Yangzhou, formerly romanized as Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city
Jiangsu Province, China. Sitting on the north bank of the
Yangtze, it borders the provincial capital
Nanjing to the southwest,
Huai'an to the north,
Yancheng to the northeast, Taizhou to the east,
Zhenjiang across the river to the south. Its population was
4,414,681 at the 2010 census and its urban area is home to 2,146,980
inhabitants, including three urban districts, currently in the
Yangzhou was one of the wealthiest cities in China,
known at various periods for its great merchant families, poets,
artists, and scholars. Its name (lit. "Rising Prefecture") refers to
its former position as the capital of the ancient
in imperial China.
2.1 Tang Dynasty
2.2 From Song to Ming
2.3 Early Qing
2.4 Late Qing and early modern era
5.3 River transport
5.5 Intercity bus service
5.6 Transportation in the Urban Area
5.7 Tourist Transportation
7.1 Literary references
8.1 Slender West Lake
8.2 Daming Temple
8.3 Flat Hills (Ping Shan) Hall
8.4 Pavilion of Flourishing Culture (文昌阁, Wénchāng Gé)
8.5 Stone Pagoda
8.6 Tomb of Puhaddin
8.7 Ge Garden (个园, Gè Yuán)
8.8 He Garden (何园, Hé Yuán)
8.9 Yechun Garden (Yechun Yuan)
Yangzhou Museum &
Yangzhou Block Printing Museum
8.11 Jiangdu Hydro Project
10 Sister cities
11 See also
14 External links
See also: List of administrative divisions of Jiangsu
Currently, the prefecture-level city of
Yangzhou administers six
county-level divisions, including three districts, two county-level
cities and one county. Accordingly, they are further divided into 98
township-level divisions, including 87 towns and townships, and 11
Satellite cities (County-level cities)
In November 2011, Weiyang District (维扬区) was merged into
while the former county-level Jiangdu City became Jiangdu District.
Guangling (Chinese: 廣陵; pinyin: Guǎnglíng; Wade–Giles:
Kuang-Ling), the first settlement in the
Yangzhou area, was founded in
the Spring and Autumn period. After the defeat of Yue by King Fuchai
of Wu, a garrison city was built 12 m (39 ft) above the
water level on the north bank of the
Yangtze c. 485 BC. This
city in the shape of a three by three li square was named Hancheng.
The newly built Han canal formed a moat around the south and east
sides of the city. The purpose of Hancheng was to protect
naval invasion from Qi. In 590, the city began to be called Yangzhou,
which was the traditional name of what was the entire southeastern
Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui (r. 604–617),
Yangzhou was the southern
capital of China. It was called Jiangdu upon the completion of the
Grand Canal until the fall of the Sui dynasty. By the mid 610s, a
combination of fruitless attempts to conquer the Korean kingdom of
Goguryeo, together with natural disasters and provincial unrest,
ensured many people Emperor Yang had lost the legitimacy of his
monarchy. As revolts spread across
China in 616, the Emperor abandoned
the North and meanwhile withdrew to Jiangdu, where he remained until
his assassination in 618.
The city has remained a leading economic and cultural center and major
port of foreign trade and external exchange since the Tang dynasty
(618–907). Many Arab and Persian merchants lived in the city in the
7th century, but they were massacred in the thousands in 760 during
An Lushan Rebellion
An Lushan Rebellion by Tian Shengong's (Chinese: 田神功;
pinyin: Tián Shéngōng; Wade–Giles: T'ien Shen-kung) rebel
insurgents during the
During the Tang dynasty, many merchants from
Silla also lived in
The city, still known as Guangling, was briefly made the capital of Wu
during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
From Song to Ming
Yangzhou was briefly the temporary seat of the
Song dynasty government
between 1128 and 1129, when most of North
China had been conquered
by the Jurchens during the Jin–Song Wars. The Song had retreated
south to the city from their original capital in
Kaifeng after it was
captured by the Jurchen in the
Jingkang Incident of 1127.
From Yangzhou, the Song moved to
Hangzhou in 1129, later establishing
it as the capital of the Southern Song.
Yangzhou was the site of a massive gunpowder explosion when
the bomb store of the Weiyang arsenal accidentally caught fire. This
blast killed over a hundred guards, hurled debris from buildings into
the air that landed ten li away from the site of the explosion, and
could be felt 100 li away as tiles on roofs shook (refer to gunpowder
Marco Polo claimed to have served the
Yuan dynasty in
Kubilai Khan in the period around 1282–1287 (to 1285, according to
Perkins). Although some versions of Polo's memoirs imply that he
was the governor of Yangzhou, it is more likely that he was an
official in the salt industry, if indeed he was employed there at all.
Chinese texts offer no supporting evidence for his claim. The
discovery of the 1342 tomb of Katarina Vilioni, member of an Italian
trading family in Yangzhou, does, however, suggest the existence of a
thriving Italian community in the city in the 14th century.
