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A yogi (sometimes spelled jogi) is a practitioner of yoga.[1] In Vedic Sanskrit, yoga (from the root yuj) means "to add", "to join", "to unite", or "to attach" in its most common literal sense, where in recent days, especially in the West, yoga often refers to physical exercises only. The term yogi is used broadly to refer to sannyasi or practitioners of meditation in a number of Indian religions.[2] The feminine form is yogini, but is not always used, especially in the West. Yogi, or jogi, since the 12th century CE, while meaning those dedicated to Yoga
Yoga
practice, has also referred to members of the Nath siddha tradition of Hinduism.[3] Alternatively, in tantra traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism, a practitioner of tantra (a tantrika) may also be called a yogi.[4][5] In Hindu
Hindu
mythology, god Shiva
Shiva
and goddess Parvati
Parvati
are depicted as an emblematic yogi–yogini pair.[6]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Hinduism

2.1 Textual references 2.2 Sexuality 2.3 Ethical duties 2.4 Nath
Nath
siddha

2.4.1 Respect 2.4.2 Persecution 2.4.3 Resistance to persecution 2.4.4 Cultural contributions: founding Hindu
Hindu
temples

3 List of yogis 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links

Etymology

Part of a series on

Hinduism

Hindu History

Concepts

Worldview

Hindu
Hindu
cosmology Puranic chronology Hindu
Hindu
mythology

God / Highest Reality

Brahman Ishvara God in Hinduism God and gender

Life

Ashrama (stage)

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Liberation

Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Ethics

Niti shastra Yamas Niyama Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Damah Dayā Akrodha Ārjava Santosha Tapas Svādhyāya Shaucha Mitahara Dāna

Liberation

Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga Jnana yoga Karma
Karma
yoga

Schools

Six Astika
Astika
schools

Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Advaita Dvaita Vishishtadvaita

Other schools

Pasupata Saiva Pratyabhijña Raseśvara Īśvara Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana Charvaka

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Other major Devas / Devis

Vedic Indra Agni Prajapati Rudra Devi Saraswati Ushas Varuna Vayu

Post-Vedic Durga Ganesha Hanuman Kali Kartikeya Krishna Lakshmi Parvati Radha Rama Shakti Sita

Texts

Scriptures

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Rigveda: Aitareya Kaushitaki

Yajurveda: Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara Maitri

Samaveda: Chandogya Kena

Atharvaveda: Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Other scriptures

Bhagavad Gita Agama (Hinduism)

Other texts

Vedangas

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Puranas

Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana Bhagavata Purana Nāradeya Purana Vāmana Purana Matsya Purana Garuda Purana Brahma
Brahma
Purana Brahmānda Purana Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana Bhavishya Purana Padma Purana Agni
Agni
Purana Shiva
Shiva
Purana Linga Purana Kūrma Purana Skanda Purana Varaha Purana Mārkandeya Purana

Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Shastras and Sutras

Dharma
Dharma
Shastra Artha
Artha
Śastra Kamasutra Brahma
Brahma
Sutras Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras Nyāya Sūtras Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Yoga
Yoga
Sutras Pramana
Pramana
Sutras Charaka Samhita Sushruta Samhita Natya Shastra Panchatantra Divya Prabandha Tirumurai Ramcharitmanas Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Swara yoga Shiva
Shiva
Samhita Gheranda Samhita Panchadasi Stotra Sutras

Text classification

Śruti
Śruti
Smriti

Timeline of Hindu
Hindu
texts

Practices

Worship

Puja Temple Murti Bhakti Japa Bhajana Yajna Homa Vrata Prāyaścitta Tirtha Tirthadana Matha Nritta-Nritya

Meditation
Meditation
and Charity

Tapa Dhyana Dāna

Yoga

Sadhu Yogi Asana Hatha yoga Jnana yoga Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga Karma
Karma
yoga Raja yoga Kundalini
Kundalini
Yoga

Arts

Bharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic music

Rites of passage

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Ashrama Dharma

Ashrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sannyasa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra

Raksha Bandhan Ganesh Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Makar Sankranti Kumbha Mela Pongal Ugadi Vaisakhi

