medicine The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States The Unit ...
and the ''
Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
'' of the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and space Space is the boundless three-dimensional ...
(NASA). By the late 1960s such bodies of digitized alphanumeric information, known as bibliographic and numeric databases, constituted a new type of information resource. Online interactive retrieval became commercially viable in the early 1970s over private telecommunications networks. The first services offered a few databases of indexes and abstracts of scholarly literature. These databases contained bibliographic descriptions of journal articles that were searchable by keywords in author and title, and sometimes by journal name or subject heading. The user interfaces were crude, the access was expensive, and searching was done by librarians on behalf of 'end users'.


See also

*
Citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index A bibliographic index is a bibliography intended to help find a publication. Citations are usually listed by author and subject in separate sections, or in a single alphabetical sequence under a ...
*
Document-oriented database A document-oriented database, or document store, is a computer program and data storage system designed for storing, retrieving and managing document-oriented information, also known as semi-structured data. Document-oriented databases are one ...
*
Full-text database A full-text database or a complete-text database is a database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "Wha ...
*
List of academic databases and search engines This article contains a representative list of notable databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, institutional repository, institutional repositories, archives, or other colle ...
*
Institutional repository An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.Van de Sompel, H & Lagoze, C. (2000. ''D-lib Magazine'', 6(2). ...
* Online public access catalog (OPAC; library catalog)


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Bibliographic Database Information science Library 2.0