There were also Arabic inscriptions from the 13th and 14th centuries,
indicating the presence of a Muslim community.
Ming dynasty (1368–1644) until the 19th century Yangzhou
acted as a major trade exchange center for salt (a government
regulated commodity), rice, and silk. The Ming were largely
responsible for building the city as it now stands and surrounding it
with 9 km (5.6 mi) of walls.
A late Qing artist conception of the
After the fall of
Beijing and northern
China to the Manchus in 1644,
Yangzhou remained under the control of the short-lived Southern Ming
based in Nanjing. Qing forces led by Prince Dodo reached
the spring of 1645, and despite the heroic efforts of its chief
defender, Shi Kefa, the city fell on May 20, 1645, after a brief
siege. The ten-day
Yangzhou massacre followed, in which, as it was
traditionally alleged, 800,000 people died.
Shi Kefa himself was
killed by the Manchus when he refused to switch his allegiance to the
The city's rapid recovery from these events and its great prosperity
through the early and middle years of the
Qing dynasty were due to its
role as administrative center of the Lianghuai sector of the
government salt monopoly. As early as 1655, the Dutch envoy Johan
Nieuhof described the city (Jamcefu, i.e. Yangzhou-Fu, in his
transcription) commented on the city's salt trade as follows:
This Trade alone has so very much enrich'd the Inhabitants of this
Town, that they have re-built their City since the last destruction by
the Tartars, erecting it in as great splendor as it was at first.
Famed at that time and since for literature, art, and the gardens of
its merchant families, many of which were visited by the Kangxi and
Qianling emperors during their Southern Tours, the Qing-era Yangzhou
has been the focus of intensive research by historians.
Late Qing and early modern era
Yangzhou riot in 1868 was a pivotal moment of Anglo-Chinese
relations during late Qing
China that almost led to war. The
crisis was fomented by the scholar-officials of the city, who opposed
the presence of foreign Christian missionaries there. The riot that
resulted was an angry crowd estimated at eight to ten thousand who
assaulted the premises of the British
China Inland Mission in Yangzhou
by looting, burning and attacking the missionaries led by Hudson
Taylor. No one was killed, however several of the missionaries were
injured as they were forced to flee for their lives. As a result of
the report of the riot, the British consul in Shanghai, Sir Walter
Henry Medhurst took seventy
Royal Marines in a man-of-war and steamed
Nanjing in a controversial show of force that
eventually resulted in an official apology from
Viceroy Zeng Guofan
and financial restitution made to the injured missionaries.
From the time of the
Taiping Rebellion (1853) to the end of the
Communist revolution (1949)
Yangzhou was in decline, due to war damage
and neglect of the Grand Canal as railways replaced it in importance.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, it endured eight years of enemy
occupation and was used by the Japanese as a site for internment
camps. About 1200 civilians of Allied nationalities (mostly British
and Australian) from
Shanghai were transported here in 1943, and
located in one of three camps (A, B, and C). Camps B and C were closed
down in September, 1943, after the second American-Japanese prisoner
exchange, and their inhabitants transferred back to
Camp C, located in the former American Mission in the north-west of
the city, was maintained for the duration of the war.
Among early plans for railways in the late Qing was one for a line
that would connect
Yangzhou to the north but this was jettisoned in
favour of an alternative route. The city's status as a leading
economic centre in
China was never to be restored. Not until the 1990s
did it begin to regain some semblance of prosperity, benefitting from
national economic growth and a number of targeted development
projects. With the canal now partially restored, and excellent rail
and road connections,
Yangzhou is once again an important
transportation and market center. It also has some industrial output,
chiefly in cotton and textiles. In 2004, a railway linked
the first time with Nanjing.
The Five Pavilion Bridge over Shouxi Lake.
Yangzhou is located on a plain north of the Yangtze. The Grand Canal,
also known as the Jing-Hang Canal, crosses the prefecture-level from
the north to the south; its modern route passes through the eastern
outskirts of Yangzhou's main urban area, while its old route runs
through the city center. Other major bodies of water within the
prefecture-level city include the Baoshe River, Datong River,
Beichengzi River, Tongyang Canal, Xintongyang Canal, Baima Lake,
Gaoyou Lake and Shaobo Lake.
Like much of the entire prefecture-level city, Yangzhou's main urban
area (the "city proper") is criss-crossed by an intricate network of
canals and small lakes. The historic city center (the former waled
city) is surrounded by canals on all sides: the Old Grand Canal forms
its eastern and southern boundaries; the City Moat Canal runs along
the former walled city's northern edge, connecting the Old Grand Canal
with the Slender West Lake; the Erdaohe Canal runs along the old
city's western edge, from the
Slender West Lake
Slender West Lake to the Lotus Flower
Pond (Hehuachi), which in its turn is connected by the short Erdaogou
canal with the Old Grand Canal. It is possible to sail a small
water craft from the Thin West Lake, via the Erdaohe, the Hehua Pond,
and the Erdaogou into the Old Grand Canal.
