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ZHYTOMYR (Ukrainian : Жито́мир pronounced , Russian : Жито́мир, Polish : Żytomierz, Yiddish : זשיטאָמיר‎) is a city in the north of the western half of Ukraine
Ukraine
. It is the administrative center of Zhytomyr Oblast
Zhytomyr Oblast
(province ), as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Zhytomyr Raion
Raion
(district ). The city of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is not a part of Zhytomyr Raion: the city itself is designated as its own separate raion within the oblast; moreover Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
consists of two so-called "raions in a city": Bohunskyi Raion
Raion
and Koroliovskyi Raion
Raion
(named in honour of Sergey Korolyov
Sergey Korolyov
). Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
occupies an area of 65 square kilometres (25 square miles). Its population is 271,303 (2013 est.) .

Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is a major transportation hub. The city lies on a historic route linking the city of Kiev
Kiev
with the west through Brest . Today it links Warsaw
Warsaw
with Kiev, Minsk
Minsk
with Izmail , and several major cities of Ukraine. Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
was also the location of Ozerne airbase , a key Cold War
Cold War
strategic aircraft base located 11 kilometres (6.8 miles) southeast of the city.

Important economic activities of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
include lumber milling, food processing, granite quarrying, metalworking, and the manufacture of musical instruments.

Zhytomyr Oblast
Zhytomyr Oblast
is the main center of the Polish minority in Ukraine , and in the city itself there is a Latin Catholic cathedral and large Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Polish cemetery, founded in 1800. It is regarded as the third biggest Polish cemetery outside Poland, after the Lychakivskiy Cemetery in Lviv
Lviv
and Rasos Cemetery in Vilnius
Vilnius
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Population

* 2.1 Demographic history * 2.2 Roman Catholics * 2.3 Jews in Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr

* 3 Culture

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Climate

* 5 Economy

* 6 Transport
Transport

* 6.1 Public city transport

* 7 International relations

* 7.1 Twin towns – sister cities

* 8 Famous people from Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
* 9 Gallery * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Sources and external links

HISTORY

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Kyivska (Kiev) street looking West toward St. Michael's Cathedral. Photo early 1900s. Old water tower in Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
Sobornyi Maidan - main square of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
Typical old Zhytomyr architecture Former private residence in Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
City Hall Court
Court
building in Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
Fountains in Gagarin park, Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr

Legend holds that Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
was established about 884 by Zhytomyr, prince of a Slavic tribe of Drevlians . This date, 884, is cut in the large stone of the ice age times, standing on the hill where Zhytomyr was founded. Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
was one of the prominent cities of Kievan Rus\' . The first records of the town date from 1240, when it was sacked by the Mongol
Mongol
hordes of Batu Khan .

In 1320 Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
was captured by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and received Magdeburg rights in 1444. After the Union of Lublin (1569) the city was incorporated into the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and in 1667, following the Treaty of Andrusovo , it became the capital of the Kiev
Kiev
Voivodeship . In the Second Partition of Poland
Second Partition of Poland
in 1793 it passed to Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
and became the capital of the Volhynian Governorate .

Following the Union of Lublin , Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
(known in Polish as Żytomierz) became an important center of local administration, seat of the starosta , and capital of Żytomierz County. Here, sejmiks of Kiev
Kiev
Voivodeship took place. In 1572, the town had 142 buildings, a manor house of the starosta and a castle. Following the privilege of King Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
, Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
had the right for two fairs a year. The town, which enjoyed royal protection of Polish kings, prospered until the Khmelnytsky Uprising (1648), when it was captured by Zaporozhian Cossacks and their allies, Crimean Tatars . Its residents were murdered, Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
was burned to the ground, and all government files were destroyed. In 1667, Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
became capital of Kiev Voivodeship, and in 1724, a Jesuit school and monastery were opened here. By 1765, Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
had five churches, including 3 Roman Catholic and 2 Orthodox, and 285 houses.

