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Mucoromycotina:

Endogonales Mucorales Mortierellales

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Entomophthorales

Zoopagomycotina:

Zoopagales

Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, is a division of fungi. Approximately 1050 species are known.[1] They are mostly terrestrial in habitat, living in soil or on decaying plant or animal material. Some are parasites of plants, insects, and small animals, while others form symbiotic relationships with plants.[2] Zygomycete hyphae may be coenocytic, forming septa only where gametes are formed or to wall off dead hyphae.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Spores

2.1 Mitospores 2.2 Chlamydospores

3 Zygophores 4 Cell wall 5 Trisporic acid

5.1 History 5.2 Functions of trisporic acid in Mucorales 5.3 Parasexualism

6 Phototropism

6.1 Activation of beta-carotene biosythesis by light 6.2 Influence of light in sporulation and sexual development

7 Gravitropism

7.1 Protein crystals involved in graviperception 7.2 Lipid droplets involved in gravipereception

8 Phylogeny 9 Industrial uses

9.1 Culture conditions 9.2 Culture media

10 Reproduction 11 Evolution of conidia 12 References 13 External links

Etymology[edit]

An immature zygosporangium of the Rhizopus
Rhizopus
fungus forming from two fused gametangia, showing a "yoke" shape.

The name Zygomycota
Zygomycota
refers to the zygosporangia characteristically formed by the members of this clade, in which resistant spherical spores are formed during sexual reproduction. Zygos is Greek for "joining" or "a yoke", referring to the fusion of two hyphal strands which produces these spores, and -mycota is a suffix referring to a division of fungi.[3] Spores[edit]

Detail of Sporangia of a Zygomycota
Zygomycota
species growing on a peach.

The term "spore" is used to describe a structure related to propagation and dispersal. Zygomycete spores can be formed through both sexual and asexual means. Before germination the spore is in a dormant state. During this period, the metabolic rate is very low and it may last from a few hours to many years. There are two types of dormancy. The exogenous dormancy is controlled by environmental factors such as temperature or nutrient availability. The endogenous or constitutive dormancy depends on characteristics of the spore itself; for example, metabolic features. In this type of dormancy, germination may be prevented even if the environmental conditions favor growth. Mitospores[edit] In zygomycetes, mitospores (sporangiospores) are formed asexually. They are formed in specialized structures, the mitosporangia (sporangia) that contain few to several thousand of spores, depending on the species. Mitosporangia are carried by specialized hyphae, the mitosporangiophores (sporangiophores). These specialized hyphae usually show negative gravitropism and positive phototropism allowing good spore dispersal. The sporangia wall is thin and is easily destroyed by mechanical stimuli (e.g. falling raindrops, passing animals), leading to the dispersal of the ripe mitospores. The walls of these spores contain sporopollenin in some species. Sporopollenin is formed out of β-carotene and is very resistant to biological and chemical degradation. Zygomycete spores may also be classified in respect to their persistence: Chlamydospores[edit] Chlamydospores are asexual spores different from sporangiospores. The primary function of chlamydospores is the persistence of the mycelium and they are released when the mycelium degrades. Chlamydospores have no mechanism for dispersal. In zygomycetes the formation of chlamydospores is usually intercalar. However, it may also be terminal. In accordance with their function chlamydospores have a thick cell wall and are pigmented.

Sporangium.

Zygophores[edit] Zygophores are chemotropic aerial hyphae that are the sex organs of Zygomycota, except for Phycomyces
Phycomyces
in which they are not aerial but found in the substratum. They have two different mating types (+) and (-). The opposite mating types grow towards each other due to volatile pheromones given off by the opposite strand, mainly trisporic acid and its precursors. Once two opposite mating types have made initial contact, they give rise to a zygospore through multiple steps. Zygospore formation is the result of a multiple step process beginning with compatible mating type zygophores growing towards each other. Once contact between the zygophores has been made, their walls adhere to each other, flatten and then the contact site is referred to as the fusion septum. The tips of the zygophore become distended and form what is called the progametangia. A septum develops by gradual inward extension until it separates the terminal gametangia from the progametangial base. At this point the zygophore is then called the suspensor. Vesicles accumulate at the fusion septum at which time it begins to dissolve. A little before the fusion septum completely dissolves, the primary outer wall begins to thicken. This can be seen as dark patches on the primary wall as the fusion septum dissolves. These dark patches on the wall will eventually develop into warty structures that make up the thickness of the zygospore wall. As the zygospore enlarges, so do the warty structures until there are contiguous around the entire cell. At this point, electron microscopy can no longer penetrate the wall. Eventually the warts push through the primary wall and darken which is likely caused by melanin. Meiosis
Meiosis
usually occurs before zygospore germination and there are a few main types of distinguishable nuclear behavior. Type 1 is when the nuclei fuse quickly, within a few days, resulting in mature zygospore having haploid nuclei. Type 2 is when some nuclei do not pair and degenerate instead, meiosis is delayed until germination. Type 3 is when haploid nuclei continue to divide mitotically and then some associate into groups and some do not. This results in diploid and haploid nuclei being found in the germ sporangium. Cell wall[edit]