Yangzhou has a subtropical monsoon climate with humid changeable wind;
longer winters for about 4 months, summers 3 months and shorter
springs and autumns, 2 months respectively; frost-free period of 222
days and annual average sunshine of 2177 hours.
The average temperature is: 15 °C annually; the hottest in July
of 27.6 °C and the coldest in January of 1.7 °C.
The annual average precipitation is 1,030 mm, and about 45
percent of rainfall is concentrated in the summer. The rainy season
known as "plum rain season" usually lasts from mid-June to late July.
During this season, the plums are ripening, hence the name plum rain.
Yangzhou Railway Station
Yangzhou has one
Yangtze River crossing, the Runyang
Bridge complex, which has one of the one of the longest suspension
bridge spans in the world, and carries the G4011 Yangzhou–Liyang
Expressway to Zhenjiang.
Yangzhou Taizhou International Airport, completed in 2012 to serve
Yangzhou and neighbouring Taizhou, is located in Jiangdu district. The
Nanjing Lukou International Airport is over 100 km (62 mi)
away; it takes one hour and 40 minutes to get there from central
Yangzhou. Prior to the completion of the
Yangzhou Taizhou Airport,
Lukou Airport in
Nanjing was the primary air gateway for passengers
destined for Yangzhou. There are over 10 airline ticket offices in
Yangzhou, providing convenient service for foreign and domestic
tourists. domestic and international fight are available with 10
international airlines and more than 20 domestic ones
Yangzhou was not served by passenger rail. Yangzhou
Railway Station began construction in 2003 and was completed a year
later. It is located on the western outskirts of the city, and is a
major station on the Nanjing–Qidong Railway, and provides direct
passenger service to the provincial capital as well as a number of
major cities to the west, north, and south (such as Xi'an, Wuhan, and
Guangzhou), including an overnight
Z-series express train to
Beijing. Later, frequent high-speed (D-series) service has been
introduced on this line as well.
There is no direct rail service between
Yangzhou and Shanghai,
however; to travel to Shanghai, or elsewhere in the
regions, travelers cross the
Yangtze over the new
Runyang Bridge to
Zhenjiang (frequent commuter bus service is available) and take a
train from the
Zhenjiang Railway Station, which is located on the main
Shanghai rail line.
In 2016, construction work started on a new north-south rail line, the
Zhenjiang Railway. The new Yangzhou
station will be located on the east side on the city, between Yangzhou
main urban area and Jiangdu District, 16.5 km east of the existing
Yangzhou Railway Station. The new rail line is expected to open in
2020, while the new train station will gradually become the ciy's
transportation hub, and its surrounding area, Yangzhou's new central
Yangzhou harbour, 11.5 km south from the city center, is located
at the junction of the Beijing–
Hangzhou Canal and the
The average water depth is 15–20 meters. In 1992, the State Council
approved it to become a first-grade open state harbour, and General
Jiang Zemin inscribed its name. Now, it has developed into a
comprehensive inland harbor, integrating passenger, freight, container
transportation and harbour trade, and has become the main distribution
center of northern
Jiangsu province, eastern
Anhui Province and
Shandong Province. There are several dozen categories of
goods including iron and steel, timber, minerals, coal, grain, cotton,
container, products of light industry and machinery. The passenger
routes reach Nanjing, Wuhu, Jiujiang,
Wuhan in the west,
Shanghai in the east. Some well-known luxury
international liners also anchor here. The harbour has greatly
promoted the development of exports and the overall local economy.
The Ningyang (Nanjing–Yangzhou) Expressway crosses the southern part
of Yangzhou's metropolitan area while the Ningtong (Nanjing–Nantong)
Expressway is connected to
Yangzhou at Liaojiagou. In recent years,
local government have attached great importance to the development of
the tourism, in conjunction with a greater effort dedicated to the
improvement of the local road transport system. With a total
investment of 680 million yuan, the
Yangzhou section of the Ningyang
Expressway was completed on December 18, 1998 and opened to traffic in
June 1999. Stretching nearly 18 km, the section of the expressway
starts from the Bazi Flyover as the entry/exit, via the Yanggua
Highway, the Tonggang Highway, an ancient canal, the Yangwei Highway,
Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Yangling Highway, to
Liqojiagou Entry/Exit of Yangjiang Highway. It then passes the Jiangdu
Flyover to directly link up with the Huaijiang Expressway. In
addition, the section of Huaijiang Expressway within the territory of
Yangzhou began construction on March 22, 1997, which will be commonly
used by the state planned Tongjiang–Sanya and Beijing–Shanghai
trunk lines. The section of Huaijiang Expressway in
112.04 km in length, starting from Jinghe Town of Baoying in the
north to the entry/exist of Zhuanqiaozhen Flyover of Jiangdu in the
south. It then links with Ningtong Expressway, passing by three
counties (cities) such as Baoying,
Gaoyou and Jiangdu and 26 towns, at
a total cost of 3.7 billion yuan. It is expected to be open to traffic
by the year 2000.