In 1793 Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
was annexed by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, and in 1804 was named capital of the Volhynian Governorate. In 1798, a Roman Catholic Diocese of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
was established. During the January Uprising , the town was a stronghold of Polish rebels.

During a brief period of Ukrainian independence in 1918 the city was for a few weeks the national capital. Nicolas Werth claims that armed units of the Ukrainian People's Republic were also responsible for rapes, looting, and massacres in Zhytomyr, in which 500–700 Jews lost their lives. From 1920 the city was under Soviet rule. Under Soviet rule a German National District was set up in the area for the German minority, according to Soviet minorities policy before World War II .

During World War II
World War II
Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
and the surrounding territory came for two and a half years (first from July 9, 1941 to November 12, 1943 and again from November 19, 1943 to December 31, 1943 ) under Nazi German occupation and was Heinrich Himmler 's Ukrainian headquarters. The Nazi regime in what they called the " Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
General District" became what historian Wendy Lower describes as

a laboratory for… Himmler's resettlement activists… the elimination of the Jews and German colonization of the East—transformed the landscape and devastated the population to an extent that was not experienced in other parts of Nazi-occupied Europe besides Poland. … ltimately, the exigencies of the war effort and mounting partisan warfare behind the lines prevented Nazi leaders from fully developing and realizing their colonial aims in Ukraine… In addition to the immediate destruction of all Jewish communities, Himmler insisted that the Ukrainian civilian population be brought to a 'minimum.'

From 1991, the city has been part of the independent Ukraine.

POPULATION

DEMOGRAPHIC HISTORY

YEAR INHABITANTS

1861 40,564

1891 69,785

1897 65,895 (of whom(by language) 31,000 Jews, 17,000 Russians, 9,000 Ukrainians, 7,000 Poles)

1926 76,700 (of whom 10,500 were Russians)

1939 95,100

1941 40,100 (Russians along with Poles, Jews, and Germans in minority)

2005 277,900

2015 269,493

ROMAN CATHOLICS

Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
was a Latin Catholic bishopric since 1321, but the see was suppressed in 1789 in favor of the Diocese of Lutsk and Zytomierz , until that was split up again in 1925, when it was restored as the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Diocese of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
; that was formally suppressed in 1998 to establish the Diocese of Kyïv–Žytomyr , but actually the city retains the episcopal see in its Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom , while Kiev
Kiev
(although first in the title and the national capital) only has a co-cathedral .

The Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
cemetery was opened in 1800. At first, it served Polish nobility from Volhynia
Volhynia
, such as the Czeczel and the Woronicz families. Later, other Catholics were buried here, including Germans, Ukrainians and Russians.

In 1840, the Chapel of St. Stanislaus was built (now in ruins), and the cemetery was divided into nine districts, named after different saints. In the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, the complex was devastated, now it is under the process of renovation.

Among most famous people buried here are:

* Bronislaw Matyjewicz-Maciejewicz, one of the first Polish air pilots * Karol Niedzialkowski - bishop of Lutsk and Zhytomir in the late 19th century * Apolinary Wnukowski - Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
archbishop and scholar * Juliusz Zarebski - Polish composer * parents of Ignacy Jan Paderewski * the family of Stanislaw Moniuszko

JEWS IN ZHYTOMYR

Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
Jewish Institute building

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Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
apparently had few Jews at the time of the Khmelnytsky Uprising (1648), but by the time it became part of Russia
Russia
in 1778, it had a large Jewish community, and was a center of the Hasidic movement. Jews formed nearly one-third of the 1861 population (13,299 in 40,564); thirty years later, they had somewhat outpaced the general growth of the city, with 24,062 Jews in a total population of 69,785. By 1891 there were three large synagogues and 46 smaller batte midrash . The proportion of Jews was much lower in the surrounding district of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
than in the city itself; at the turn of the century (circa 1900) there were 22,636 Jews in a total population of 281,378.

In Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
, Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
held the same status as the official Jewish center of southern part of the Pale of Settlement as Vilnius held in the north. The printing of Hebrew books was permitted only in these two cities during the monopoly of Hebrew printing from 1845 to 1862, and both were chosen as the seats of the two rabbinical schools which were established by the government in 1848 in pursuance of its plans to force secular education on the Jews of Russia
Russia
in accordance with the program of the Teutonized Russian Haskalah movement. The rabbinical school of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
was considered the more Jewish, or rather the less Russianized, of the two ( Ha-Meliẓ , 1868, No. 40, cited in Jewish Encyclopedia). Its first head master was Jacob Eichenbaum , who was succeeded by Hayyim Selig Slonimski in 1862. The latter remained at the head of the school until it was closed (together with the one at Vilnius) in 1873 because of its failure to provide rabbis with a secular education who should be acceptable to the Jewish communities. Suchastover , Gottlober , Lerner
Lerner
, and Zweifel were among the best-known teachers of the rabbinical school at Zhytomyr, while Abraham Goldfaden , Salomon Mandelkern , and Abraham Jacob Paperna were among the students who later became famous in the Jewish world.

The teachers' institutes which were substituted for the rabbinical schools were, in the words of the Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
"scarcely more satisfactory" (The JE refers to the teachers' institute at Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
as "probably the worst-managed Jewish institution in Russia
Russia
of which there is any record," citing Prelooker, Under the Czar and Queen Victoria, pp. 8–21, London
London
, 1895). It was closed in 1885, succeeded by a Talmud Torah , a "government school" for boys, a girls' school, and several private schools for both sexes that the JE describes as "admirable", with comparable praise for other Jewish institutions of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
circa 1900.

While "never a center of rabbinical learning" (JE) Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
boasted a few rabbis of some note: Rabbi
Rabbi
Wolf (died 1800), author of the Or ha-Meïr (Koretz, 1795), and Rabbi
Rabbi
Aharon of Zhitomir , author of Toledot Aharon, disciples of Rabbi
Rabbi
Dov Ber of Mezeritch and early Hasidic rebbes (leaders), and Abraham Bär Mavruch, rosh bet din or acting rabbi of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
in the first half of the 19th century and author of the Bat 'Ayin (Zhytomyr, 1850).

The Jewish community of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
suffered pogroms : 1) on May 7–8, 1905, when the section of the city known as "Podol" was devastated, 20 were killed within the city; 2) 10 young Jewish neighbors were killed when they came to defend, and the Christian student Nicholas Blinov, also attempting to defend, likewise lost his life; on January 7–10, 1919; 3) and beginning on March 22, 1919, when, according to witnesses, the 317 deaths were a lesser number, due to both Christian sheltering efforts and the return of the Bolshevik troops within a few days.

The Jewish community of the region was largely destroyed in the Holocaust . In the four months beginning with Himmler's 25 July 1942 orders, "all of Ukraine's shtetls and ghettos lay in ruins; tens of thousands of Jewish men, women, and children were brutally murdered by stationary and mobile SS -police units and indigenous auxiliaries."

Today, the Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
Jewish community numbers about 5,000. The community is a part of the "Union of Jewish Communities in Ukraine" and the city and district's rabbinate. Rabbi
Rabbi
Shlomo Vilhelm, who came to the city as a Chabad emissary in 1994, serves as rabbi. Other Jewish institutions are also active in the city, including the Joint and its humanitarian branch "Chesed" and the Jewish Agency .

The community has an ancient synagogue in the city center which has a mikveh . Chabad operates in the city various educational institutions which have residence in a village next to the city.

CULTURE

The internationally renowned chamber choir OREYA is based in the city.

GEOGRAPHY

Teteriv River in Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr

Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
lies in a unique natural setting; all sides of the city are surrounded by ancient forests through which flow the Teteriv , Kamianka, Kroshenka and Putiatynka rivers . The Teteriv river generally forms the southern boundary of Zhytomyr, though there are also some small areas of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
city territory below the southern bank of the river. The city is rich in parks and public squares .

Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is set out on a mostly radial type of street net with the centre at the main public square of the city, named Sobornyi Maidan (which means Cathedral Square). A building containing courts and some other institutions is located in the west of the square. Before 1991, this building contained Zhytomyr Oblast
Zhytomyr Oblast
Committee of the Communist Party . Just behind the building (that is to the west of Sobornyi Square) a small quiet park is located, bearing the name of Zamkova Gora (Castle Mountain) and containing a monument-type boulder with an inscription stating that this is a place where Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
was founded. This historical centre of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is located in the southern part of the city. The old part of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is located on three rocky hills over the river Kamianka: Okhrimova, Zamkova, and Petrovska.

The old town is surrounded by new housing estates, the names of which are often borrowed from the former suburban villages or reflect the longstanding occupations common in these places. The main streets connecting Sobornyi Maidan with the outskirts of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
are Kyivska Street
Street
or Kiev
Kiev
Street
Street
(going to northeast, to the railway station and also to the main bus station of the city), Velyka Berdychivska Street (going to southeast ), Lech Kaczyński Street
Street
(going southwest; its further continuation is Chudnivska Street
Street
going to beaches and a forest-type park near the river of Teteriv), and Peremohy Street (going north).

The best-known street in the central part of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is Mykhailivska (named after St. Michael 's Church located at the northern end of the street). The street is located about 500 metres to the east of Sobornyi Maidan and runs approximately from north to south, connecting some points at the above-mentioned Kyivska Street
Street
and Velyka Berdychivska. Mykhailivska Street
Street
is for pedestrian traffic: vehicles are forbidden, with the exception of some slow-moving ones. A puppet theatre is nestled in the middle of the street, while the building of the Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
City
City
Council is located at its southern end. Several small coffee houses and cafés have sprung up here recently, frequented by locals from all walks of life and of all ages. If one crosses Velyka Berdychivska Street
Street
from the southern end of Mykhailivska Street, then one finds oneself at Korolyov Square containing the building of the Zhytomyr Oblast
Zhytomyr Oblast
Council. Crossing Kyivska Street
Street
from the northern end of Mykhailivska Street, one can continue to go along Pokrovska Street, another important long avenue of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
(going north).

The best-known park of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is named after Yuri Gagarin , located in the south of the city, at the left (northern) bank of the Teteriv River. It was formerly owned by the Baron
Baron
de Chaudoir.

CLIMATE

CLIMATE DATA FOR ZHYTOMYR

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 5.0 (41) 5.0 (41) 12.0 (53.6) 22.0 (71.6) 27.0 (80.6) 29.0 (84.2) 32.0 (89.6) 31.0 (87.8) 27.0 (80.6) 21.0 (69.8) 13.0 (55.4) 7.0 (44.6) 32 (89.6)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −2.8 (27) −1.4 (29.5) 3.5 (38.3) 11.9 (53.4) 19.6 (67.3) 22.9 (73.2) 24.9 (76.8) 24.0 (75.2) 19.1 (66.4) 11.9 (53.4) 4.1 (39.4) −0.7 (30.7) 11.4 (52.5)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −5.7 (21.7) −4.9 (23.2) −0.4 (31.3) 7.0 (44.6) 13.9 (57) 17.0 (62.6) 18.9 (66) 17.8 (64) 13.1 (55.6) 7.2 (45) 1.3 (34.3) −3.2 (26.2) 6.8 (44.2)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −8.8 (16.2) −8.3 (17.1) −3.7 (25.3) 2.6 (36.7) 8.3 (46.9) 11.6 (52.9) 13.3 (55.9) 12.4 (54.3) 8.1 (46.6) 3.2 (37.8) −1.4 (29.5) −5.6 (21.9) 2.6 (36.7)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −35.0 (−31) −35.0 (−31) −27.0 (−16.6) −11.0 (12.2) −4.0 (24.8) 1.0 (33.8) 5.0 (41) 2.0 (35.6) −5.0 (23) −20.0 (−4) −23.0 (−9.4) −31.0 (−23.8) −35 (−31)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 32 (1.26) 29 (1.14) 31 (1.22) 38 (1.5) 53 (2.09) 66 (2.6) 78 (3.07) 75 (2.95) 50 (1.97) 41 (1.61) 43 (1.69) 34 (1.34) 570 (22.44)

Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial

ECONOMY

Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
central department store

Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is an important economic center in the region. Enterprises in the city include glass, metal fabrication, electronic devices, screens, fabrics, furniture, shoes and others. In addition, a large pharmaceutical factory is located in Zhytomyr. Since 1944, a confectionery factory (ALC "ZhL") works in Zhytomyr; the enterprise is one of the leaders of Ukrainian confectionery market.

The city is home to the Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
Armored Factory. The factory has been one of the main repair facilities in Ukraine
Ukraine
since the start of the War in Donbass
War in Donbass
, running on 3 shifts. In September 2014 it was announced that the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine
Ukraine
had placed a 280 million hryvnia order with the factory.

TRANSPORT

Pushkinska Street
Street
Chudnivskyi bridge

In ancient times, the city was located on the important road from Kiev
Kiev
to the city of Brest-Litovsk . Now this road is of international highway connecting Kiev
Kiev
to the Hungarian border near Chop . Some other roads:

* connecting the cities Roman and Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
(through Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
) * H03 Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
- Chernivtsi
Chernivtsi
(through Khmelnytskyi ) * P18 Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
- Stavyshche (through Skvyra ) * P28 Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
- checkpoint "Vystupovychi" of the Ukrainian -Belarusian border (through Korosten ).

Railways
Railways
connect Koziatyn with Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
(through Berdychiv ), Korosten , Novohrad-Volynskyi , Korostyshiv and Fastiv . In 2011 a stretch of the Fastiv Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
rail line was electrified. Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is located about 131 kilometers from Kiev
Kiev
(by road 140 km, by rail 165 km).

The following trains pass through Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
train station (both directions for all):

* Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
- Korosten * Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
- Korosten * Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
- Korostyshiv * Korosten - Koziatyn * Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
- Koziatyn * Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
- Novohrad-Volynskyi * Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
- Fastiv

The city has an airport (however it is not currently being used for passenger transport; it is intended for the use of strategic bombers, though not currently being used).

Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
has three bus stations connecting it with many other cities and villages in Ukraine
Ukraine
and abroad. Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
has fifteen bridges and junctions built over rivers and roads. There is a 30-kilometer ring road around Zhytomyr. The most interesting bridge in Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is one over the Teteriv River in Gagarin Park (named after Yuri Gagarin ).

PUBLIC CITY TRANSPORT

Common kinds of public transport shuttling within Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
are trolleybuses , buses , and minibuses . There are also electric trams , but on one route only. Earlier there were several tram routes in Zhytomyr, but all excepting one were canceled during a period of domination of the opinion that a tram is a bad kind of transport . Trams began to shuttle in Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
in 1899. Thus Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
became the 5th city with electric trams within the territory of present-day Ukraine
Ukraine
. Trolleybuses appear in Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
in 1962. The total length of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
city electric transport routes (trolleybuses and trams) is 275 km.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine
Ukraine

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
is twinned with:

* Kutaisi
Kutaisi
, Georgia * Montana , Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Płock , Poland
Poland

