Yakuza (Japanese: ヤクザ, [jaꜜkɯza]), also known as gokudō
(極道, "the extreme path"), are members of transnational organized
crime syndicates originating in Japan. The Japanese police, and media
by request of the police, call them bōryokudan (暴力団, "violent
groups"), while the yakuza call themselves "ninkyō dantai"
(任侠団体 or 仁侠団体, "chivalrous organizations"). The yakuza
are notorious for their strict codes of conduct and their organized
fiefdom-nature. They have a large presence in the Japanese media and
operate internationally with an estimated 102,000 members.
2 Divisions of origin
3 Organization and activities
4.1 Four largest syndicates
4.2 Designated bōryokudan
5 Current activities
5.1.1 Yakuza's aid in Tōhoku catastrophe
5.2 United States
5.3 North Korea
6 Constituent members
6.2 Ethnic Koreans
7 Indirect enforcement
Yakuza in society
8.4 Video games
9 See also
12 External links
The name "yakuza" originates from the traditional Japanese card game
Oicho-Kabu, a game in which the goal is to draw three cards adding up
to a value of 9. If the sum total of your hand exceeds 10, the second
digit is used as your total instead, with the exception of 10 (which
equals 1). If the three cards drawn are 8-9-3 (pronounced ya-ku-sa in
Japanese), the score is 20 and therefore zero, making it the worst
possible hand that can be drawn.
Divisions of origin
Throughout history, especially since the modern era,
Kyushu island has
been the largest source of yakuza members, including many renowned
bosses in the Yamaguchi-gumi. Isokichi Yoshida (1867–1936) was from
Kitakyushu area and considered the first renowned modern yakuza.
Shinobu Tsukasa and Kunio Inoue, the bosses of the two most
powerful clans in the Yamaguchi-gumi, are from Kyushu. Fukuoka, the
northernmost part of the island, has the largest number of designated
syndicates among all of the prefectures.
Despite uncertainty about the single origin of yakuza organizations,
most modern yakuza derive from two classifications which emerged in
Edo period (1603–1868): tekiya, those who primarily peddled
illicit, stolen or shoddy goods; and bakuto, those who were involved
in or participated in gambling.
"Tekiya" (peddlers) were considered one of the lowest social groups in
Edo. As they began to form organizations of their own, they took over
some administrative duties relating to commerce, such as stall
allocation and protection of their commercial activities. During
Shinto festivals, these peddlers opened stalls and some members were
hired to act as security. Each peddler paid rent in exchange for a
stall assignment and protection during the fair.
The Edo government eventually formally recognized such tekiya
organizations and granted the oyabun (leaders) of tekiya a surname as
well as permission to carry a sword—the wakizashi,
or short samurai sword (the right to carry the katana, or full-sized
samurai swords, remained the exclusive right of the nobility and
samurai castes). This was a major step forward for the traders, as
formerly only samurai and noblemen were allowed to carry swords.
Bakuto (gamblers) had a much lower social standing even than traders,
as gambling was illegal. Many small gambling houses cropped up in
abandoned temples or shrines at the edge of towns and villages all
over Japan. Most of these gambling houses ran loan sharking businesses
for clients, and they usually maintained their own security personnel.
The places themselves, as well as the bakuto, were regarded with
disdain by society at large, and much of the undesirable image of the
yakuza originates from bakuto; this includes the name yakuza itself
(ya-ku-za, or 8-9-3, is a losing hand in Oicho-Kabu, a form of
Because of the economic situation during the mid-period and the
predominance of the merchant class, developing yakuza groups were
composed of misfits and delinquents that had joined or formed yakuza
groups to extort customers in local markets by selling fake or shoddy
The roots of the yakuza can still be seen today in initiation
ceremonies, which incorporate tekiya or bakuto rituals. Although the
modern yakuza has diversified, some gangs still identify with one
group or the other; for example, a gang whose primary source of income
is illegal gambling may refer to themselves as bakuto.