The modern route of the Grand Canal passes within a few kilometers
east of the city's main urban area
Intercity bus service
During the daytime, frequent bus service operates between
nearby cities. There are several bus stations on the city's outskirts;
most of the buses from
Nanjing West Bus Station) and
Zhenjiang (where the bus station is adjacent to the
Station) arrive to
Yangzhou South Bus Station, located a few
kilometers southwest from downtown. Most of the intercity bus service
stops in the early evening.
Transportation in the Urban Area
The city is served by an extensive network of public bus routes.
Yangzhou's taxi industry began in 1982, and has developed rapidly
since 1993. the city has over 40 taxi companies of various ownership
structures, with a total of 1,571 vehicles. Parking lots were
established at key stations and hotels, and eight taxi companies have
opened round-the-clock telephone service. The construction department
of the municipal government has strengthened the management of taxi
services, providing education in the relevant laws, professional
ethics and safety aspects.
In 2014, Yangzhou's government approved plans for the construction of
a subway system, which will initially include two lines. Line 1 will
run in the general east-west direction, from
Yangzhou Railway Station
in the west to the historic central city to the future high-speed
railway station (east of the Grand Canal) to Jiangdu District. Line 2
will run in the general north-south direction.
To develop tourism in Yangzhou, sightseeing buses have been introduced
in the city run by the Tianma travel agency under the
Bureau. There is a tour guide on each bus. The route, starting from
Yangzhou station, has eight stops, and passes by such scenic spots of
the Slender West Lake, Daming Temple, Imperial Dock, Siwang Pagoda,
Wenchang Pagoda and Shita Temple.
Yangzhou Public Transit also
operates No.1, No.5 and No.2 special tourist lines. No.1 bus departs
from the bus station and goes by the Slender West Lake, Shigong
Temple, Geyuan Garden and Heyuan Garden; No.5 bus starts from the bus
station and goes by the Crane Temple, Wenchang Pagoda, Slender West
Lake, Five-Pavilion Bridge, and Pingshan Hall. A sight-seeing route on
Slender West Lake
Slender West Lake has opened, connecting Imperial Dock, Yichun Garden,
Hong Garden, Dahong Bridge, Xiaojinshan, Diaoyutai, Five-Pavilion
Bridge, and the 24-bridge, finally reaching Daming Temple and Pingshan
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (May 2014) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
Yangzhou dishes may be one of the reasons why the people of Yangzhou
are so infatuated with their city. They have an appealing color,
aroma, taste and appearance. The original color of each ingredient is
preserved after cooking, and no oily sauce is added, so as to retain
the fresh flavour of the food.
Yangzhou all dishes, whether cheap or expensive, are elaborate.
Cooks will not scrimp on their work, even with dazhu gansi (Chinese:
大煮干丝; pinyin: dàzhǔ gānsī), a popular dish that costs only
a few yuan. Dry bean curd is made by each restaurant that serves it,
so the flavor is guaranteed. The cook slices the 1-cm-thick curd into
30 shreds, each one paper-thin but none broken, and then stews them
for hours with chopped bamboo shoots and shelled shrimps in chicken
soup. In this way the dry bean curd shreds can soak up the flavor of
the other ingredients, and the soup is clear but savory. Not only
Yangzhou cooks, but also the ordinary people are conscientious about
Fu Chun Teahouse
Yangzhou fried rice, is said[by whom?] to have been invented by a
person who was a former
Children's Library building, on the premises of
Yangzhou dialect (Chinese: 扬州话; pinyin: Yángzhōu huà) of
Chinese is representative of Lower
Yangtze Mandarin, and is
particularly close to the official language of the Ming and Qing
courts, which was based on the
Nanjing dialect. However, it does
differ considerably from modern Standard Chinese, although they are
still moderately mutually intelligible.
Dialect has also been used as a tool for regional identity and
politics in the Jiangbei and
Jiangnan regions. While the city of
Yangzhou was the center of trade, flourishing and prosperous, it was
considered part of Jiangnan, which was known to be wealthy, even
Yangzhou was north of the Yangzi river. Once Yangzhou's wealth
and prosperity were gone, it was then considered to be part of
Jiangbei, the "backwater". After
Yangzhou was removed from Jiangnan,
its residents decided[dubious – discuss] to replace Jianghuai
Mandarin, which was the dialect of Yangzhou, with Taihu Wu dialects.
Jiangnan itself, multiple subdialects of Wu fought for the position
of prestige dialect.