Bihu Puthandu Vishu

Ratha Yatra

Gurus, saints, philosophers

Ancient

Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

Medieval

Nayanars Alvars Adi Shankara Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddheshwar Jñāneśvar Chaitanya Gangesha Upadhyaya Gaudapada Gorakshanath Jayanta Bhatta Kabir Kumarila Bhatta Matsyendranath Mahavatar Babaji Madhusudana Madhva Haridasa Thakur Namdeva Nimbarka Prabhakara Raghunatha Siromani Ramanuja Sankardev Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Ramprasad Sen Jagannatha Dasa Vyasaraya Sripadaraya Raghavendra Swami Gopala Dasa Śyāma Śastri Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Tyagaraja Tukaram Tulsidas Vachaspati Mishra Vallabha Vidyaranya

Modern

Aurobindo Bhaktivinoda Thakur Chinmayananda Dayananda Saraswati Mahesh Yogi Jaggi Vasudev Krishnananda Saraswati Narayana Guru Prabhupada Ramakrishna Ramana Maharshi Radhakrishnan Sarasvati Sivananda U. G. Krishnamurti Sai Baba Vivekananda Nigamananda Yogananda Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade Tibbetibaba Trailanga

Society

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Dalit Jati

Denominations Persecution Nationalism Hindutva

Other topics

Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

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Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism / and Buddhism / and Sikhism / and Judaism / and Christianity / and Islam

Glossary of Hinduism
Hinduism
terms Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

In Classical Sanskrit, the word yogi (Sanskrit: masc yogī, योगी; fem yoginī) is derived from yogin, which refers to a practitioner of yoga. Yogi
Yogi
is technically male, and yoginī is the term used for female practitioners.[4] The two terms are still used with those meanings today, but the word yogi is also used generically to refer to both male and female practitioners of yoga and related meditative practices belonging to any religion or spiritual method. The term yogini is also used for divine goddesses and enlightened mothers, all revered as aspects of the mother goddess, Devi.[7] A yogi, states Banerjea, should not be confused with someone practicing asceticism and excessive self-mortification.[2]:297 Hinduism In Hinduism
Hinduism
the term yogi refers to an adherent of yoga.[1] Textual references Further information: Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha, Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya, Yoga-kundalini Upanishad, and Yogasutra The earliest evidence of yogis and their spiritual tradition, states Karel Werner,[8] is found in the Keśin hymn 10.136 of the Rigveda,[note 1] though with the terminology of Rudra
Rudra
who evolved into Shiva
Shiva
worshipped as the lord of Yoga
Yoga
in later Hinduism.[8] The Hindu scripture Rigveda
Rigveda
uses words of admiration for the Yogis, whom it refers to as Kesin, and describes them as follows (abridged):[8]

Carrying within oneself fire and poison, heaven and earth, ranging from enthusiasm and creativity to depression and agony, from the heights of spritual bliss to the heaviness of earth-bound labor. This is true of man in general and the [Vedic] Keśin in particular, but the latter has mastered and transformed these contrary forces and is a visible embodiment of accomplished spirituality. He is said to be light and enlightenment itself. The Keśin does not live a normal life of convention. His hair and beard grow longer, he spends long periods of time in absorption, musing and meditating and therefore he is called "sage" (muni). They wear clothes made of yellow rags fluttering in the wind, or perhaps more likely, they go naked, clad only in the yellow dust of the Indian soil. But their personalities are not bound to earth, for they follow the path of the mysterious wind when the gods enter them. He is someone lost in thoughts: he is miles away. — Karel Werner (1977), " Yoga
Yoga
and the Ṛg Veda: An Interpretation of the Keśin Hymn"[8]

The term yogin appears in Katyayana Shrauta-sutra and chapter 6 of Maitri Upanishad, where the implied context and meaning is "a follower of the Yoga
Yoga
system , a contemplative saint".[9] The term sometimes refers to a person who belongs to the Natha tradition.[3] They usually belong to Shaiva tradition, but some Natha belong to the Vaishnava tradition.[10] In both cases, states David Lorenzen, they practice yoga and their principal god tends to be Nirguna, that is a god that is without form and semi-monistic,[10] influenced in the medieval era by the Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hinduism, Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
school of Buddhism, as well as Tantra
Tantra
and Yogic practices.[11][12]

A 10th-century Yogini
Yogini
statue from Tamil Nadu, India. She is seated in an asana, and her eyes are closed in meditative state.

