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Yama
Yama
( listen (help·info)) or Yamarāja is a god of death, the south direction, and the underworld,[1] belonging to an early stratum of Rigvedic Hindu deities. In Sanskrit, his name can be interpreted to mean "twin".[2] In the Zend- Avesta
Avesta
of Zoroastrianism, he is called "Yima".[3] According to the Vishnu Purana, Yama
Yama
is the son of sun-god Surya[4] and Sandhya, the daughter of Vishvakarma. Yama
Yama
is the brother of Sraddhadeva Manu
Sraddhadeva Manu
and of his older sister Yami, which Horace Hayman Wilson indicates to mean the Yamuna.[5] According to the Vedas, Yama is said to have been the first mortal who died. By virtue of precedence, he became the ruler of the departed,[6] and is called "Lord of the Pitrs".[7] Mentioned in the Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
of Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism, Yama
Yama
subsequently entered Buddhist mythology
Buddhist mythology
in Tibetan and East Asian Buddhism
East Asian Buddhism
as a dharmapala under various transliterations. He is otherwise also called as "Dharmaraja".

Contents

1 Hinduism 2 Buddhism 3 Abode

3.1 Naraka
Naraka
(Hindu) 3.2 Naraka
Naraka
(Sikhism) 3.3 Naraka
Naraka
(Buddhist) 3.4 East Asian mythology

4 Related concepts

4.1 Yama
Yama
and Ymir 4.2 In Iranian mythology 4.3 In Javanese culture 4.4 In Buddhist temples

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Hinduism[edit] Main article: Yama
Yama
(Hinduism)

Yama
Yama
from Tibet

In Hinduism,[8] Yama
Yama
is the lokapala ("Guardian of the Directions") of the south and the son of Brahma. Three hymns (10, 14, and 35) in the 10th book of the Rig Veda
Rig Veda
are addressed to him. He has two dogs with four eyes and wide nostrils guarding the road to his abode (cf. hellhound). They are said to wander about among people as his messengers.[9] He wields a leash with which he seizes the lives of people who are about to die. He is also depicted as riding a buffalo.[10] According to Hindu itihasa, Yama
Yama
is the son of Surya
Surya
and Saranyu. He is the twin brother of Yami, brother of Shraddhadeva Manu
Shraddhadeva Manu
and the step brother of Shani.[11] Buddhism[edit]

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Main article: Yama
Yama
(East Asia) In Buddhism, Yama
Yama
(Sanskrit: यम) is a dharmapala (wrathful god) said to judge the dead and preside over the Narakas ("Hells" or "Purgatories") and the cycle of rebirth. The Buddhist Yama
Yama
has however, developed different myths and different functions from the Hindu deity. He has also spread far more widely and is known in every country where Buddhism
Buddhism
is practiced, including China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan, Bhutan, Minnesota, Mongolia, Nepal, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Myanmar and Laos, United States. Abode[edit]

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Naraka
Naraka
(Hindu)[edit] Main article: Naraka
Naraka
(Hinduism) Naraka
Naraka
in Hinduism
Hinduism
serves only as a temporary purgatory where the soul is purified of sin by its suffering. In Hindu mythology, Naraka
Naraka
holds many hells,[12] and Yama
Yama
directs departed souls to the appropriate one. Even elevated Mukti-yogyas and Nitya-samsarins can experience Naraka
Naraka
for expiation of sins. Although Yama
Yama
is the lord of Naraka, he may also direct the soul to a Swarga
Swarga
(heaven) or return it to Bhoomi (earth). As good and bad deeds are not considered to cancel each other out, the same soul may spend time in both a hell and a heaven. The seven Swargas are: Bhuvas, Swas (governed by Indra), Tharus, Thaarus, Savithaa, Prapithaa, and Maha (governed by Brahma). Naraka
Naraka
(Sikhism)[edit]

Yama's Court and Hell. The Blue figure is Yama
Yama
with his twin sister Yami
Yami
and Chitragupta. A 17th-century painting from the Government Museum in Chennai