During a period of prosperity and Imperial favour, the arts of
storytelling and painting flourished in Yangzhou. The innovative
Shitao lived in
Yangzhou during the 1680s and
again from 1697 until his death in 1707. A later group of painters
from that time called the
Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou are famous
Former General secretary of CPC, President of
Jiang Zemin was
born and raised in Yangzhou. His middle school is located right across
from the public notary's office in Yangzhou.
Yangzhou is famous for its carved lacquerware and jade.
Some of China’s most creative and eye catching dishes come from the
Yangzhou school of cuisine called Huaiyang (also commonly known as the
Weiyang school). Along with
Sichuan cuisine, Cantonese cuisine, and
Huaiyang cuisine (淮扬菜) is a distinctive and
masterful skill that locals are quite proud of.
The city is famous for its public bath houses, lacquerware, jadeware,
embroidery, paper-cut, art & crafts velvet flavers.
The city was awarded Habitat Scroll of Honour in 2006.
Yangzhou is also very famous for its toy industry (especially stuffed
animals). Many tourists from neighboring cities travel to the city for
its good-quality and low-priced toys.
It is worth mentioning that the city is also famous for an ancient
folk art called
Yangzhou storytelling (扬州评话), which is like
Xiangsheng—the traditional Chinese comedic performance. It rose as a
performing act during the Ming Dynasty. In the performance, the artist
details an interesting historical story to audiences, using Yangzhou
dialect. These stories have been edited by artists, so they sound very
soul-stirring and funny. The best known artist of Yangzhou
storytelling was Wang shaotang. His most famous works are The 10
Wu Song (武十回), The 10 chapters of Song Jiang
(宋十回), The 10 chapters of
Lu Junyi (卢十回), and The 10
Shi Xiu (石十回).
Chinese snowball flowers
Yangzhou was frequently referenced in Chinese literature. Poet Li Bai
(c.700–762) wrote in Seeing Meng Haoran off to
Yangzhou from Yellow
At Yellow Crane Pavilion in the west
My old friend says farewell;
In the mist and flowers of spring
He goes down to Yangzhou;
Lonely sail, distant shadow,
Vanish in blue emptiness;
All I see is the great river
Flowing into the far horizon.
Du Mu wrote the famous lines on Yangzhou:
After ten years, I awoke from my
All I gained was a fickle reputation in the green mansions.
The "green mansions" or "green/black lofts" (qinglou) refers to the
pleasure districts for which
Yangzhou became known.
Tourist sights include
Slender West Lake
Slender West Lake and old residences in the
moated town, such as the Wang Residence and the Daming temple.
Yangzhou is famous for its many well preserved
Yangzhou style gardens.
Most of the Historic city is in the Guangling District.
Slender West Lake
Named after Hangzhou's famous West Lake, this long, narrow stretch of
water which meanders through Yangzhou's western limits is a well-known
scenic spot. A long bank planted with weeping willows spans the lake;
at its midpoint stands a square terrace with pavilions at each of the
corners and one in the center. Around the lake is a park in which are
found several attractions: Lotus Flower Pagoda (Lianhua SO), a white
structure reminiscent of the White Pagoda (Baita) in Beijing's Beihai
Park; Small Gold Mountain (Xiao Jin Shan); and the Fishing Platform
(Diaoyutai), a favorite retreat of the Qing emperor Qian Long. The
emperor was so gratified by his luck in fishing at this spot that he
ordered additional stipends for the town. As it turns out, his success
had been augmented by local swimmers who lurked in the lake busily
attaching fish to his hook.
Four bridges in rain and mist
Imperial birthday celebration stage
Mao Zedong's calligraphy of
Tang dynasty poet
Du Mu poem
24 ancient beauties played flute on this bridge
Entrance to a garden
The jinjingge bridge
The Xu Garden
Main article: Daming temple
Located on Shugang Hill, in the city's northwest, is Fajing Temple,
formerly known as DaMing Temple. The original temple was built in Liu
Song Dynasty (420–479). A nine-story pagoda, the Qilingta, was built
on the temple grounds in the year of Sui Dynasty (589–618) . A
recent addition to the temple complex is the jian Zhen Memorial Hall,
built according to Tang Dynasty methods and financed with
contributions raised by Buddhist groups in Japan. When Qing Emperor
Qian Long visited
Yangzhou in 1765, he was troubled by The temple's
name DaMing (which literally means "Great Ming') fearing that it might
revive nostalgia for the Ming Dynasty, which was overthrown by his
Manchu predecessors. He had it renamed Fajing Temple. The temple was
seriously damaged during the
Taiping Rebellion at the beginning of the
20th century. The present structure is a reconstruction dating from
Da Ming Temple
Memorial Hall of monk Jianzhen
Da Ming temple pagoda
Flat Hills (Ping Shan) Hall
Built by the Song Dynasty writer Ouyang Xiu when he served as prefect
of the city, this hall stands just west of Fajing Temple. Looking out
from this hall, the mountains to the south of the
Yangtze River appear
as a line at the viewer's eye level, hence the name Flat Hills Hall.