Typical fungal cell wall structure

Zygomycetes exhibit a special structure of cell wall. Most fungi have chitin as structural polysaccharide, while zygomycetes synthesize chitosan, the deacetylated homopolymer of chitin. Chitin
Chitin
is built of β-1,4 bonded N- acetyl glucosamine. Fungal hyphae grow at the tip. Therefore, specialized vesicles, the chitosomes, bring precursors of chitin and its synthesizing enzyme, chitin synthetase, to the outside of the membrane by exocytosis. The enzyme on the membrane catalyzes glycosidic bond formations from the nucleotide sugar substrate, uridine diphospho-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The nascent polysaccharide chain is then cleaved by the enzyme chitin deacetylase. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of the N-acetamido group in chitin. After this the chitosan polymer chain forms micro fibrils. These fibers are embedded in an amorphous matrix consisting of proteins, glucans (which putatively cross-link the chitosan fibers), mannoproteins, lipids and other compounds.[4][5] Trisporic acid[edit] Trisporic acid is a C-18 terpenoid compound that is synthesized via ß-carotene and retinol pathways in the zygomycetes. It is a pheromone compound responsible for sexual differentiation in those fungal species.[6] History[edit] Trisporic acid was discovered in 1964 as a metabolite that caused enhanced carotene production in Blakeslea trispora. It was later shown to be the hormone that brought about zygophore production in Mucor mucedo.[7] The American mycologist and geneticist Albert Francis Blakeslee, discovered that some species of Mucorales
Mucorales
were self-sterile (heterothallic), in which interactions of two strains, designated (+) and (-), being necessary for the initiation of sexual activity. This interaction was found by Hans Burgeff of the University of Goettingen to be due to the exchange of low molecular weight substances that diffused through the substratum and atmosphere. This work constituted the first demonstration of sex hormone activity in any fungus. The elucidation of the hormonal control of sexual interaction in the Mucorales
Mucorales
extends over 60 years and involved mycologists and biochemists from Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, UK and the USA.[7] Functions of trisporic acid in Mucorales[edit] Recognition of compatible sexual partners in zygomycota is based on a cooperative biosynthesis pathway of trisporic acid. Early trisporoid derivatives and trisporic acid induce swelling of two potential hyphae, hence called zygophores, and a chemical gradient of these inducer molecules results in a growth towards each other. These progametangia come in contact with each other and build a strong connection. In the next stage, septae are established to limit the developing zygospore from the vegetative mycelium and in this way the zygophores become suspensor hyphae and gametangia are formed. After dissolving of the fusion wall, cytoplasm and a high number of nuclei from both gametangia are mixed. A selectional process (unstudied) results in a reduction of nuclei and meiosis takes place (also unstudied until today). Several cell wall modifications, as well as incorporation of sporopollenin (dark colour of spores) take place resulting in a mature zygospore. Triporic acid, as the endpoint of this recognition pathway, can solely be produced in presence of both compatible partners, which enzymatically produce trisporoid precursors to be further utilized by the potential sexual partner. Species specificity of these reactions is among others obtained by spatial segregation, physicochemical features of derivatives (volatility and light sensitivity), chemical modifications of trisporoids and transcriptional/posttranscriptional regulation.