The idea of Naraka
Naraka
in Sikhism is like the idea of Hell. One's soul, however, is confined to 8.4 million life cycles before taking birth as a human, the point of human life being one where one attains salvation, the salvation being sach khand. The idea of khand comes in multiple levels of such heavens, the highest being merging with God as one. The idea of Hell
Hell
comes in multiple levels, and hell itself can manifest within human life itself. The Sikh idea of hell is where one is apart from naama and the Guru's charana (God's lotus feet (abode)). Without naama one is damned. Naama is believed to be a direct deliverance by God to humanity in the form of Guru Nanak. A Sikh is hence required to take the Amrit
Amrit
(holy nectar/water) from gurubani, panj pyare (khanda da pahul) to come closer to naama. A true Sikh of the Gurus has the Guru himself manifest and takes that person into sach khand.[13] Naraka
Naraka
(Buddhist)[edit] Main article: Naraka
Naraka
(Buddhism) Naraka
Naraka
is usually translated into English as "hell" or "purgatory". A Naraka
Naraka
differs from the hells of western religions in two respects. First, beings are not sent to Naraka
Naraka
as the result of a divine judgment and punishment; second, the length of a being's stay in a Naraka
Naraka
is not eternal, though it is usually very long. Instead, a being is born into a Naraka
Naraka
as a direct result of his or her previous karma (actions of body, speech and mind), and resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has exhausted its cumulate effect. East Asian mythology[edit] Main article: Diyu
Diyu
and Jigoku

Azuchi-Momoyama period
Azuchi-Momoyama period
wall-scroll depicting Enma

Mandarin Diyu, Japanese Jigoku, Korean Jiok, Vietnamese Địa ngục literally "earth prison", is the realm of the dead or "hell" in Chinese mythology
Chinese mythology
and Japanese mythology. It is based upon the Buddhist concept of Naraka
Naraka
combined with local afterlife beliefs. Incorporating ideas from Taoism
Taoism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
as well as traditional religion in China, Di Yu is a kind of purgatory place which serves not only to punish but also to renew spirits ready for their next incarnation. This is interchangeable with the concept of Naraka. In Japanese mythology, Enma-O or Enma Dai-O ( listen (help·info), Great King Enma) judges souls in Meido, the kingdom of the waiting dead. Those deemed too horrible are sent to Jigoku, a land more comparable to the Christian hell. It is a land of eternal toil and punishment. Those of middle note remain in meido for a period awaiting reincarnation. Others, of high note, become honored ancestors, watching over their descendants. Related concepts[edit] Yama
Yama
and Ymir[edit] Main article: Proto-Indo-European religion § Twin Founders In a disputable[according to whom?] etymology, W. Meid (1992) has linked the names Yama
Yama
(reconstructed in Proto-Indo-European as *yemos) and the name of the primeval Norse frost giant Ymir, which can be reconstructed in Proto-Germanic as *umijaz or *jumijaz, in the latter case possibly deriving from PIE *ym̥yos, from the root yem "twin". In his myth, however, Ymir
Ymir
is not a twin, and only shares with Yama
Yama
the characteristics of being primeval and mortal. However, Ymir
Ymir
is a hermaphrodite and engenders the race of giants. In Iranian mythology[edit] Main article: Jamshid A parallel character in Iranian mythology and Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
is known as Yima Xšaēta, who appears in the Avesta. The pronunciation "Yima" is peculiar to the Avestan
Avestan
dialect; in most Iranian dialects, including Old Persian, the name would have been "Yama". In the Avesta, the emphasis is on Yima's character as one of the first mortals and as a great king of men. Over time, *Yamaxšaita was transformed into Jamšēd or Jamshid, celebrated as the greatest of the early shahs of the world. Both Yamas in Zoroastrian and Hindu myth guard hell with the help of two four-eyed dogs.[14][15] It has also been suggested by I. M. Steblin-Kamensky that the cult of Yima was adopted by the Finno-Ugrians. According to this theory, in Finnish Yama
Yama
became the god cult Jumula and Joma in Komi.[dubious – discuss][16] According to this hypothesis, from this cult, the Hungarians also borrowed the word vara which became vár 'fortress' and város 'town'. (ibid) In Javanese culture[edit] There is Yamadipati in Javanese culture, especially in wayang. The word adipati means ruler or commander. When Hinduism
Hinduism
first came to Java, Yama
Yama
was still the same as Yama
Yama
in Hindu myth. Later, as Islam replaced Hinduism
Hinduism
as the majority religion of Java, Yama
Yama
was demystified by Walisanga, who ruled at that time. So, in Javanese, Yama
Yama
became a new character. He is the son of Sanghyang Ismaya and Dewi Sanggani. In the Wayang
Wayang
legend, Yamadipati married Dewi Mumpuni. Unfortunately, Dewi Mumpuni fell in love with Nagatatmala, son of Hyang Anantaboga, who rules the earth. Dewi Mumpuni eventually left Yamadipati, however. In Buddhist temples[edit] In the Buddhism
Buddhism
of the Far East, Yama
Yama
is one of the twelve Devas, as guardian deities, who are found in or around Buddhist shrines (Jūni-ten, 十二天).[17] In Japan, he has been called "Enma-Ten".[18] He joins these other eleven Devas of Buddhism, found in Japan and other parts of southeast Asia: Indra
Indra
(Taishaku-ten), Agni (Ka-ten), Yama
Yama
(Emma-ten), Nirrti (Rasetsu-ten), Vayu (Fu-ten), Ishana (Ishana-ten), Kubera (Tamon-ten), Varuna (Sui-ten) Brahma
Brahma
(Bon-ten), Prithvi (Chi-ten), Surya
Surya
(Nit-ten), Chandra (Gat-ten).[18][19][20] See also[edit]