When Ouyang Xiu's student Su Dongpo moved to Yangzhou, he too served
as prefect of the city. He had a hall built directly behind the one
erected by his master, and called it Guling Hall.
Pavilion of Flourishing Culture (文昌阁, Wénchāng Gé)
This round, three-story pavilion in Yangzhou's eastern sector was
built in 1585 and celebrates the city's rich cultural traditions. It
is also the de facto center of the city.
Built during Ming dynasty, it is located on the cross of Wenchang Road
and Wenhe Road. The whole building is about 79 foot high, and looks
Temple of Heaven
Temple of Heaven in Beijing. Today, bordered by many shopping
stores, Wenchange had been a symbol of commercial center to residents.
Standing west of the Pavilion of Flourishing Culture is a five-story
Tang Dynasty pagoda (Chinese: 石塔; pinyin: Shítǎ). Built in 837,
it is the oldest pagoda still standing in Yangzhou.
Tomb of Puhaddin
The mosque complex at the tomb of Puhaddin
This is essentially a
Ming Dynasty graveyard that includes the tomb of
Puhaddin. According to information at the tomb, he was a 16th
generation descendant of Muhammad, The Prophet. The tomb is on the
eastern bank of the (Old) Grand Canal in the eastern sector of the
city and is adjacent to a mosque which houses a collection of valuable
materials documenting China's relations with Muslim countries.
Ge Garden (个园, Gè Yuán)
The entrance to this typical southern style garden with its luxuriant
bamboo groves, ponds, and rock grottoes is on Dongguan St. in the
city's northeast section. Designed by the great
Qing Dynasty landscape
painter Shi Tao for Wang Yingtai, an officer of the Qing imperial
court, this garden takes its name from the shape of bamboo leaves
which resemble the Chinese character ge, meaning "a" or "an." Ge An is
one of the peaceful places to visit. ^^
He Garden (何园, Hé Yuán)
This garden, also called Jixiao Shan Zhuang, was built by He Zhidao, a
19th-century Qing government official, this garden home is famous for
a 430 m (1,410 ft), two storied winding corridor, the walls
of which are lined with stone tablets carved with lines of classical
poetry, In the garden is also an open-air theater set on an island in
the middle of a fish pond.
Yechun Garden (Yechun Yuan)
In this garden, which lies on the banks of the Xiading River at the
city's northern limits, the
Qing Dynasty poet Wang Yuyang and a circle
of friends used to gather to recite their works. The thatched roofs of
the pavilions in this garden give it a quaint, rustic air.
Yangzhou Museum &
Yangzhou Block Printing Museum
Yangzhou Museum /
China Block Printing Museum
Situated by the west side of the Bright Moon Lake of Yangzhou, China
Block Printing Museum (扬州中国雕版印刷博物馆) and Yangzhou
Museum (扬州博物馆) look into the distance of Yangzhou
International Exhibition Centre and covers an area of 50,000 square
meters, with a construction space of 25,000 square meters, and an
exhibition area of 10,000 square metres. Its unique architectural form
embodies the harmony of man nature, structure and natural environment.
In August, 2003, over 300,000 ancient books blockings were collected
from Guangling Press of
China Block Printing Museum was
established under the approval of the State Council, over 300,000
ancient book blockings collected by Guangling Press of
included in the new museum.
Jiangdu Hydro Project
Construction of this multiple-purpose water control project, the
biggest in China, started in 1961 and was completed in 1975. The
project includes facilities for irrigation, drainage, navigation, and
power generation. It consists of four large modern electric pumping
stations, six medium-sized check gates, thrice navigation locks, and
two trunk waterways.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China
Kent, Washington, US
Malacca City, Malaysia
Westport, Connecticut, US
Porirua, New Zealand
Vaughan, Ontario, Canada
Balashikha, Moscow Oblast, Russia
Offenbach am Main, Germany (since 1997)
Iranians in China
Austin, Alvyn (2007). China’s Millions: The
China Inland Mission and
Late Qing Society. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans.
Finnane, Antonia (2004). Speaking of Yangzhou: A Chinese City, 1550 -
1850. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Asia Center.
Hay, Jonathan (2001). Shitao: Painting and Modernity in Early Qing
China. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ho, Ping-ti (1954). "The Salt Merchants of Yang-chou: A Study of
Commercial Capital in Eighteenth-Century China,"Harvard Journal of
Asiatic Studies, 17: 130-168.
Hsü, Ginger Cheng-chi (2001). A Bushel of Pearls: Painting for Sale
in Eighteenth-Century Yangchow. Stanford, California: Stanford
University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3252-3.
Meyer-Fong, Tobie (2003). Building Culture in Early Qing Yangzhou.
Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
Olivová, Lucie, and Vibeke Børdahl (2009). Lifestyle and
entertainment in Yangzhou. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.
