The Info List - Zhuyin

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v t e

fuhao (Chinese: 注音符號; pinyin: Zhùyīn fúhào), Zhuyin (Chinese: 注音), Bopomofo
(ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin. It is also used to transcribe other Chinese languages, particularly other varieties of Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
and related Mandarin dialects, as well as Taiwanese Hokkien. Zhuyin
fuhao and Zhuyin
are traditional terms, whereas Bopomofo
is the colloquial term, also used by the ISO and Unicode. Consisting of 37 characters and four tone marks, it transcribes all possible sounds in Mandarin. Zhuyin
was introduced in China
by the Republican Government in the 1910s and used alongside the Wade-Giles system, which used a modified Latin alphabet. The Wade system was replaced by Hanyu Pinyin in 1958 by the Government of the People's Republic of China,[1] and at the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) in 1982.[2] Although Taiwan
adopted Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
as its official romanization system in 2009,[3] Bopomofo
is still an official transliteration system there and remains widely used as an educational tool and for electronic input methods.


1 Name 2 History 3 Modern use in Taiwan 4 Etymology 5 Writing

5.1 Stroke order 5.2 Tonal marks

6 Comparison

6.1 Pinyin 6.2 Chart

7 Non- Standard Mandarin
Standard Mandarin
dialects 8 Computer uses

8.1 Input method 8.2 Unicode

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Name[edit] The informal name "Bopomofo" is derived from the first four syllables in the conventional ordering of available syllables in Mandarin Chinese. The four Bopomofo
characters (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) that correspond to these syllables are usually placed first in a list of these characters. The same sequence is sometimes used by other speakers of Chinese to refer to other phonetic systems.[citation needed] The original formal name of the system was Guóyīn Zìmǔ (traditional 國音字母, simplified 国音字母, lit. "Phonetic Alphabet
of the National Language") and Zhùyīn Zìmǔ (traditional 註音字母, simplified 注音字母, lit. "Phonetic Alphabet" or "Annotated Phonetic Letters").[4] It was later renamed Zhùyīn Fúhào (traditional 注音符號, simplified 注音符号), meaning "phonetic symbols". In official documents, Zhuyin
is occasionally called "Mandarin Phonetic Symbols I" (國語注音符號第一式), abbreviated as "MPS I" (注音一式). In English translations, the system is often also called either Chu-yin or the Mandarin Phonetic Symbols.[4][5] A romanized phonetic system was released in 1984 as Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (MPS II). History[edit] Main article: Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation § Phonetic symbols The Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, led by Wu Zhihui from 1912 to 1913, created a system called Zhuyin
Zimu,[4] which was based on Zhang Binglin's shorthand. A draft was released on July 11, 1913, by the Republic of China
National Ministry of Education, but it was not officially proclaimed until November 23, 1928.[4] It was later renamed first Guoyin Zimu and then, in April 1930, Zhuyin
Fuhao. The last renaming addressed fears that the alphabetic system might independently replace Chinese characters.[6] Modern use in Taiwan[edit]

Direction sign for children in Taipei including bopomofo

remains the predominant phonetic system in teaching reading and writing in elementary school in Taiwan. It is also one of the most popular ways to enter Chinese characters
Chinese characters
into computers and smartphones and to look up characters in a dictionary. In elementary school, particularly in the lower years, Chinese characters in textbooks are often annotated with Zhuyin
as ruby characters as an aid to learning. Additionally, one children's newspaper in Taiwan, the Mandarin Daily News, annotates all articles with Zhuyin
ruby characters. In teaching Mandarin, Taiwan
institutions and some overseas communities use Zhuyin
as a learning tool. Etymology[edit]

Table showing Zhuyin
in Gwoyeu Romatzyh

in Regular, Handwritten Regular & Cursive formats

The Zhuyin
characters were created by Zhang Binglin, and taken mainly from "regularised" forms of ancient Chinese characters, the modern readings of which contain the sound that each letter represents. It is to be noted that the first consonants are articulated from the front of the mouth to the back, /b/, /p/, /m/, /f/, /d/, /t/, /n/, /l/ etc.