Death
Death
(personification), which also discusses the Grim Reaper List of death deities Time and fate deities Psychopomp Lord of Light Mrtyu Hades Pluto Thanatos Hell Norns, the Fates in Norse mythology Moirai, the Fates in Greek mythology Laima Dalia (mythology) Giltinė Osiris

References[edit]

^ Ancient History Encyclopedia. Yama. ^ Puhvel, Jaan (1989). Comparative Mythology. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 285–286. ISBN 978-0801839382.  ^ F. Max Müller (Editor): The Zend- Avesta
Avesta
Part III, page 232 ^ Effectuation of Shani
Shani
Adoration pg. 10-15. ^ H.H. Wilson: The Vishnu Purana
Vishnu Purana
Volume 1, page 384 ^ Arthur Anthony Macdonell. Vedic Mythology. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 172.  ^ Shanti Lal Nagar: Harivamsa Purana Volume 1, page 85 ^ ^ a b c Shulman pp.36-9, 41 ^ " Rig Veda
Rig Veda
Book 10 Hymn 14 Yama". Sacred-Texts. Retrieved July 8, 2017.  ^ "How much do you know about Yamaraj – The Hindu God of Death?". www.speakingtree.in. Retrieved 2018-01-07.  ^ Effectuation of Shani
Shani
Adoration pg. 10 at https://books.google.com/books?id=RnzLgxvmOFkC&pg=PA9&dq=shani+karma&cd=2#v=onepage&q=shani%20karma&f=false ^ Srimad Bhagavatam Archived 13 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. SB 5.26.3 ^ "Columbia Undegraduate Net Impact". www.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-07.  ^ "Indian Myth and Legend: Chapter III. Yama, the First Man, and King of the Dead". sacred-texts.com.  ^ Sherman, Josepha (August 2008). Storytelling: An Encyclopedia of Mythology and Folklore. Sharpe Reference. pp. 118–121. ISBN 978-0-7656-8047-1.  ^ Kuz'Mina, Elena (2007). The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. Leiden, The Netherlands ; Boston : Brill. p. 35. ISBN 9789004160545. Retrieved 27 January 2016.  ^ Twelve Heavenly Deities (Devas) Nara National Museum, Japan ^ a b S Biswas (2000), Art of Japan, Northern, ISBN 978-8172112691, page 184 ^ Willem Frederik Stutterheim et al (1995), Rāma-legends and Rāma-reliefs in Indonesia, ISBN 978-8170172512, pages xiv-xvi ^ Adrian Snodgrass (2007), The Symbolism of the Stupa, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807815, pages 120-124, 298-300

External links[edit]

Media related to Yama
Yama
at Wikimedia Commons

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 54968844 GN

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