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The Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
moths are a family of Lepidoptera. The majority of zygaenids are tropical, but they are nevertheless quite well represented in temperate regions. Some of the 1000 or so species are commonly known as burnet or forester moths, often qualified by the number of spots, although other families also have 'foresters'. They are also sometimes called smoky moths. All 43 species of Australian zygaenids are commonly known as foresters and belong to the tribe Artonini. The only nonendemic species in Australia is Palmartona catoxantha, a Southeast Asian pest species which is believed to be already present in Australia or likely to arrive soon.[1]

Contents

1 Description 2 Economic importance 3 Description 4 Selected taxa 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Description[edit] Zygaenid moths are typically day flying with a slow, fluttering flight, and with rather clubbed antennae. They generally have a metallic sheen and often prominent spots of red or yellow. The bright colours are a warning to predators that the moths are distasteful - they contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN) throughout all stages of their life cycle. Unlike most insects with such toxins, they obtain glucosides from the plants they utilize so that HCN can be used as a defence.[2] However, they are capable of making HCN themselves, and when in an environment poor in cyanide-producing plants, synthesize it themselves.[3] They are known to have mimicry complexes based on these toxins.[4] Adults are small and grey or black in colour. The prothorax is often reddish and has bright markings. Adults have a well-developed proboscis and can be found visiting flowers. Antennae are pectinate in both sexes and plumose in males. Adult wings rest with fore wings directed backwards to cover the hind wings and abdomen. Economic importance[edit] The grapeleaf skeletonizer can be a problem in vineyards, feeding on foliage and can also be found feeding on Virginia creeper. Description[edit] Larvae are stout and may be flattened. A fleshy extension of the thorax covers the head. Most feed on herbaceous plants, but some are tree feeders. Larvae in two subfamilies, Chalcosiinae
Chalcosiinae
and Zygaeninae, have cavities in which they store the cyanide, and can excrete it as defensive droplets.[5] Selected taxa[edit]

Satin-green forester (Pollanisus viridipulverulenta) found in most of Australia (including temperate Tasmania)

Genera incertae sedis include:

Acoloithus Harrisina Pyromorpha Reissita Seryda Tetraclonia Triprocris

Pest species include:

Almond-tree leaf skeletonizer moth
Almond-tree leaf skeletonizer moth
(Aglaope infausta) Vine bud moth
Vine bud moth
(Theresimima ampellophaga) Grapeleaf skeletonizer
Grapeleaf skeletonizer
( Harrisina americana)

UK species:

Scarce forester
Scarce forester
(Jordanita globulariae) Cistus forester
Cistus forester
(Adscita geryon) Green forester (Adscita statices) Scotch burnet (Zygaena exulans) Slender Scotch burnet (Zygaena loti) New Forest burnet (Zygaena viciae) Six-spot burnet
Six-spot burnet
(Zygaena filipendulae) Five-spot burnet (Zygaena trifolii) Narrow-bordered five-spot burnet
Narrow-bordered five-spot burnet
(Zygaena lonicerae) Transparent burnet
Transparent burnet
(Zygaena purpuralis)

African species:

Fire grid burnet
Fire grid burnet
(Arniocera erythopyga)

Extinct species:

Neurosymploca? oligocenica Fernández-Rubio & Nel, 2000 (Lower Stampian, Céreste, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France)

See also[edit]

List of zygaenid genera

References[edit]

^ Tarmann, G.M. "Zygaenid moths of Australia. A revision of the Australian Zygaenidae". ^ The Lepidoptera: Form, function and diversity. Oxford Univ. Press. ^ [1] ^ Naumann, C.M., Tarmann, G.M. & Tremewan, W.G. (1999). The Western Palaearctic Zygaenidae. Apollo Books. ^ Niehuis, O., Yen, S.H., Naumann, C.M. & Misof, B. (2006). "Higher phylogeny of zygaenid moths (Insecta : Lepidoptera) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data and the evolution of larval cuticular cavities for chemical defence." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39(3): 812-829.

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Zygaenidae

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zygaenidae.

List of Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
Types, p. 8-11 ( Museum Witt
Museum Witt
München). Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa - Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
- lots of pictures of species Family Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
at Lepidoptera.pro Science News: Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
"make cyanide using the exact same cellular machinery as their host plants" Images of Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
species in New Zealand

v t e

Extant Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Zeugloptera

Micropterigoidea

Micropterigidae
Micropterigidae
(mandibulate archaic moths)

Suborder Aglossata

Agathiphagoidea

Agathiphagidae (kauri moths)

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Heterobathmioidea

Heterobathmiidae

Suborder Glossata

Dacnonypha

Eriocranioidea

Eriocraniidae

Acanthoctesia

Acanthopteroctetoidea

Acanthopteroctetidae (archaic sun moths)

Lophocoronina

Lophocoronoidea

Lophocoronidae

Neopseustina

Neopseustoidea

Neopseustidae (archaic bell moths)

Exoporia

Hepialoidea

Anomosetidae Hepialidae
Hepialidae
(swift moths, ghost moths) Neotheoridae (Amazonian primitive ghost moths) Palaeosetidae (miniature ghost moths) Prototheoridae (African primitive ghost moths)

Mnesarchaeoidea

Mnesarchaeidae (New Zealand primitive moths)

H e t e r o n e u r a

M o n o t r y s i a

Incurvarioidea

Adelidae
Adelidae
(fairy longhorn moths) Cecidosidae Crinopterygidae Heliozelidae Incurvariidae Prodoxidae
Prodoxidae
(yucca moths)

Andesianoidea

Andesianidae (Andean endemic moths)