Origin of zhuyin symbols


Zhuyin Origin IPA Pinyin WG Example

ㄅ From 勹, the ancient form and current top portion of 包 bāo p b p 八 (ㄅㄚ, bā)

ㄆ From 攵, the combining form of 攴 pū pʰ p pʻ 杷 (ㄆㄚˊ, pá)

ㄇ From 冂, the archaic character and current radical 冖 mì m m m 馬 (ㄇㄚˇ, mǎ)

ㄈ From 匚 fāng f f f 法 (ㄈㄚˇ, fǎ)

ㄉ From 𠚣, archaic form of 刀 dāo. Compare the bamboo form . t d t 地 (ㄉㄧˋ, dì)

ㄊ From 𠫓 tū, upside-down form of 子 zǐ ( and in seal script)[7] tʰ t tʻ 提 (ㄊㄧˊ, tí)

ㄋ From /𠄎, ancient form of 乃 nǎi n n n 你 (ㄋㄧˇ, nǐ)

ㄌ From 𠠲, archaic form of 力 lì l l l 利 (ㄌㄧˋ, lì)

ㄍ From the obsolete character 巜 guì/kuài "river" k g k 告 (ㄍㄠˋ, gào)

ㄎ From the archaic character 丂 kǎo kʰ k kʻ 考 (ㄎㄠˇ, kǎo)

ㄏ From the archaic character and current radical 厂 hǎn x h h 好 (ㄏㄠˇ, hǎo)

ㄐ From the archaic character 丩 jiū tɕ j ch 叫 (ㄐㄧㄠˋ, jiào)

ㄑ From the archaic character 𡿨 quǎn, graphic root of the character 巛 chuān (modern 川) tɕʰ q chʻ 巧 (ㄑㄧㄠˇ, qiǎo)

ㄒ From 丅, an ancient form of 下 xià. ɕ x hs 小 (ㄒㄧㄠˇ, xiǎo)

ㄓ From /㞢, archaic form of 之 zhī. ʈʂ zhi, zh- ch 知 (ㄓ, zhī), 主 (ㄓㄨˇ, zhǔ)

ㄔ From the character and radical 彳 chì ʈʂʰ chi, ch- chʻ 吃 (ㄔ, chī), 出 (ㄔㄨ, chū)

ㄕ From 𡰣, an ancient form of 尸 shī ʂ shi, sh- sh 是 (ㄕˋ, shì) , 束 (ㄕㄨˋ, shù)

ㄖ Modified from the seal script form of 日 rì ɻ~ʐ ri, r- j 日 (ㄖˋ, rì), 入 (ㄖㄨˋ, rù)

ㄗ From the archaic character and current radical 卩 jié, dialectically zié ([tsjě]; tsieh² in Wade–Giles) ts zi, z- ts 字 (ㄗˋ, zì), 在 (ㄗㄞˋ, zài)

ㄘ From 𠀁, archaic form of 七 qī, dialectically ciī ([tsʰí]; tsʻi¹ in Wade–Giles). Compare semi-cursive form and seal-script . tsʰ ci, c- tsʻ 詞 (ㄘˊ, cí), 才 (ㄘㄞˊ, cái)

ㄙ From the archaic character 厶 sī, which was later replaced by its compound 私 sī. s si, s- s 四 (ㄙˋ, sì), 塞 (ㄙㄞ, sāi)

Rhymes and medials

Zhuyin Origin IPA Pinyin WG Example

ㄚ From 丫 yā a a a 大 (ㄉㄚˋ, dà)

ㄛ From the obsolete character 𠀀 hē, inhalation, the reverse of 丂 kǎo, which is preserved as a phonetic in the compound 可 kě.[8] o o o 多 (ㄉㄨㄛ, duō)

ㄜ Derived from its allophone in Standard Chinese, ㄛ o ɤ e o/ê 得 (ㄉㄜˊ, dé)