Parasexualism[edit] Trisporoids are also used in the mediation of the recognition between parasite and host. An example is the host-parasite interaction of a parasexual nature observed between Parasitella parasitica, a facultative mycoparasite of zygomycetes, and Absidia glauca. This interaction is an example for biotrophic fusion parasitism, because genetic information is transferred into the host. Many morphological similarities in comparison to zygospore formation are seen, but the mature spore is called a sikyospore and is parasitic. During this process, gall-like structures are produced by the host Absidia glauca. This coupled with further evidence (Schimek et al., 2003) has led to the assumption that trisporiods are not strictly species specific and that trisporiods represent the general principle of mating recognition in Mucorales. Phototropism[edit] Light regulation has been investigated in the zygomycetes Phycomyces blakesleeanus, Mucor circinelloides and Pilobolus
Pilobolus
crystallinus. For example, in Pilobolus
Pilobolus
crystallinus light is responsible for the dispersal mechanism and the sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus grow towards light. When light, particularly blue light, is involved in the regulation of fungal development, it directs the growth of fungal structures and activates metabolic pathways. For instance, the zygomycota use light as signal to promote vegetative reproduction and growth of aerial hyphae to facilitate spore dispersal. Fungal phototropism has been investigated in detail using the fruiting body, sporangiophore, of Phycomyces
Phycomyces
as a model. Phycomyces
Phycomyces
has a complex photoreceptor system. It is able to react to different light intensities and different wavelengths. In contrast to the positive reaction to blue light, there is also a negative reaction to UV light. Reactions to red light were also observed Activation of beta-carotene biosythesis by light[edit] The two genes for the enzymes phytoene desaturase (carB) and the bifunctional phytoene synthase/carotene cyclase (carRA in Phycomyces, carRP in Mucor) are responsible for synthesis of beta-carotene. The product of the gene crgA, which was found in Mucor suppresses the carotene formation by inhibiting the accumulation of carB and carRP mRNAs. Influence of light in sporulation and sexual development[edit] The zygomycete P. blakesleeanus builds two types of sproangiophores, the macrophores and the microphores which differ in size. The formation of these sporangiophores work at different light fluences and therefore with specific photoreceptors. Light also regulates asexual sporulation. In Mucor the product of the crgA gene acts as an activator. In contrast, the sexual development of Phycomyces
Phycomyces
is inhibited by light because of a specialized photoreceptor system.

Bending angle in vertical sporangiophore

Gravitropism[edit] Gravitropism is a turning or growth movement by a plant or fungus in response to gravity. It is equally widespread in both kingdoms. Statolites are required in both fungi and plants for the mechanism of gravity-sensing. The Zygomycota
Zygomycota
sporangiophores originate from specialized “basal hyphae” and pass through several distinctive developmental stages until the mature asexual spores are released. In addition to the positive phototropism, the sporangiophores are directed by a negative gravitropic response into a position suitable for spore dispersal and distribution. Both responses are growth reactions i.e. the bending is caused by differential growth on the respective opposite flanks of the sporangiophore, and influence each other. The only model for the mechanism of the gravitropic reaction of Phycomyces
Phycomyces
is based on the floatability of the vacuole within the surrounding cytoplasm.[8] The resulting asymmetric distribution of the cytoplasm is proposed to generate increased wall growth on the lower side of horizonally placed sporangiophores as in the thicker cytoplasmic layer forming there the number of vesicles secreting cell-wall material would be higher than on the upper side. Gravitropic bending starts after approximately 15 – 30 min in horizontally placed sporangiophores and continues until after, approximately 12 – 14 hours, the sporangiophore tip has recovered its original vertical position. Usually, the gravitropic response is weaker compared to the phototrophic one. However, in certain conditions, equilibrium could be established and the responses are comparable. In plants and fungi, phototropism and gravitropism interact in a complex manner. During continuous irradiation with unilateral light, the sporangiophore (fruiting body) of the zygomycete fungus, Phycomyces
Phycomyces
blakesleeanus reach a bending angle of photogravitropic equilibrium at which the gravitropic and phototropic stimuli balance each other (Fig. 1, bending angle +α, due to light irradiation[9]).