The Yoga-Bhashya (400 CE),[13] the oldest extant commentary on the Yoga-Sutra offers the following fourfold classification of yogis:[14][15]

Prathama-kalpika (neophyte/beginner, devotional) Madhu-bhumika (one who has begun to enjoy the spiritual pursuits without effort) Prajna-jyoti (the advanced practitioner who knows spiritual concepts) Atikranta- bhavaniya (those who have attained what can be taught, achieved siddhas, and are on their personal path to ultimate insights)

Sexuality A yogi or yogini aspires to Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
(Sanskrit: ब्रह्मचर्य), which means celibacy if single, or non-cheating on one's partner.[16][17] There have been two parallel views, in Hindu
Hindu
texts, on sexuality for a yogi and yogini. One view asserts restraint in sexual activity, towards monk- and nun-like asexuality, as transmutation away from worldly desires and onto a spiritual path.[18] It is not considered, states Stuart Sovatsky, as a form of moralistic repression but a personal choice that empowers the yoga practitioner to redirect his or her energies.[18] The second view, found particularly in Tantra traditions according to David Gordon White, asserts that sexuality is an additional means for a yogi or yogini to journey towards and experience the bliss of "one realized god-consciousness for oneself".[19] In the second view, sexuality is a yogic practice,[20] and one broadly revered through the lingam–yoni iconography of Shiva–Parvati, the divine yogi–yogini in Hindu
Hindu
mythology.[21] Ethical duties

Yogi
Yogi
versus Philosopher

Both a yogi and a philosopher are seekers of an absolute truth. But they differ in their modes of approach. A philosopher advances in the path of rational logic (theory) and wants to intellectually understand the Truth. A yogi advances in the path of self discipline (practice) and aspires to spiritually realize truth.

—Akshaya Banerjea, Philosophy of Gorakhnath[2]

A yogi or yogini lives by other voluntary ethical precepts called Yamas
Yamas
and Niyamas.[22][23] These include:[24][25][26]

Ahiṃsā
Ahiṃsā
(अहिंसा): nonviolence, non-harming other living beings[27] Satya
Satya
(सत्य): truthfulness, non-falsehood[16][27] Asteya
Asteya
(अस्तेय): not stealing[27] Dayā (दया): kindness, compassion[28] Ārjava (आर्जव): non-hypocrisy, sincerity[29] Kṣamā (क्षमा): forgiveness[28] Dhṛti (धृति): fortitude Mitāhāra (मितहार): moderation in diet both in terms of quantity and quality Śauca (शौच): purity, cleanliness Tapas: austerity, persistence and perseverance in one's purpose[30][31] Santoṣa: contentment, acceptance of others and of one's circumstances as they are, optimism for self[32] Dāna: generosity, charity, sharing with others[33]

Nath
Nath
siddha

A sculpture of Gorakhnath, a celebrated yogi of Nath
Nath
tradition and a major proponent of Hatha yoga.[34]

According to David White,

[S]iddha means 'realized, perfected one',[note 2] a term generally applied to a practitioner (sādhaka, sadhu) who has, through his practice (sadhana), realized his dual goal of superhuman powers (siddhis, 'realizations', 'perfections') and bodily immortality (jivanmukti).[35]

Respect Archeological evidence suggests that in some contexts and regions, yogi of the Nath
Nath
Siddha
Siddha
tradition were respected and recognized in India. For example, inscriptions suggest a general of the Yadava king Ramacandra donated a village to a yogi in 13th-century.[36] Near Mangalore, that later became a hub of Nath
Nath
yogis, a monastery and temple was dedicated to yogis in the 10th-century.[36] David Lorenzen states that the Nath
Nath
yogis have been very popular with the rural population in South Asia, with medieval era "tales and stories about Nath
Nath
yogis such as Gorakhnath, Matsyendra, Jalandhar, Gopichand, Bharthari, Kanhapa and Chaurangi" continuing to be remembered in contemporary times, in the Deccan, western and northern states of India and in Nepal.[10] Persecution In some contexts, adds White, the term yogi has also been a pejorative term used in medieval India for a Nath
Nath
siddha, particularly on the part of India's social, cultural and religious elites.[3] The term siddha has become a broad sectarian appellation, applying to Saiva-devotees in the Deccan ( Maheśvara
Maheśvara
siddhas), alchemists in Tamil Nadu (siddhars or sittars), a group of early Buddhist tantrikas from Bengal (mahasiddhas, siddhacaryas), the alchemists of medieval India (rasa siddha), and a mainly north Indian group known as the Nath siddhas.[35] The Nath
Nath
siddhas are the only still existing representatives of the medieval Tantric tradition, which had disappeared due to its excesses.[37] While the Nath
Nath
siddhas enjoyed persistent popular success, they attracted the scorn of the elite classes.[37]