"Yangzhou." Encyclopedia of China. ed. Dorothy Perkins. Chicago:
Roundtable Press. 1999. ISBN 1-57958-110-2
Schinz, Alfred (1996). The magic square: cities in ancient China.
Edition Axel Menges. ISBN 3-930698-02-1.
^ 江苏扬州行政区划调整 江都市改区维扬区被撤销 (in
China Network Television. 14 November 2011. Retrieved
^ Schinz, 1996
^ a b Perkins, Dorothy (2000). Encyclopedia of China: The Essential
Reference to China, Its History and Culture. Roundtable Press.
^ Yarshater (1993). William Bayne Fisher; Yarshater, Ilya Gershevitch,
eds. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3 (reprint ed.). Cambridge
University Press. p. 553. ISBN 0-521-20092-X. Retrieved
2012-01-10. Probably by the 7th century Persians had joined with Arabs
to create the foreign emporium on the Grand Canal at Yangchou
mentioned by the New T'ang History. The same source records a
disturbance there in 760 in which a thousand of the merchants were
^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization (2,
illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 292.
ISBN 0-521-49781-7. Retrieved 2012-01-10. The wealth of the
foreign merchants established in the big cities may have provoked the
xenophobia that became apparent during rebellions. In 760 several
thousand Arab and Persian merchants were massacred at Yangchow by
insurgent bands led by T'ien Shen-kung, and a century later, in 879,
it was also the foreign merchants who were attacked at Canton under
the troops of Huang Ch'ao.
^ Tan Ta Sen; Dasheng Chen (2009). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast
Asia (illustrated, reprint ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
p. 104. ISBN 981-230-837-7. Retrieved 2012-01-10. these
manliao ( j§ w) [Southern barbarians] would pollute the Chinese
culture through intermarriage and upset the land ownership system
through land acquisition. . .For example, in AD 760,
attacked by a nearby garrison troop led by Tian Shengong (HJ^ff-w),
who was ironically invited by the local authorities to help crush a
local uprising. Consequently, a few thousand Arab and Persian
merchants were robbed and killed (Jin Tangshu, ch. 110). In the 830s,
a mandarin in
Guangzhou took steps to control the Arab and Persian
Muslims by ordering that Chinese and barbarians must live in separate
quarters and must not intermarry; barbarins were also not allowed to
own land and paddy fields (Jin Tangshu, ch. 177) Thereafter, Arab and
Persian traders lived in designated quarters . . .they also enjoyed
religious freedom and kept their Islamic lifestlye intact. . .the Arab
and Persian Muslims were also contented to stay out of the Confucian
Chinese world so long as the authorities concerned pledged to provide
aman [security] for them to lead a peaceful life according to the
^ Jacques Gernet (2007). El mundo chino (in Spanish). Editorial
Critica. p. 263. ISBN 84-8432-868-6. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
en 760, varios millares de mercaderes árabes y persas fueron
Yangzhou por bandas insurgentes dirigidas por Tian
Shengong; un siglo más tarde las tropas de Huang Chao la emprendieron
también en Cantón con los mercaderes extranjeros.
^ 新江荣 (1999). 唐研究. 北京大學出版社. p. 334.
ISBN 7-301-04393-7. Retrieved 2012-01-10. Deng Jingshan fßJSlll
, the governor of Yangzhou, ordered general Tian Shengong Ш to lead
his forces to suppress the rebels. Shengong entered
Yangzhou in 760
and sacked the city, plunderSino-Arab
^ 新江荣 (1999). 唐研究. 北京大學出版社. p. 344.
ISBN 7-301-04393-7. Retrieved 2012-01-10. But,
Yangzhou was also
a famous trade center with a large foreign community. Chinese sources
record several thousand Arabs, Persians, and other foreigner merchants
being killed in 760 AD when General Tian Shengong sacked the city
^ Tan Ta Sen; Abdul Kadir; Abdul Kadir. Cheng Ho (in Malay). Penerbit
Buku Kompas. p. 143. ISBN 979-709-492-8. Retrieved
2012-01-10. Misalnya, pada 760,
Yangzhou diserang oleh pasukan tentara
di bawah pimpinan Tian Shengong (ffltt^d) yang ironisnya diminta oleh
penguasa setempat untuk membantu menumpas pemberontakan daerah.
Akibatnya, ribuan saudagar Arab dan Persia dirampok dan dibunuh.22
Pada tahun 830-an, seorang pejabat tinggi di
langkah untuk mengawasi orang orang Muslim Arab dan Persian degan
China dan orang barbar harus tinggal di pemukiman
terpisah dan tidak boleh kawin campur; kaum barbar tidak boleh
memiliki tanah dan ladang sawah.
^ Jacques Gernet (1972). Le monde chinois (in Spanish) (2 ed.). A.