Lipid globules and protein crystals in sporangiophore. 1. Lipid globules; 2. Protein crystals; 3. Vacuolar transepts; 4. Central vacuole

Protein crystals involved in graviperception[edit] In Phycomyces
Phycomyces
blakesleeanus, wild type sporangiophores contain large, easily seen octahedral paracrystalline crystals with size up to 5×5×5 μm. Generally, they are found near the main vacuole in clusters consisting of more than ten crystals. They are often associated to the vaculoar transepts. Sedimentation with speed of about 100 μm/s can be observed when the sporangiophores are tilted. Sliding along during sedimentation or pulling at the vacuolar membranes and transepts serves as an inter-cellular signal to a probable cytoskeleton response, and that activates receptors located in the cell membrane. These receptors in turn trigger a chain of events which finally leads to the asymmetrical growth of the cell wall. Studies of the bending angle of wild type and mutant strain sporangiophore growth have shown that mutant strains that do not have crystals exhibit reduced gravitropic response.[9] Lipid droplets involved in gravipereception[edit] Complex of apical lipid globules are also involved in gravipereception. These lipids are clustered in cellular structures, complex of lipid globules, about 0.1mm below the very tip of the apex. (Fig. 2) The globules migrate to the columella when the sporangium is formed. In mature stage this complex is believed to act as a gravireceptor due to its floatability. Mutants that lack this lipid complex show greatly lowered gravitropic response[8] Phylogeny[edit] Animals and fungi evolved from a single-celled and flagellate ancestor.[10] The divisions Zygomycota
Zygomycota
and Chytridiomycota
Chytridiomycota
form the basal group of fungi and are polyphyletic while Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
and Ascomycota
Ascomycota
are monophyletic and are close relatives. The lack of complex fruiting bodies and the fact that most of its representatives have coenocytic and aseptate hyphae, during all or part of their life cycle, makes the Zygomycota
Zygomycota
to be considered as the primitive and early diverging lineage of the fungi.[11] The earliest fossil of fungi appears about 460 million years ago in the Ordovician period. According to molecular analysis of individual genes, the age of fungi is estimated to be about 1 billion years. Moreover, the analysis of about 50 genes indicates fungi to be 1.5 billion years old.[12] Only those that produce zygospores are classified under the Zygomycota.

Industrial uses[edit] Many species of zygomycetes can be used in important industrial processes. A resume of them is presented in the table.

Species Product Uses

Several Mucor and Rhizopus
Rhizopus
spp. Lipases and proteases Leather, detergent and medical industry (steroid transformation)

Rhizopus Cellulases Food production (i.e., tofu)

R. oryzae, other Rhizopus
Rhizopus
spp. Fumaric acid Diverse

Rhizopus
Rhizopus
spp. Lactic acid Diverse

R. delemar Biotin Diverse

Mortierella romanniana, Mortierella vinacea and Mucor indicus Linolenic acid Diverse

Mortierella alpina Arachidonic acid Diverse

Blakeslea trispora β-carotene Diverse

Culture conditions[edit]

Zygomycetes on solid media

The zygomycetes are able to grow in a wide range of environments. Most of them are mesophilic (growing at 10–40 °C with an optimum 20–35 °C), but some, like Mucor miehei or Mucor pusillus, are thermophilic with a minimum growth temperature of about 20 °C and maximum extending up to 60 °C. Others like Mucor hiemalis can grow at temperatures below 0 °C. Some species of the order Mucorales
Mucorales
are able to grow under anaerobic conditions, while most of them require aerobic conditions. Furthermore, while the majority of the zygomycetes only grow at high water activities, some of them are able to grow in salt concentrations of at least 15%. Most species of Mucor grow rapidly on agar at room temperature filling the petri dish in 2–3 days with their coarse aerial mycelium. When incubated in liquid culture under semi-anaerobic conditions, several species grow in yeast like state. Zygospore formation may be stimulated at higher temperatures of incubation (30–40 °C).