Organization and activities
During the formation of the yakuza, they adopted the traditional
Japanese hierarchical structure of oyabun-kobun where kobun (子分;
lit. foster child) owe their allegiance to the oyabun (親分, lit.
foster parent). In a much later period, the code of jingi (仁義,
justice and duty) was developed where loyalty and respect are a way of
The oyabun-kobun relationship is formalized by ceremonial sharing of
sake from a single cup. This ritual is not exclusive to the
yakuza—it is also commonly performed in traditional Japanese Shinto
weddings, and may have been a part of sworn brotherhood
World War II
World War II period in Japan, the more traditional
tekiya/bakuto form of organization declined as the entire population
was mobilised to participate in the war effort and society came under
strict military government. However, after the war, the yakuza adapted
Prospective yakuza come from all walks of life. The most romantic
tales tell how yakuza accept sons who have been abandoned or exiled by
their parents. Many yakuza start out in junior high school or high
school as common street thugs or members of bōsōzoku gangs. Perhaps
because of its lower socio-economic status, numerous yakuza members
Burakumin and ethnic Korean backgrounds.
Yakuza groups are headed by an oyabun or kumichō (組長, family
head) who gives orders to his subordinates, the kobun. In this
respect, the organization is a variation of the traditional Japanese
senpai-kōhai (senior-junior) model. Members of yakuza gangs cut their
family ties and transfer their loyalty to the gang boss. They refer to
each other as family members - fathers and elder and younger brothers.
The yakuza is populated almost entirely by men and the very few women
who are acknowledged are the wives of bosses, who are referred to by
the title ane-san (姐さん, older sister). When the 3rd
Yamaguchi-gumi boss (Kazuo Taoka) died in the early 1980s, his wife
(Fumiko) took over as boss of Yamaguchi-gumi, albeit for a short time.
Yakuza have a complex organizational structure. There is an overall
boss of the syndicate, the kumicho, and directly beneath him are the
saiko komon (senior advisor) and so-honbucho (headquarters chief). The
second in the chain of command is the wakagashira, who governs several
gangs in a region with the help of a fuku-honbucho who is himself
responsible for several gangs. The regional gangs themselves are
governed by their local boss, the shateigashira.
Each member's connection is ranked by the hierarchy of sakazuki (sake
sharing). Kumicho are at the top, and control various saikō-komon
(最高顧問, senior advisors). The saikō-komon control their own
turfs in different areas or cities. They have their own underlings,
including other underbosses, advisors, accountants and enforcers.
Those who have received sake from oyabun are part of the immediate
family and ranked in terms of elder or younger brothers. However, each
kobun, in turn, can offer sakazuki as oyabun to his underling to form
an affiliated organisation, which might in turn form lower ranked
organizations. In the Yamaguchi-gumi, which controls some 2,500
businesses and 500 yakuza groups, there are fifth rank subsidiary
An early example of
Irezumi tattoos, 1870s.
Yubitsume, or the cutting off of one's finger, is a form of penance or
apology. Upon a first offense, the transgressor must cut off the tip
of his left little finger and give the severed portion to his boss.
Sometimes an underboss may do this in penance to the oyabun if he
wants to spare a member of his own gang from further retaliation. This
practice has started to wane amongst the younger members, due to it
being an easy identifier for police.
Its origin stems from the traditional way of holding a Japanese sword.
The bottom three fingers of each hand are used to grip the sword
tightly, with the thumb and index fingers slightly loose. The removal
of digits starting with the little finger moving up the hand to the
index finger progressively weakens a person's sword grip.
The idea is that a person with a weak sword grip then has to rely more
on the group for protection—reducing individual action. In recent
years, prosthetic fingertips have been developed to disguise this
Many yakuza have full-body tattoos (including their genitalia). These
tattoos, known as irezumi in Japan, are still often "hand-poked", that
is, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical,
hand-made and handheld tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or
steel. The procedure is expensive, painful, and can take years to
When yakuza members play
Oicho-Kabu cards with each other, they often
remove their shirts or open them up and drape them around their
waists. This enables them to display their full-body tattoos to each
other. This is one of the few times that yakuza members display their
tattoos to others, as they normally keep them concealed in public with
long-sleeved and high-necked shirts. When new members join, they are
often required to remove their trousers as well and reveal any lower
body tattoos.
Further information: List of
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You can help by adding to it. (March 2018)
Four largest syndicates
Although yakuza membership has declined following an anti-gang law
aimed specifically at yakuza and passed by the Japanese government in
1992, there are thought to be more than 58,000 active yakuza members
Japan today. Although there are many different yakuza groups,
together they form the largest organized crime group in the world.