Nepticuloidea

Nepticulidae
Nepticulidae
(pigmy, or midget moths) Opostegidae
Opostegidae
(white eyecap moths)

Palaephatoidea

Palaephatidae (Gondwanaland moths)

Tischerioidea

Tischeriidae (trumpet leaf miner moths)

D i t r y s i a

Simaethistoidea

Simaethistidae

Tineoidea

Acrolophidae
Acrolophidae
(burrowing webworm moths) Arrhenophanidae Eriocottidae (Old World spiny-winged moths) Lypusidae Psychidae (bagworm moths) Tineidae
Tineidae
(fungus moths)

Gracillarioidea

Bucculatricidae
Bucculatricidae
(ribbed cocoon makers) Douglasiidae (Douglas moths) Gracillariidae Roeslerstammiidae

Yponomeutoidea

Acrolepiidae
Acrolepiidae
(false diamondback moths) Bedelliidae Glyphipterigidae
Glyphipterigidae
(sedge moths) Heliodinidae Lyonetiidae Plutellidae Yponomeutidae (ermine moths) Ypsolophidae

Gelechioidea

Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
(case-bearers, case moths) Cosmopterigidae
Cosmopterigidae
(cosmet moths) Elachistidae
Elachistidae
(grass-miner moths) Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
(twirler moths) Lecithoceridae
Lecithoceridae
(long-horned moths) Metachandidae Momphidae
Momphidae
(mompha moths) Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
(concealer moths) Pterolonchidae Scythrididae
Scythrididae
(flower moths) Xyloryctidae
Xyloryctidae
(timber moths)

Galacticoidea

Galacticidae

Zygaenoidea

Heterogynidae Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
(burnet, forester, or smoky moths) Himantopteridae Lacturidae Somabrachyidae Megalopygidae (flannel moths) Aididae Anomoeotidae Cyclotornidae Epipyropidae
Epipyropidae
(planthopper parasite moths) Dalceridae
Dalceridae
(slug caterpillars) Limacodidae
Limacodidae
(slug, or cup moths)

Cossoidea

Cossidae
Cossidae
(carpenter millers, or goat moths) Dudgeoneidae (dudgeon carpenter moths)

Sesioidea

Brachodidae (little bear moths) Castniidae
Castniidae
(castniid moths: giant butterfly-moths, sun moths) Sesiidae
Sesiidae
(clearwing moths)

Choreutoidea

Choreutidae
Choreutidae
(metalmark moths)

Tortricoidea

Tortricidae
Tortricidae
(tortrix moths)

Urodoidea

Urodidae
Urodidae
(false burnet moths)

Schreckensteinioidea

Schreckensteiniidae
Schreckensteiniidae
(bristle-legged moths)

Epermenioidea

Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
(fringe-tufted moths)

Alucitoidea

Alucitidae (many-plumed moths) Tineodidae (false plume moths)

Pterophoroidea

Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
(plume moths)

Whalleyanoidea

Whalleyanidae

Immoidea

Immidae

Copromorphoidea

Copromorphidae (tropical fruitworm moths) Carposinidae
Carposinidae
(fruitworm moths)

Hyblaeoidea

Hyblaeidae
Hyblaeidae
(teak moths)

Pyraloidea

Pyralidae
Pyralidae
(snout moths) Crambidae
Crambidae
(grass moth)

Thyridoidea

Thyrididae
Thyrididae
(picture-winged leaf moths)

Mimallonoidea

Mimallonidae (sack bearer moths)

Lasiocampoidea

Lasiocampidae
Lasiocampidae
(eggars, snout moths, or lappet moths)

Bombycoidea

Anthelidae
Anthelidae
(Australian lappet moth) Bombycidae
Bombycidae
(silk moths) Brahmaeidae
Brahmaeidae
(Brahmin moths) Carthaeidae (Dryandra moth) Endromidae
Endromidae
(Kentish glory and relatives) Eupterotidae Lemoniidae Saturniidae
Saturniidae
(saturniids) Sphingidae
Sphingidae
(hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms) Phiditiidae

Noctuoidea

Doidae Erebidae
Erebidae
(underwing, tiger, tussock, litter, snout, owlet moths) Euteliidae Noctuidae
Noctuidae
(daggers, sallows, owlet moths, quakers, cutworms, darts) Nolidae
Nolidae
(tuft moths) Notodontidae
Notodontidae
(prominents, kittens) Oenosandridae

Drepanoidea

Epicopeiidae
Epicopeiidae
(oriental swallowtail moths) Drepanidae
Drepanidae
(hook-tips)

Geometroidea

Sematuridae Uraniidae Geometridae (geometer moths)

Cimelioidea

Cimeliidae (gold moths)

Calliduloidea

Callidulidae
Callidulidae
(Old World butterfly-moths)

Superfamily unassigned

Millieriidae

Rhopalocera (butterflies)

Hedyloidea

Hedylidae
Hedylidae
(American moth-butterflies)

Hesperioidea

Hesperiidae (skippers)

Papilionoidea (true butterflies)

Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(gossamer-winged butterflies: blues, coppers and relatives) Nymphalidae
Nymphalidae
(brush-footed, or four-footed butterflies) Papilionidae (swallowtail butterflies) Pieridae
Pieridae
(whites, yellows, orangetips, sulphurs) Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(metalmarks)

Note: division Monotrysia
Monotrysia
is not a clade.

Taxonomy of the Lepidoptera Lists by region

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q156847 BAMONA: Zygaenidae BugGuide: 175 EoL: 922 EPPO: 1ZYGAF Fauna Europaea: 3925 Fossilworks: 134815 GBIF: 8875 ITIS: 6

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