Zygomycetes on Sub-media, in light and non-light condition

Growth of Zygomycota
Zygomycota
in solid agar can produce low or very high fibrous colony that rapidly fills the entire petri dish. Its color may range from pure white to shades of gray or brown. In old cultures, dark pigmented sporangia are observed. Everything depends on the species and the media used. In liquid culture, Zygomycota
Zygomycota
usually form a bland mass and do not produce spores. This is because they cannot grow aerial hyphae. Culture media[edit] Zygomycetes grow well on most standard fungal culture medium such as Sabouraud dextrose agar. They can also grow on both selective and non-selective media. Minimal media, supplementary media and induction media can also be used. Most zygomycetes are sensitive to cycloheximide (actidione) and this agent should not be used in culture media. Reproduction[edit] A common example of a zygomycete is black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer), a member of the Mucorales. It spreads over the surface of bread and other food sources, sending hyphae inward to absorb nutrients. In its asexual phase it develops bulbous black sporangia at the tips of upright hyphae, each containing hundreds of haploid spores. As in most zygomycetes, asexual reproduction is the most common form of reproduction. Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
in Rhizopus
Rhizopus
stolonifer, as in other zygomycetes, occurs when haploid hyphae of different mating types are in close proximity to each other. Growth of the gametangia commences after gametangia come in contact, and plasmogamy, or the fusion of the cytoplasm, occurs. Karyogamy, which is the fusion of the nuclei, follows closely after. The zygosporangia are then diploid. Zygosporangia are typically thick-walled, highly resilient to environmental hardships, and metabolically inert. When conditions improve, however, they germinate to produce a sporangium or vegetative hyphae. Meiosis
Meiosis
occurs during germination of the zygosporagium so the resulting spores or hyphae are haploid. Grows in warm and damp conditions. Some zygomycetes disperse their spores in a more precise manner than simply allowing them to drift aimlessly on air currents. Pilobolus, a fungus which grows on animal dung, bends its sporangiophores towards light with the help of a light sensitive pigment (beta-carotene) and then "fires" them with an explosive squirt of high-pressure cytoplasm. Sporangia can be launched as far as 2 m, placing them far away from the dung and hopefully on vegetation which will be eaten by an herbivore, eventually to be deposited with dung elsewhere. Different mechanisms for forcible spore discharge have evolved among members of the zygomycete order Entomophthorales. Evolution of conidia[edit] The evolution of the conidium from the sporangiospore is the main defining difference between zygomycetes and ascomycetes.[13] The evolution of sporangiospores typical of zygomycetes to conidia similar to those found in ascomycetes can be modeled by a series of forms seen in zygomycetes. Many zygomycetes produce multiple sporangiospores inside a single sporangium. Some have evolved multiple small sporangiola that contain few sporangiospores. In some cases, there may be a few as three spores in each sporangiolum, and a few species have sporangiola which contain just a single spore. Choanephora, a zygomycete, has a sporangiolum that contains one spore with a sporangium wall that is visible at the base of the sporangium. This structure is similar to a conidium, which has two, fused cell walls, an inner spore wall and an outer sporangium wall. References[edit]

^ Krogh, David (2010). Biology: A Guide to the Natural World. Benjamin-Cummings P. p. 409. ISBN 978-0-321-61655-5.  ^ Raven, P.H.; Evert, R.F.; Eichhorn, S.E. (2005). "Fungi". Biology of plants (7th ed.). W.H. Freeman. pp. 268–9. ISBN 0716762846.  ^ David Moore; Geoffrey D. Robson; Anthony P. J. Trinci (14 July 2011). 21st Century Guidebook to Fungi. Cambridge University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-107-00676-8.  ^ Gow, Neil A. R.; Gadd, Geoffrey M., eds. (1995). Growing Fungus. Springer. ISBN 978-0-412-46600-7.  ^ Watkinson, Sarah C.; Boddy, Lynne; Money, Nicholas (2015). The Fungi (3rd ed.). Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-382035-8.  ^ Gooday, Graham W.; Carlile, Michael J. (August 1997). "The discovery of fungal sex hormones: III. Trisporic acid and its precursors". Mycologist. 11 (3): 126–130. doi:10.1016/S0269-915X(97)80017-1.  ^ a b Schultze K, Schimek C, Wöstemeyer J, Burmester A (2005). "Sexuality and parasitism share common regulatory pathways in the fungus Parasitella parasitica". Gene. 348: 33–44. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2005.01.007. PMID 15777660.  ^ a b Grolig F, Herkenrath H, Pumm T, Gross A, Galland P (February 2004). "Gravity susception by buoyancy: floating lipid globules in sporangiophores of phycomyces". Planta. 218 (4): 658–667. doi:10.1007/s00425-003-1145-x.  ^ a b Schimek C, Eibe P, Horiel T, Galland P, Ootaki T (1999). "Protein crystals in phycomyces sporangiophores are involved in graviperception". Advances in Space Research. 24 (6): 687–696. doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(99)00400-7.  ^ Lee SC, Ni M, Li W, Shertz C, Heitman J (2010). "The evolution of sex: a perspective from the fungal kingdom". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 74 (2): 298–340. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00005-10. PMC 2884414 . PMID 20508251.  ^ Voigt K, Wöstemeyer J (2001). "Phylogeny and origin of 82 zygomycetes from all 54 genera of the Mucorales
Mucorales
and Mortierellales based on combined analysis of actin and translation elongation factor EF-1alpha genes". Gene. 270 (1-2): 113–20. doi:10.1016/s0378-1119(01)00464-4. PMID 11404008.  ^ White MM, Timothy YJ, Kerry O, Matias JC, Yuuhiko T (2006). "Phylogeny of the Zygomycota
Zygomycota
based on nuclear ribosomal sequence data". Mycologia. 98 (6): 872–884. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.6.872. JSTOR 20444777.  ^ Cain, R. F. (1972). "Evolution of the Fungi". Mycologia. 64 (1): 1–14. doi:10.2307/3758010. JSTOR 3758010. 