Yamaguchi-gumi (六代目山口組, Rokudaime Yamaguchi-gumi)
Yamaguchi-gumi is the biggest yakuza family, accounting for 50% of
all yakuza in Japan, with more than 55,000 members divided into 850
clans. Despite more than one decade of police repression, the
Yamaguchi-gumi has continued to grow. From its headquarters in Kobe,
it directs criminal activities throughout Japan. It is also involved
in operations in Asia and the United States. Shinobu Tsukasa, also
known as Kenichi Shinoda, is the Yamaguchi-gumi's current oyabun. He
follows an expansionist policy, and has increased operations in Tokyo
(which has not traditionally been the territory of the
The Yamaguchi family is successful to the point where its name has
become synonymous with Japanese organized crime in many parts of Asia
outside Japan. Many Chinese or Korean persons who do not know the name
"Yakuza" would know the name "Yamaguchi-gumi", which is frequently
portrayed in gangster films.
Sumiyoshi-kai is the second largest yakuza family, with an
estimated 20,000 members divided into 277 clans.
Sumiyoshi-kai is a
confederation of smaller yakuza groups. Its current head (会長
oyabun) is Isao Seki. Structurally,
Sumiyoshi-kai differs from its
principal rival, the Yamaguchi-gumi, in that it functions like a
federation. The chain of command is more relaxed, and its leadership
is distributed among several other members.
Inagawa-kai is the third largest yakuza family in Japan, with
roughly 15,000 members divided into 313 clans. It is based in the
Tokyo-Yokohama area and was one of the first yakuza families to expand
its operations outside of Japan.
Aizukotetsu-kai (六代目会津小鉄会, Rokudaime Aizukotetsu-kai)
Aizukotetsu-kai is the fourth largest yakuza family in Japan, with
roughly 7,000 members. Rather than a stand-alone gang, the
Aizukotetsu-kai is a federation of approximately 100 of Kyoto's
various yakuza groups. Its name comes from the
Aizu region, "Kotetsu",
a type of Japanese sword. Its main base is in Kyoto.
A designated boryokudan (指定暴力団, Shitei Bōryokudan) is a
"particularly harmful" yakuza group registered by the Prefectural
Public Safety Commissions under the Organized Crime Countermeasures
Law (暴力団対策法, Bōryokudan Taisaku Hō) enacted in 1991.
Under the Organized Crime Countermeasures Law, the Prefectural Public
Safety Commissions have registered 21 syndicates as the designated
Fukuoka Prefecture has the largest number of
designated boryokudan groups among all of the prefectures, at 5; the
Kudo-kai, the Taishu-kai, the Fukuhaku-kai, the
Dojin-kai and the
Designated boryokudan groups are usually large organizations (mostly
formed before World War II, some before the
Meiji Restoration of the
19th century); however, there are some exceptions such as the
Namikawa-kai, which, with its blatant armed conflicts with the
Dojin-kai, was registered only two years after its formation.[citation
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Yakuza are regarded as semi-legitimate organizations. For example,
immediately after the
Kobe earthquake, the Yamaguchi-gumi, whose
headquarters are in Kobe, mobilized itself to provide disaster relief
services (including the use of a helicopter), and this was widely
reported by the media as a contrast to the much slower response by the
Japanese government. The yakuza repeated their aid after the
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, with groups opening their offices
to refugees and sending dozens of trucks with supplies to affected
areas. For this reason, many yakuza regard their income and hustle
(shinogi) as a collection of a feudal tax.
...The yakuza tend to be gentler than their Italian cousins. In
general, they are not involved in theft, burglary, armed robbery, or
other street crimes. — Jake Adelstein
Many yakuza syndicates, notably the Yamaguchi-gumi, officially forbid
their members from engaging in drug trafficking, while some yakuza
syndicates, notably the Dojin-kai, are heavily involved in it.
Some yakuza groups are known to deal extensively in human
trafficking. The Philippines, for instance, is a source of young
Yakuza trick girls from impoverished villages into coming to
Japan, where they are promised respectable jobs with good wages.
Instead, they are forced into becoming prostitutes and strippers.
The alleys and streets of Shinjuku are a popular modern
Yakuza frequently engage in a unique form of Japanese extortion known
as sōkaiya. In essence, this is a specialized form of protection
racket. Instead of harassing small businesses, the yakuza harasses a
stockholders' meeting of a larger corporation. They simply scare the
ordinary stockholder with the presence of yakuza operatives, who
obtain the right to attend the meeting by making a small purchase of
Yakuza also have ties to the Japanese realty market and banking,
through jiageya. Jiageya specialize in inducing holders of small real
estate to sell their property so that estate companies can carry out
much larger development plans. Japan's bubble economy of the 1980s is
often blamed on real estate speculation by banking subsidiaries. After
the collapse of the Japanese property bubble, a manager of a major
Nagoya was assassinated, and much speculation ensued about the
banking industry's indirect connection to the Japanese underworld.