FAMOUS PEOPLE FROM ZHYTOMYR

Sergei Korolev (left) on a 2007 Ukrainian stamp

* Ossip Bernstein , French chess player * Hayyim Nahman Bialik , Hebrew poet , born in Radi, Volhynia
Volhynia
, educated in Zhytomyr * Tadeusz Borowski , Polish writer * Anastasiya Chernenko , a professional triathlete * Jarosław Dąbrowski , Polish-French Paris Commune revolutionary * Luis Filcer , Ukrainian/Mexican painter * Samuel Freedman , Canadian judge, Manitoba Chief Justice * Yakov Gamarnik , Soviet Communist militant and military commander * Vladimir Hachinski , renowned clinical neuroscientist and researcher in stroke and dementia. He moved to Venezuela as a boy, and then to Canada. * Moisei Kasyanik , weightlifter * Alexander Kipnis , German then US opera singer (bass) * Volodymyr Korolenko , Ukrainian writer * Sergei Korolev , prominent rocket engineer and designer, the head of the Soviet space program * Boris Abramovich Kruhliak , Ukrainian historian * Inessa Lee , singer known as Singing Doll * Keni Liptzin , Jewish actress in Yiddish theatre * Boris Lyatoshinsky , Ukrainian composer * Julian Movchan , Ukrainian writer/journalist * Franciszek Niepokólczycki , Polish soldier * Oleh Olzhych , Ukrainian writer and nationalist militant * Mieczyslaw Pawlikowski , Polish actor * Sviatoslav Richter , Soviet pianist * Mikhail Rostovtzeff , Russian Archaeologist * Mykola Stsiborskyi , prominent leader of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and close ally of Andrii Melnyk * Vladimir Veksler , a Soviet physicist, pioneer of particle accelerator technology * Ze'ev Wolf Landau of Zhitomir (d. 1800), disciple of Dov Ber of Mezeritch * Yuliya Yelistratova , a professional triathlete * Alex Yuno, а Ukrainian poet, a musician and a teacher of English, in 1994 a founder of a project 'Kontraband' together with Dmytro Kosishchev * Bruno Zach , art deco sculptor * Kazimierz Zagórski , (1883 Żytomierz – 1944 Leopoldville, Kongo)Polish photographer active in central Africa 1924-44, author of the "L'Afrique qui disparait", former Colonel of the tsar Air Force * Juliusz Zarębski , Polish composer

GALLERY

*

The Theatre and Concert Hall in Zhytomyr. *

The National University of Agriculture in Zhytomyr. *

Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
state technology university *

The Korolyov Museum. *

Victory Square with tank monument and Hotel Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
in the background. *

Victory Square with tank monument and Cathedral in Zhytomyr. *

Cathedral, St. Michael's Church. *

The Catholic Church of St. John in the centre of Zhytomyr. *

A place in Kiev
Kiev
Street
Street
(previously known as Lenin Street). *

Monument to the victims of fascism (Zhytomyr)

NOTES

* ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine
Ukraine
. Retrieved 21 January 2015. * ^ "Zythomyr on Encyclopedia.com". * ^ A B Lower, 2005, introduction. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 3, 2016. * ^ John Alexander Armstrong, Ukrainian Nationalism, Columbia University Press, 1963. * ^ A B John Alexander Armstrong 1963. * ^ Population report by State Statistics Service of Ukraine, 1 Apr 2015 * ^ http://www.gcatholic.org/dioceses/former/zyto0.htm GCatholic * ^ Elias Heifetz, The slaughter of the Jews in the Ukraine
Ukraine
in 1919, 1921, Thomas Selzter New York, pp. 25-40. accessed October 28, 2009 * ^ Rus Ukrainskaya - Zhitomir (in Spanish). Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved 6 October 2012. * ^ "Official web-site of confectionery factory "ZhL"". * ^ ""Житомирский бронетанковый" получил госзаказ на 280 миллионов". Ukrinform. * ^ "Украинской армии заказали тринадцать вертолетов Ми-8". Liga. * ^ zhitomir.info/news 2009

REFERENCES

* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herman Rosenthal and Peter Wiernik (1901–1906). "Zhitomir (Jitomir)". In Singer, Isidore ; et al. Jewish Encyclopedia . New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. * Wendy Lower, Nazi Empire-Building and the Holocaust in Ukraine, 2005, University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2960-9 . Introduction (online) accessed 19 July 2006.

SOURCES AND EXTERNAL LINKS

* Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
Journal - news, photo, map and other (in Russian) * GCatholic - Latin Catholic bishopric * interesniy.zhitomir.ua - a blog about history of Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
(in Russian) * GCatholic - Latin Catholic cathedral * Trindelka - portal of Zhytomyr