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Zygomycota

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zygomycota.

Zygomycota
Zygomycota
at the Tree of Life Web Project Zygomycetes.org List of all Zygomycetes species from Zygomycetes database by PM Kirk in Catalogue of Life 2008 Mucorales
Mucorales
at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

v t e

Opisthokont: True fungi classification, fungal orders

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

Dikarya

Ascomycota (sac fungi)

Pezizomycotina

Leotiomyceta

Dothideomyceta

Coniocybomycetes Lichinomycetes Arthoniomycetes Dothideomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes

Sordariomyceta

Xylonomycetes Geoglossomycetes Leotiomycetes Laboulbeniomycetes Sordariomycetes

Other

Orbiliomycetes Pezizomycetes

Saccharomycotina

Saccharomycetes

Taphrinomycotina

Archaeorhizomycetes Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes

Basidiomycota (with basidia)

Pucciniomycotina

Tritirachiomycetes Mixiomycetes Agaricostilbomycetes Cystobasidiomycetes Microbotryomycetes Classiculomycetes Cryptomycocolacomycetes Atractiellomycetes Pucciniomycetes

Ustilaginomycotina

Monilielliomycetes Malasseziomycetes Ustilaginomycetes Exobasidiomycetes

Agaricomycotina

Hymenomycete

Dacrymycetales Agaricomycetes

Other

Wallemiomycetes Bartheletiomycetes Tremellomycetes

Entorrhizomycota

Entorrhizomycetes

Glomeromycota

Glomeromycetes

Zygomycota (paraphyletic)

Mucoromycotina

Mortierellomycetes Mucoromycetes

Kickxellomycotina

Zoopagomycetes Kickxellomycetes

Entomophthoromycotina

Neozygitomycetes Basidiobolomycetes Entomophthoromycetes

Zoosporic fungi (paraphyletic)

Olpidiomycota

Olpidiomycetes

Blastocladiomycota

Blastocladiomycetes

Chytridiomycota

Neocallimastigomycetes Hyaloraphidiomycetes Monoblepharidomycetes Chytridiomycetes

Fungal phyla are underlined. See also: fungi imperfecti (polyphyletic group).

v t e

Fungal infection and mesomycetozoea (B35–B49, 110–118)

Superficial and cutaneous (dermatomycosis): Tinea
Tinea
= skin; Piedra (exothrix/ endothrix) = hair

Ascomycota

Dermatophyte (Dermatophytosis)

By location

Tinea
Tinea
barbae/tinea capitis

Kerion

Tinea
Tinea
corporis

Ringworm Dermatophytids

Tinea
Tinea
cruris Tinea
Tinea
manuum Tinea
Tinea
pedis (athlete's foot) Tinea
Tinea
unguium/onychomycosis

White superficial onychomycosis Distal subungual onychomycosis Proximal subungual onychomycosis

Tinea
Tinea
corporis gladiatorum Tinea
Tinea
faciei Tinea
Tinea
imbricata Tinea
Tinea
incognito Favus

By organism

Epidermophyton floccosum Microsporum canis Microsporum audouinii Trichophyton
Trichophyton
interdigitale/mentagrophytes Trichophyton
Trichophyton
tonsurans Trichophyton
Trichophyton
schoenleini Trichophyton
Trichophyton
rubrum Trichophyton
Trichophyton
verrucosum

Other

Hortaea werneckii

Tinea
Tinea
nigra

Piedraia hortae

Black piedra

Basidiomycota

Malassezia
Malassezia
furfur

Tinea
Tinea
versicolor Pityrosporum folliculitis

Trichosporon

White piedra

Subcutaneous, systemic, and opportunistic

Ascomycota

Dimorphic (yeast+mold)