Yakuza often take part in local festivals such as
Sanja Matsuri where
they often ride the shrine through the streets proudly showing off
their elaborate tattoos.
Yakuza have been known to make large investments in legitimate,
mainstream companies. In 1989, Susumu Ishii, the
Oyabun of the
Inagawa-kai (a well known yakuza group) bought US$255 million worth of
Tokyo Kyuko Electric Railway's stock. Japan's Securities and
Exchange Surveillance Commission has knowledge of more than 50 listed
companies with ties to organized crime, and in March 2008, the Osaka
Securities Exchange decided to review all listed companies and expel
those with yakuza ties.
As a matter of principle, theft is not recognised as a legitimate
activity of yakuza. This is in line with the idea that their
activities are semi-open; theft by definition would be a covert
activity. More importantly, such an act would be considered a trespass
by the community. Also, yakuza usually do not conduct the actual
business operation by themselves. Core business activities such as
merchandising, loan sharking or management of gambling houses are
typically managed by non-yakuza members who pay protection fees for
There is much evidence of yakuza involvement in international crime.
There are many tattooed yakuza members imprisoned in various Asian
prisons for such crimes as drug trafficking and arms smuggling. In
1997, one verified yakuza member was caught smuggling 4 kilograms
(8.82 pounds) of heroin into Canada.
Prior to his death in 1980, former
Mickey Zaffarano, who controlled pornography rackets across the United
States for the Bonanno family, was overheard talking about the
enormous profits from the pornography trade that both families could
make together. Another yakuza racket is bringing women of other
ethnicities/races, especially East European and Asian, to
Japan under the lure of a glamorous position, then forcing the women
Because of their history as a legitimate feudal organization and their
connection to the Japanese political system through the uyoku (extreme
right-wing political groups), yakuza are somewhat a part of the
Japanese establishment, with six fan magazines reporting on their
Yakuza involvement in politics functions similarly to
that of a lobbying group, with them backing those who share in their
opinions or beliefs. One study found that 1 in 10 adults under the
age of 40 believed that the yakuza should be allowed to exist. In
the 1980s in Fukuoka, a yakuza war spiraled out of control and
civilians were hurt. It was a large conflict between the
Yamaguchi-gumi and Dojin-kai, called the Yama-Michi War. The police
stepped in and forced the yakuza bosses on both sides to declare a
truce in public.
At various times, people in Japanese cities have launched anti-yakuza
campaigns with mixed and varied success. In March 1995, the Japanese
government passed the Act for Prevention of Unlawful Activities by
Criminal Gang Members, which made traditional racketeering much more
difficult. Beginning in 2009, led by agency chief Takaharu Ando,
Japanese police began to crack down on the gangs.
Kiyoshi Takayama was arrested in late 2010. In December 2010, police
arrested Yamaguchi-gumi's alleged number three leader, Tadashi Irie.
According to the media, encouraged by tougher anti-yakuza laws and
legislation, local governments and construction companies have begun
to shun or ban yakuza activities or involvement in their communities
or construction projects. The police are handicapped, however, by
Japan's lack of an equivalent to plea bargaining, witness protection,
or the United States' Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations
Act. Laws were enacted in Osaka and
Tokyo in 2010 and 2011 to try
to combat yakuza influence by making it illegal for any business to do
business with the yakuza.
Yakuza's aid in Tōhoku catastrophe
Following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, the
yakuza sent hundreds of trucks filled with food, water, blankets, and
sanitary accessories to aid the people in the affected areas of the
natural disaster. CNN México said that although the yakuza operates
through extortion and other violent methods, they "[moved] swiftly and
quietly to provide aid to those most in need." Such actions by the
yakuza are a result of their knowing of what it is like to "fend for
yourself," without any government aid or community support, because
they are also considered "outcast" and "dropouts from society". In
addition, the yakuza's code of honor (ninkyo) reportedly values
justice and duty above anything else, and forbids allowing others to
Yakuza activity in the United States is mostly relegated to Hawaii,
but they have made their presence known in other parts of the country,
Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area, as well as
Seattle, Las Vegas, Arizona, Virginia, Chicago, and New York
Yakuza are said to use
Hawaii as a midway station
Japan and mainland America, smuggling methamphetamine into the
country and smuggling firearms back to Japan. They easily fit into the
local population, since many tourists from
Japan and other Asian
countries visit the islands on a regular basis, and there is a large
population of residents who are of full or partial Japanese descent.