ㄝ From 也 yě. Compare the Warring States bamboo form e ê eh 爹 (ㄉㄧㄝ, diē)

ㄞ From 𠀅 hài, archaic form of 亥. ai ai ai 晒 (ㄕㄞˋ, shài)

ㄟ From 乁 yí, an obsolete character meaning 移 yí "to move". ei ei ei 誰 (ㄕㄟˊ, shéi)

ㄠ From 幺 yāo au ao ao 少 (ㄕㄠˇ, shǎo)

ㄡ From 又 yòu ou ou ou 收 (ㄕㄡ, shōu)

ㄢ From the archaic character 𢎘 hàn "to bloom", preserved as a phonetic in the compound 犯 fàn an an an 山 (ㄕㄢ, shān)

ㄣ From 𠃉, archaic variant of 鳦 yǐ or 乚 yà[9] (乚 is yǐn according to other sources[10]) ən en ên 申 (ㄕㄣ, shēn)

ㄤ From 尢 wāng aŋ ang ang 上 (ㄕㄤˋ, shàng)

ㄥ From 𠃋, archaic form of 肱 gōng[11] əŋ eng êng 生 (ㄕㄥ, shēng)

ㄦ From 儿, the bottom portion of 兒 ér used as a cursive and simplified form aɚ er êrh 而 (ㄦˊ, ér)

ㄧ From 一 yī i yi, -i i 以 (ㄧˇ, yǐ), 逆 (ㄋㄧˋ, nì)

ㄨ From 㐅, ancient form of 五 wǔ. Compare the transitory form 𠄡. u wu, -u u/w 努 (ㄋㄨˇ, nǔ), 吳 (ㄨˊ, wú)

ㄩ From the ancient character 凵 qū, which remains as a radical y yu, -ü ü/yü 雨 (ㄩˇ, yǔ), 女 (ㄋㄩˇ, nǚ)

From the character 帀. It represents the minimal vowel of ㄓ, ㄔ, ㄕ, ㄖ, ㄗ, ㄘ, ㄙ, though it is not used after them in transcription.[12] ɻ̩~ʐ̩, ɹ̩~z̩ -i ih/ŭ 資 (ㄗ, zī); 知 (ㄓ, zhī); 死 (ㄙˇ, sǐ)

Writing[edit] Stroke order[edit] Zhuyin
is written in the same stroke order rule as Chinese characters. Note that ㄖ is written with three strokes, unlike the character from which it is derived (日, Hanyu Pinyin: rì), which has four strokes.

Tonal marks[edit] As shown in the following table, tone marks for the second, third, and fourth tones are shared between bopomofo and pinyin. In bopomofo, the lack of a marker is used to indicate the first tone while a dot above indicates the fifth tone (also known as the neutral tone). In pinyin, a macron indicates the first tone and the lack of a marker indicates the fifth tone.

Tone Bopomofo Pinyin

Tone Marker Unicode
Name Tone Marker Unicode

1 (None) (Not Applicable) ◌̄ Combining Macron

2 ˊ Modifier Letter Acute Accent ◌́ Combining Acute Accent

3 ˇ Caron ◌̌ Combining Caron

4 ˋ Modifier Letter Grave Accent ◌̀ Combining Grave Accent

5 ˙ Dot Above (None) (Not Applicable)

Unlike Hanyu Pinyin, Zhuyin
aligns well with the hanzi characters in books whose texts are printed vertically, making Zhuyin
better suited for annotating the pronunciation of vertically oriented Chinese text. Zhuyin, when used in conjunction with Chinese characters, are typically placed to the right of the Chinese character
Chinese character
vertically or to the top of the Chinese character
Chinese character
in a horizontal print (see Ruby character). Below is an example for the word "bottle" (pinyin: píngzi):

瓶 ㄆ ㄧ ㄥˊ

子 ㄗ̇


ㄆㄧㄥˊ ㄗ˙

瓶 子

Comparison[edit] Pinyin[edit] Zhuyin
and pinyin are based on the same Mandarin pronunciations, hence there is a one-to-one correspondence between the two systems:

IPA and pinyin counterparts of Zhuyin


ㄚ ㄛ ㄜ ㄝ ㄞ ㄟ ㄠ ㄡ ㄢ ㄣ ㄤ ㄥ ㄦ


[ɨ] (ㄭ) 1

-i [a] ㄚ a -a [u̯o] ㄛ o -o [ɤ] ㄜ e -e

[ai̯] ㄞ ai -ai [ei̯] ㄟ ei -ei [au̯] ㄠ ao -ao [ou̯] ㄡ ou -ou [an] ㄢ an -an [ən] ㄣ en -en [aŋ] ㄤ ang -ang [əŋ] ㄥ eng -eng [aɚ] ㄦ er  

丨 [i] 丨 yi -i [i̯a] 丨ㄚ ya -ia

[i̯e] 丨ㄝ ye -ie

[i̯au̯] 丨ㄠ yao -iao [i̯ou̯] 丨ㄡ you -iu [i̯ɛn] 丨ㄢ yan -ian [in] 丨ㄣ yin -in [i̯aŋ] 丨ㄤ yang -iang [iŋ] 丨ㄥ ying -ing

ㄨ [u] ㄨ wu -u [u̯a] ㄨㄚ wa -ua [u̯o] ㄨㄛ wo -uo

[u̯ai̯] ㄨㄞ wai -uai [u̯ei̯] ㄨㄟ wei -ui

[u̯an] ㄨㄢ wan -uan [u̯ən] ㄨㄣ wen -un [u̯aŋ] ㄨㄤ wang -uang [u̯əŋ], [ʊŋ] ㄨㄥ weng -ong 4

ㄩ [y] ㄩ yu -ü 2

[y̯e] ㄩㄝ yue -üe 2

[y̯ɛn] ㄩㄢ yuan -üan 2 [yn] ㄩㄣ yun -ün 2

[i̯ʊŋ] ㄩㄥ yong -iong

1 Not written. 2 ü is written as u after j, q, x, or y. 4 weng is pronounced [oŋ] (written as ong) when it follows an initial. Chart[edit]

Vowels a, e, o

IPA a ɔ ɛ ɤ ai ei au ou an ən aŋ əŋ ʊŋ aɚ

Pinyin a o ê e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng ong er

Tongyong Pinyin e e

Wade–Giles eh ê/o ên êng ung êrh

Zhuyin ㄚ ㄛ ㄝ ㄜ ㄞ ㄟ ㄠ ㄡ ㄢ ㄣ ㄤ ㄥ ㄨㄥ ㄦ

example 阿 哦 呗 俄 艾 黑 凹 偶 安 恩 昂 冷 中 二

Vowels i, u, y

IPA i je jou jɛn in iŋ jʊŋ u wo wei wən wəŋ y ɥe ɥɛn yn

Pinyin yi ye you yan yin ying yong wu wo/o wei wen weng yu yue yuan yun

Tongyong Pinyin wun wong

Wade–Giles i/yi yeh yu yen yung wên wêng yü yüeh yüan yün

Zhuyin ㄧ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄥ ㄩㄥ ㄨ ㄨㄛ/ㄛ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄥ ㄩ ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ

example 一 也 又 言 音 英 用 五 我 位 文 翁 玉 月 元 云

Non-sibilant consonants

IPA p pʰ m fəŋ tjou twei twən tʰɤ ny ly kɤɚ kʰɤ xɤ

Pinyin b p m feng diu dui dun te nü lü ger ke he

Tongyong Pinyin fong diou duei nyu lyu

Wade–Giles p pʻ fêng tiu tui tun tʻê nü lü kor kʻo ho

Zhuyin ㄅ ㄆ ㄇ ㄈㄥ ㄉㄧㄡ ㄉㄨㄟ ㄉㄨㄣ ㄊㄜ ㄋㄩ ㄌㄩ ㄍㄜㄦ ㄎㄜ ㄏㄜ

example 玻 婆 末 封 丟 兌 顿 特 女 旅 歌儿 可 何

Sibilant consonants

IPA tɕjɛn tɕjʊŋ tɕʰin ɕɥɛn ʈʂɤ ʈʂɨ ʈʂʰɤ ʈʂʰɨ ʂɤ ʂɨ ɻɤ ɻɨ tsɤ tswo tsɨ tsʰɤ tsʰɨ sɤ sɨ