Onygenales

Coccidioides immitis/Coccidioides posadasii

Coccidioidomycosis Disseminated coccidioidomycosis Primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis. Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis

Histoplasma capsulatum

Histoplasmosis Primary cutaneous histoplasmosis Primary pulmonary histoplasmosis Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis

Histoplasma duboisii

African histoplasmosis

Lacazia loboi

Lobomycosis

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Paracoccidioidomycosis

Other

Blastomyces
Blastomyces
dermatitidis

Blastomycosis North American blastomycosis South American blastomycosis

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis

Penicillium marneffei

Penicilliosis

Yeast-like

Candida albicans

Candidiasis Oral Esophageal Vulvovaginal Chronic mucocutaneous Antibiotic candidiasis Candidal intertrigo Candidal onychomycosis Candidal paronychia Candidid Diaper candidiasis Congenital cutaneous candidiasis Perianal candidiasis Systemic candidiasis Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica

C. glabrata C. tropicalis C. lusitaniae Pneumocystis
Pneumocystis
jirovecii

Pneumocystosis Pneumocystis
Pneumocystis
pneumonia

Mold-like

Aspergillus

Aspergillosis Aspergilloma Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Primary cutaneous aspergillosis

Exophiala jeanselmei

Eumycetoma

Fonsecaea pedrosoi/Fonsecaea compacta/Phialophora verrucosa

Chromoblastomycosis

Geotrichum candidum

Geotrichosis

Pseudallescheria boydii

Allescheriasis

Basidiomycota

Cryptococcus neoformans

Cryptococcosis Trichosporon spp Trichosporonosis

Zygomycota (Zygomycosis)

Mucorales (Mucormycosis)

Rhizopus
Rhizopus
oryzae Mucor indicus Lichtheimia corymbifera Syncephalastrum racemosum Apophysomyces variabilis

Entomophthorales (Entomophthoramycosis)

Basidiobolus ranarum

Basidiobolomycosis

Conidiobolus coronatus/Conidiobolus incongruus

Conidiobolomycosis

Microsporidia (Microsporidiosis)

Enterocytozoon bieneusi/Encephalitozoon intestinalis

Mesomycetozoea

Rhinosporidium seeberi

Rhinosporidiosis

Ungrouped

Alternariosis Fungal folliculitis Fusarium

Fusariosis

Granuloma gluteale infantum Hyalohyphomycosis Otomycosis Phaeohyphomycosis

v t e

Eukaryota

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

Diaphoretickes

Archaeplastida

Glaucophyta Rhodophyta

Viridiplantae Plantae s.s.

Chlorophyta Streptophyta

Cryptista

Corbihelia Cryptophyta

A+H

Ancoracysta twista Haptista

Centroheliozoa Haptophyta

SAR

Halvaria

Alveolata

Ciliates Miozoa

Acavomonadia Colponemidia Myzozoa

Stramenopiles (heterokonts)

Bicosoecea Developea Hyphochytrea Ochrophyta Peronosporomycota Pirsoniomycota Placidozoa Platysulcea Sagenista

Rhizaria

Filosa Phytomyxea Retaria

Ectoreta Marimyxia

Vampyrellidea

Incertae sedis

Kamera lens

Excavata

Ancyromonadida Malawimonadea Metamonada
Metamonada
(Anaeromonada, Trichozoa)

Discoba

Jakobea Tsukubea

Discicristata

Euglenozoa Percolozoa

Podiata

Amorphea

Amoebozoa

Conosa
Conosa
(Archamoebae, Semiconosia) Lobosa
Lobosa
(Cutosea, Discosea, Tubulinea)

Obazoa

Apusomonadida Breviatea

Opisthokonta

Holomycota

Cristidiscoidea Opisthosporidia

Aphelida Cryptomycota Microsporidia

True fungi

Holozoa

Choanoflagellates Filasterea Metazoa or Animals Ichthyosporea Pluriformea

Syssomonas Corallochytrea

CRuMs

Diphyllatea Mantamonadida Rigifilida Discocelida? Micronucleariida?

Incertae sedis

Parakaryon myojinensis †Acritarcha †Charnia †Gakarusia †Galaxiopsis †Grypania †Leptoteichos

Major kingdoms are underlined. See also: protist. Sources and alternative views: Wikispecies.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q215384 EoL: 5560 EPPO: 1ZYGOP Fungorum: 90405 ITIS: 9362

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