17th century Hindu
Hindu
female Nath
Nath
yogis. The earliest records mentioning female Nath
Nath
yogis (or yogini) trace to 11th century.[38]

According to White, the term yogi, has "for at least eight hundred years, been an all-purpose term employed to designate those Saiva specialists whom orthodox Hindus have considered suspect, heterodox, and even heretical in their doctrine and practice".[1] The yoga as practiced by these Yogis, states White, is more closely identified in the eyes of those critics with black magic, sorcery and sexual perversions than with yoga in the conventional sense of the word.[39] The Nath
Nath
Yogis were targets of Islamic persecution in the Mughal Empire. The texts of Yogi
Yogi
traditions from this period, state Shail Mayaram, refer to oppressions by Mughal officials such as governor. The Mughal documents confirm the existence of Nath
Nath
Yogis in each pargana (household neighborhoods), and their persecution wherein Nath Yogis were beheaded by Aurangzeb.[40] Resistance to persecution According to David Lorenzen, the religious groups in Hinduism
Hinduism
that militarized and took up arms following the Muslim conquest of India, to resist persecution, appeared among the Nath
Nath
or Kanphata yogis, often called simply yogis or jogis.[41] The warrior ascetics were institutionalized as a religious order by Gorakhnath
Gorakhnath
and were expanding in the 13th century, after the establishment of the first Islamic Sultanate in India. They interacted and cooperated with fakirs of Sufi Muslims.[42] The yogis feature prominently in Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
period official documents, states David White, both in terms of impressing the ruling elite in the Muslim administration and awards of receiving land grants in some cases such as by Akbar, as well as those yogis who targeted the elite merchants and disrupted the business of administrative Islamic elites in urban areas.[42][43] In other cases, yogis from the Shaivism, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Shaktism traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
marshaled armed resistance against the Mughal and British colonial armies.[42][43] Cultural contributions: founding Hindu
Hindu
temples The history of Nath
Nath
yogis has been diverse, such as in the 11th and 12th centuries, when Buddhists in South India converted to Nath
Nath
siddha traditions and helped establish Shiva
Shiva
Hindu
Hindu
temples and monasteries.[44] List of yogis Further information: List of Hindu
Hindu
gurus and saints Historical yogis and yoga gurus:

Shiva[2]:331 Siddhartha Gautama Buddha[45] Nigamananda Paramahansa
Nigamananda Paramahansa
(1880–1935)[46][47][48] Larry Schultz
Larry Schultz
(1950-2011)[49]

See also

Yoga
Yoga
portal

List of yoga schools Ngagpa Rishi

Notes

^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Original: (Wikisource of the Keśin hymn);

केश्यग्निं केशी विषं केशी बिभर्ति रोदसी । केशी विश्वं स्वर्दृशे केशीदं ज्योतिरुच्यते ॥१॥ मुनयो वातरशनाः पिशङ्गा वसते मला । वातस्यानु ध्राजिं यन्ति यद्देवासो अविक्षत ॥२॥ उन्मदिता मौनेयेन वाताँ आ तस्थिमा वयम् । शरीरेदस्माकं यूयं मर्तासो अभि पश्यथ ॥३॥ अन्तरिक्षेण पतति विश्वा रूपावचाकशत् । मुनिर्देवस्यदेवस्य सौकृत्याय सखा हितः ॥४॥ वातस्याश्वो वायोः सखाथो देवेषितो मुनिः । उभौ समुद्रावा क्षेति यश्च पूर्व उतापरः ॥५॥ अप्सरसां गन्धर्वाणां मृगाणां चरणे चरन् । केशी केतस्य विद्वान्सखा स्वादुर्मदिन्तमः ॥६॥ वायुरस्मा उपामन्थत्पिनष्टि स्मा कुनन्नमा । केशी विषस्य पात्रेण यद्रुद्रेणापिबत्सह ॥७॥

Rigveda
Rigveda
10.136, 2nd millennium BCE ^ Compare Siddhartha Gautama, one of the names of Buddha.