Pinyin jian jiong qin xuan zhe zhi che chi she shi re ri ze zuo zi ce ci se si

Tongyong Pinyin jyong cin syuan jhe jhih chih shih rih zih cih sih

Wade–Giles chien chiung chʻin hsüan chê chih chʻê chʻih shê shih jê jih tsê tso tzŭ tsʻê tzʻŭ sê ssŭ

Zhuyin ㄐㄧㄢ ㄐㄩㄥ ㄑㄧㄣ ㄒㄩㄢ ㄓㄜ ㄓ ㄔㄜ ㄔ ㄕㄜ ㄕ ㄖㄜ ㄖ ㄗㄜ ㄗㄨㄛ ㄗ ㄘㄜ ㄘ ㄙㄜ ㄙ

example 件 窘 秦 宣 哲 之 扯 赤 社 是 惹 日 仄 左 字 策 次 色 斯


IPA ma˥˥ ma˧˥ ma˨˩˦ ma˥˩ ma

Pinyin mā má mǎ mà ma

Tongyong Pinyin ma må

Wade–Giles ma1 ma2 ma3 ma4 ma

Zhuyin ㄇㄚ ㄇㄚˊ ㄇㄚˇ ㄇㄚˋ ˙ㄇㄚ

example (traditional/simplified) 媽/妈 麻/麻 馬/马 罵/骂 嗎/吗

Non- Standard Mandarin
Standard Mandarin

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Three letters formerly used in non-standard dialects of Mandarin are now also used to write other Chinese varieties. Some Zhuyin
fonts do not contain these letters; see External links for PDF pictures. In Taiwan, Bopomofo
is used to teach Taiwanese Hokkien, and is also used to transcribe it phonetically in contexts such as on storefront signs, karaoke lyrics, and film subtitles.

Zhuyin IPA GR Pinyin

ㄪ v v v

ㄫ ŋ ng ng

ㄬ ɲ gn ny

Computer uses[edit] Input method[edit]

An example of a Zhuyin
keypad for Taiwan

can be used as an input method for Chinese characters. It is one of the few input methods that can be found on most modern personal computers without the user having to download or install any additional software. It is also one of the few input methods that can be used for inputting Chinese characters
Chinese characters
on certain cell phones.[citation needed]

A typical keyboard layout for Zhuyin
on computers

Unicode[edit] Main articles: Bopomofo
( Unicode
block) and Bopomofo Extended (Unicode block) Zhuyin
was added to the Unicode
Standard in October 1991 with the release of version 1.0. The Unicode
block for Zhuyin, called Bopomofo, is U+3100–U+312F:

Bopomofo[1][2] Official Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F


ㄅ ㄆ ㄇ ㄈ ㄉ ㄊ ㄋ ㄌ ㄍ ㄎ ㄏ

U+311x ㄐ ㄑ ㄒ ㄓ ㄔ ㄕ ㄖ ㄗ ㄘ ㄙ ㄚ ㄛ ㄜ ㄝ ㄞ ㄟ

U+312x ㄠ ㄡ ㄢ ㄣ ㄤ ㄥ ㄦ ㄧ ㄨ ㄩ ㄪ ㄫ ㄬ ㄭ ㄮ


1.^ As of Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Additional characters were added in September 1999 with the release of version 3.0. The Unicode
block for these additional characters, called Bopomofo Extended, is U+31A0–U+31BF:

Extended[1][2] Official Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+31Ax ㆠ ㆡ ㆢ ㆣ ㆤ ㆥ ㆦ ㆧ ㆨ ㆩ ㆪ ㆫ ㆬ ㆭ ㆮ ㆯ

U+31Bx ㆰ ㆱ ㆲ ㆳ ㆴ ㆵ ㆶ ㆷ ㆸ ㆹ ㆺ


1.^ As of Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

3.0 also added the characters U+02EA and U+02EB, in the Spacing Modifier Letters block. These two characters are now (since Unicode
6.0) classified as Bopomofo
characters.[13] See also[edit]

Chinese input methods for computers Fanqie Furigana Ruby character Taiwanese Phonetic Symbols Zhuyin


^ " Pinyin
celebrates 50th birthday". Xinhua News Agency. 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2008-09-20.  ^ "ISO 7098:1982 – Documentation – Romanization of Chinese". Retrieved 2009-03-01.  ^ Shih Hsiu-Chuan (18 Sep 2008). " Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
to be standard system in 2009". Taipei Times. p. 2.  ^ a b c d The Republic of China
government, Government Information Office. " Taiwan
Yearbook 2006: The People & Languages". Archived from the original on 2007-05-09.  Also available at ^ Taiwan
Headlines. " Taiwan
Headlines: Society News: New Taiwanese dictionary unveiled". Government Information Office, Taiwan(ROC).  ^ John DeFrancis. The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy. Honolulu, HI, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 1984. p. 242. ^ Wenlin dictionary, entry 𠫓. ^ "Unihan data for U+20000".  ^ Wenlin dictionary, entry 𠃉. ^ "Unihan data for U+4E5A".  ^ Wenlin dictionary, entry 𠃋. ^ Michael Everson, H. W. Ho, Andrew West, "Proposal to encode one Bopomofo
character in the UCS", SC2 WG2 N3179. ^ "Scripts-6.0.0.txt". Unicode

External links[edit]

Look up bopomofo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The Manual of The Phonetic Symbols of Mandarin Chinese Unicode
reference glyphs for "bopomofo" (PDF).  (69.6 KB) and "extended bopomofo" (PDF).  (61.6 KB) Bopomofo
annotations – adds inline and pop-up annotations with bopomofo pronunciation and English definitions to Chinese text or web pages. Mandarin Dictionary – needs Chinese font for Big5 encoding Chinese Phonetic Conversion Tool – converts between Pinyin, Zhuyin
and other phonetic systems Chinese Romanization Converter – converts between Hanyu Pinyin, Wade–Giles, Gwoyeu Romatzyh
Gwoyeu Romatzyh
and other known or (un-)common Romanization systems Bopomofo
-> Wade-Giles -> Pinyin
-> Word List NPA->IPA National Phonetic Alphabet
(bopomofo) spellings of words transliterated into the International Phonetic Alphabet. The vowel values have been verified against the official IPA site. See IPA help preview, SIL International website. See IPA help preview, SIL International website. (Accessed 23-12-2010). Bopomofo
to Pinyin
converter and reverse bopomofo syllable chart, with Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
equivalents Pinyin
Annotator – adds bopomofo (bopomofo) or pinyin on top of any Chinese text, prompts alternative pronunciations to homonyms, has the option of exporting into OpenOffice Writer for further editing 《請利用螢幕上的小鍵盤輸入注音符號》 – online keyboard for bopomofo which can turn it into Chinese characters Online Zhuyin- Bopomofo
Input Method Editor 免费在线中文输入法,使用注音

v t e

Types of writing systems


History of writing Grapheme


Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts






Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician


Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic




Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung


Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma



Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand



Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa


Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type


Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec


Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang


Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut


Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)


Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs


Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman



Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom


Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin


ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation


Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

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1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
braille patterns


French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin
Taiwanese Mandarin
(largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code


e-book Braille
embosser Braille
translator Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo


Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait


Institute of America Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Library National Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
literacy RoboBraille

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Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

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Internet slang
Internet slang

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary) SMS language

Authority control