Colin. Retrieved 2012-01-10. milliers de marchands arabes et persans
sont massacrés à
Yangzhou par les bandes insurgées que mène Tian
Shengong; un siècle plus tard, c'est aussi aux marchands étrangers
que s'en prennent à Canton les troupes de Huang Chao en 879.
^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (1997). Familiar strangers: a history of
Muslims in Northwest
China (illustrated ed.). University of Washington
Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2012-01-10. They
dealt in a vast variety of commodities, and their numbers were not
small.9 For example, Tian Shengong's soldiers killed thousands of
Dashi and Bosi at
Yangzhou in a Tang battle against local rebels. When
Huang Chao's rebel army
^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (1997). Familiar strangers: a history of
Muslims in Northwest
China (illustrated ed.). University of Washington
Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
Ouyang, Xin Tang Shu 182.6b--a records the order of Lu Jun, governor
of Lingnan at Canton, that foreigners and Chinese could not intermarry
(Ch. Fan Hua bu de tong hun), in order to prevent conflict.
^ a b Mote, Frederick W. (2003). Imperial China: 900–1800. Harvard
University Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.
^ Holcombe, Charles (2011). A History of East Asia: From the Origins
of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University
Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5.
^ Franke, Herbert (1994). Denis C. Twitchett; Herbert Franke; John
King Fairbank, eds. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien
Regimes and Border States, 710–1368. Cambridge University Press.
p. 229. ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5.
^ Greville Stewart Parker Freeman-Grenville; Stuart C. Munro-Hay
(2006). Islam: an illustrated history (illustrated, revised ed.).
Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 228.
ISBN 0-8264-1837-6. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
^ "Horrid beyond description": The massacre of Yangzhou", in Voices
from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm:
China in Tigers' Jaws, ed. Struve, Lynn
A. ale University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-300-07553-7. Pages 28-48.
^ Johan Nieuhof, An embassy from the East-India Company of the United
Provinces, to the Grand Tartar Cham, emperor of China: delivered by
their excellencies Peter de Goyer and Jacob de Keyzer, at his imperial
city of Peking wherein the cities, towns, villages, ports, rivers,
&c. in their passages from Canton to Peking are ingeniously
described by John Nieuhoff; ... Englished and set forth with their
several sculptures by John Ogilby, 1673, p.82
^ Austin (2007), p. 129
^ Leck, Greg, Captives of Empire: The Japanese Internment of Allied
China Shandy Press, 2006
^ 古运河—荷花池—瘦西湖水上游览线全部贯通 (The
Old Grand Canal - Hehua Pond - Thin West Lake tourist waterway is
fully open), 2010-09-20
^ 绿杨城郭水上游4·18亮相, 2011-3-29; see the map in this
^ tielu.org, schedule search for Yangzhou
^ a b 连淮扬镇铁路扬州站场开建 扬州去北京仅4.5小时
(Construction work starts at the site of the
Yangzhou station of the
Zhenjiang Railway. Just 4.5 hours from
Yangzhou to Beijing.), 2016-12-25
^ 扬州地 1、2号线走向初定, 2014-06-06
^ Dorothy Ko (1994). Teachers of the inner chambers: women and culture
China (illustrated, annotated ed.). Stanford
University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-8047-2359-1. Retrieved 23
September 2011. With the exclusion of
Yangzhou came the denigration of
its dialect, a variant of Jianghuai "Mandarin" (guanhua). The various
Wu dialects from the
Lake Tai area became the spoken language of
choice, to the point of replacing guanhua...
^ Vibeke Børdahl, The Oral Tradition of
London: Routledge, 1996; Vibeke Børdahl and Jette Ross, Chinese
Storytellers: Life and Art in the
Yangzhou Tradition, Cheng and Tsui
^ Zong-qi Cai (30 November 2007). How to Read Chinese Poetry: A Guided
Anthology. p. Columbia University Press.
^ Lucie B. Olivová, Vibeke Børdah (1 October 2009). "Lifestyle and
Entertainment in Yangzhou". : NIAS Press. pp. 287–288.
ISBN 978-8776940355. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter
^ Garden Tomb of Puhaddin
^ "Yangzhou, China". City of Kent, Washington.
China - sister city". Neubrandenburg, Germany
^ "Sister Cities Committee". Westport, Connecticut.
^ "About Sister Cities". Sister Cities New Zealand.
^ "Offenbach und seine Partnerstädte". City of Offenbach. 21 April
2010. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yangzhou.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Yangzhou.
Government website of Yangzhou
Grand Canal of China
Nanjing Normal University
Nanjing University of Science and Technology
Ge Yuan Garden
Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
Yangtze River Bridge
Grand Buddha at Ling Shan
Tianning Temple Pagoda
County-level divisions of
Cities along the Yangtze
Cities (from upper reaches to lower reaches)
(SIchuan see below)
(Yunan see above)
Hunan see below)
Major cities along the Pearl River · Major cities along the Yellow