References

^ a b c White 2012, p. 8. ^ a b c d A. K. Banerjea (2014), Philosophy of Gorakhnath
Gorakhnath
with Goraksha-Vacana-Sangraha, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805347, pp. xxiii, 297-299, 331 ^ a b c White 2012, p. 8-9. ^ a b Rita Gross (1993), Buddhism
Buddhism
After Patriarchy, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0791414033, pages 85–88 ^ David Gordon White (2013), Tantra
Tantra
in Practice, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120817784, pp. xiii–xv ^ Stella Kramrisch (1994), The Presence of Siva, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691019307, pp. 305-309, 356 ^ Vidya Dehejia and Thomas B. Coburn (1999), Devi: The Great Goddess, Smithsonian Institution, ISBN 978-3791321295, p. 386 ^ a b c d Werner, Karel (1977). " Yoga
Yoga
and the Ṛg Veda: An Interpretation of the Keśin Hymn (RV 10, 136)". Religious Studies. 13 (3): 289–302. The Yogis of Vedic times left little evidence of their existence, practices and achievements. And such evidence as has survived in the Vedas
Vedas
is scanty and indirect. Nevertheless, the existence of accomplished Yogis in Vedic times cannot be doubted.  ^ yogin, Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary (2008 revision), Cologne Digital Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Lexicon, Germany ^ a b c David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi
Yogi
Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, pp. x–xi ^ David Lorenzen (2004), Religious Movements in South Asia, 600-1800, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195664485, pp. 310-311 ^ David N. Lorenzen and Adrián Muñoz (2012), Yogi
Yogi
Heroes and Poets: Histories and Legends of the Naths, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-1438438900, pp. 24-25 ^ Rosen 2012, p. 72. ^ Georg Feuerstein, Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga, p. 343 ^ SH Aranya (1983), Yoga
Yoga
Philosophy of Patanjali, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0873957281, pp. 334-337 ^ a b Arti Dhand (2002), "The dharma of ethics, the ethics of dharma: Quizzing the ideals of Hinduism", Journal of Religious Ethics, 30(3), pp. 347-372 ^ Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
tells Gargi in verse 1.55 of Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
that one who copulates (मैथुन) only with and always with one's sexual partner is a Brahmachari; see "योगयाज्ञवल्क्य १-५५" ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text of " Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya"), SanskritDocuments Archives (2009) ^ a b Stuart Sovatsky (1987), "The pleasures of celibacy", Yoga Journal, March/April Issue, pp. 41-47 ^ White, David Gordon (2012), The Alchemical Body: Siddha
Siddha
Traditions in Medieval India, University of Chicago Press, pp. 1–6  ^ Machelle Seibel and Hari Kaur Khalsa (2002), A Woman's Book
Book
of Yoga, Penguin, ISBN 978-1583331378, pp. 108-109 ^ Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1981), Siva: The Erotic Ascetic, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195202502, pp. 262-263 ^ K. N. Aiyar (1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 978-1164026419, chapter 22, pp. 173-176 ^ Lorenzen, David (1972). The Kāpālikas and Kālāmukhas. University of California Press. pp. 186–190. ISBN 978-0520018426.  ^ "योगयाज्ञवल्क्य प्रथमोऽध्याय" ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text of "Yoga Yajnavalkya"), SanskritDocuments Archives (2009) ^ Āgāśe, K. S. (1904). Pātañjalayogasūtrāṇi. Puṇe, India: Ānandāśrama. p. 102.  ^ Svātmārāma; Sinh, Pancham (1997). The Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika (5th ed.). p. 14. ISBN 9781605066370. अथ यम-नियमाः अहिंसा सत्यमस्तेयं बरह्यछर्यम कश्हमा धृतिः दयार्जवं मिताहारः शौछम छैव यमा दश १७  ^ a b c James Lochtefeld, "Yama (2)", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 9780823931798, p. 777 ^ a b Stuart Sovatsky (1998), Words from the Soul: Time East/West Spirituality and Psychotherapeutic Narrative, State University of New York, ISBN 978-0791439494, p. 21 ^ J Sinha, Indian Psychology, p. 142, at Google Books, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidas, OCLC 1211693, p. 142 ^ Kaelber, W. O. (1976). "'Tapas', Birth, and Spiritual Rebirth in the Veda", History of Religions, 15(4), pp. 343–386 ^ SA Bhagwat (2008), " Yoga
Yoga
and Sustainability". Journal of Yoga, Fall/Winter 2008, 7(1): 1-14 ^ N. Tummers (2009), Teaching Yoga
Yoga
for Life, ISBN 978-0736070164, p 16–17 ^ William Owen Cole (1991), Moral Issues in Six Religions, Heinemann, ISBN 978-0435302993, pp. 104-105 ^ Akshaya Kumar Banerjea (1983). Philosophy of Gorakhnath
Gorakhnath
with Goraksha-Vacana-Sangraha. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xxi. ISBN 978-81-208-0534-7.  ^ a b White 2012, p. 2. ^ a b White 2012, p. 94. ^ a b White 2012, p. 7. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel; Kathleen M. Erndl (2000). Is the Goddess a Feminist?: The Politics of South Asian Goddesses. New York University Press. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-0-8147-3619-7.  ^ White 2012, p. 9. ^ Shail Mayaram (2003), Against History, Against State, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231127301, pp. 40-41, 39 ^ David Lorenzen (2006), Who Invented Hinduism?, Yoda Press, ISBN 978-8190227261, pp. 51-63 ^ a b c David Gordon White (2011), Sinister Yogis, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226895147, pp. 198-207 ^ a b William Pinch (2012), Warrior Ascetics and Indian Empires, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1107406377, pp. 4-9, 28-34, 61-65, 150-151, 189-191, 194-207 ^ White 2012, pp. 94-101. ^ Feuerstein, Georg (2001). The Yoga
Yoga
Tradition: Its History, Literature, Philosophy and Practice (Kindle e-book ed.). Prescott, Arizona: Hohm Press. location 5720. ISBN 978-1890772185.  ^ Paramahamsa Prajnanananda (15 August 2006). My Time with the Master. Sai Towers Publishing. pp. 25 ff. ISBN 978-81-7899-055-2. Retrieved 18 March 2011.  ^ Ray, Benoy Gopal (1965). Religious Movements in Modern Bengal. Visva-Bharati. p. 101. Retrieved 23 May 2011.  ^ Tripathy, Amulya Kumar; Tripathy, P. C.; Jayadeva (2006). The Gita Govinda of Sri Jayadev. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India. Retrieved 23 May 2011.  ^ "Iconic Bay Area Yoga
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Sources

Feuerstein, Georg (2000), The Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga, Shambhala Publications  Rosen, Richard (2012), Original Yoga: Rediscovering Traditional Practices of Hatha Yoga, Shambhala Publications  White, David Gordon (2012), The Alchemical Body: Siddha
Siddha
Traditions in Medieval India, University of Chicago Press 

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Achamana Archana Ashirvad Ashvamedha Darśana Karmkand Kumbhabhishekham Nitya karma Ngejot Panchayatana puja Prana pratishta Sandhyavandanam Shuddhi Shrauta Upakarma

Prayer Meditation

Ajapa japa Bhajan Brahmamuhurtha Jagran Jai Sri Ram Japa Kirtan Om Sandhyavandanam Shaktipat Stotra Third eye Yoga

Mantras

Om Hare Krishna Om Namah Shivaya Gayatri Mantra

Objects

Puja thali Altar Banalinga Banana leaf Biruda Coconut Dhunachi Dhuni Dhupa Diya Cāmara Garland Ghanta Joss stick Kalasha Kamandalu Khirapat Kindi Paduka Palki Panchamrita Pandal Pinda Prayer beads Rangoli Shankha Tilaka Upanayana Uthsavar Yagnopaveetham

Materials

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Fruits and other plants

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See also

Firewalking San

.