They also work with local gangs, funneling Japanese tourists to
gambling parlors and brothels.
In California, the
Yakuza have made alliances with local Vietnamese
and Korean gangs as well as Chinese triads, with Vietnamese as the
most common alliance. The alliances with Vietnamese gangs dated back
in the late 1980s, and most Vietnamese gangsters were used as muscle,
as they had potential to become extremely violent as needed. (Yakuza
saw the potential following the constant Vietnamese cafe shoot outs,
and home invasion burglaries throughout the 1980s and early 1990s). In
New York City, they appear to collect finders fees from Russian, Irish
and Italian mafiosos and businessmen for guiding Japanese tourists to
gambling establishments, both legal and illegal.
Handguns manufactured in the US account for a large share (33%) of
handguns seized in Japan, followed by
China (16%), and the Philippines
(10%). In 1990, a Smith & Wesson
.38 caliber revolver that cost
$275 in the US could sell for up to $4,000 in Tokyo. By 1997 it would
sell for only $500, due to the proliferation of guns in
FBI suspects that the
Yakuza use various operations to launder
money in the U.S.
In 2001, the FBI's representative in
Tokyo arranged for Tadamasa Goto,
the head of the group Goto-gumi, to receive a liver transplant at the
UCLA Medical Center
UCLA Medical Center in the United States, in return for information of
Yamaguchi-gumi operations in the US. This was done without prior
consultation of the NPA. The journalist who uncovered the deal
received threats by Goto and was given police protection in the US and
In 2009, yakuza member Yoshiaki Sawada was released from North Korea
after spending five years in the country for attempting to bribe a
North Korean official and smuggle drugs.
According to a 2006 speech by Mitsuhiro Suganuma, a former officer of
the Public Security Intelligence Agency, around 60 percent of yakuza
members come from burakumin, the descendants of a feudal outcast class
and approximately 30 percent of them are Japanese-born Koreans, and
only 10 percent are from non-burakumin Japanese and Chinese ethnic
The burakumin are a group that is socially discriminated against in
Japanese society, whose recorded history goes back to the Heian period
in the 11th century. The burakumin are descendants of outcast
communities of the pre-modern, especially the feudal era, mainly those
with occupations considered tainted with death or ritual impurity,
such as butchers, executioners, undertakers, or leather workers. They
traditionally lived in their own secluded hamlets.
According to David E. Kaplan and Alec Dubro, burakumin account for
about 70% of the members of Yamaguchi-gumi, the largest yakuza
syndicate in Japan.
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While ethnic Koreans make up only 0.5% of the Japanese population,
they are a prominent part of yakuza, perhaps because they suffer
severe discrimination in Japanese society alongside the
burakumin. In the early 1990s, 18 of 90 top bosses of
Inagawa-kai were ethnic Koreans. The Japanese National Police Agency
suggested Koreans composed 10% of the yakuza proper and 70% of
burakumin in the Yamaguchi-gumi. Some of the representatives of
the designated Bōryokudan are also Koreans. The Korean
significance had been an untouchable taboo in
Japan and one of the
reasons that the Japanese version of Kaplan and Dubro's
had not been published until 1991 with the deletion of Korean-related
descriptions of the Yamaguchi-gumi.
Japanese-born people of Korean ancestry are considered resident aliens
because of their nationality and are often shunned in legitimate
trades, and are therefore embraced by the yakuza precisely because
they fit the group's "outsider" image. Notable yakuza members
of Korean ancestry include Hisayuki Machii, the founder of the
Tosei-kai, Tokutaro Takayama, the president of the 4th-generation
Aizukotetsu-kai, Jiro Kiyota, the president of the 5th-generation
Inagawa-kai, Hirofumi Hashimoto, the head of the Kyokushinrengo-kai,
and the bosses of the 6th / 7th Sakaume-gumi.
Since 2011, regulations that made business with members illegal as
well as enactments of
Yakuza exclusion ordinances led to the group's
membership decline from its 21st century peak. Methods include that
which brought down Al Capone; checking the organization's finance. The
Financial Services Agency
Financial Services Agency ordered
Mizuho Financial Group
Mizuho Financial Group Inc. to
improve compliance and that its top executives report by 28 October
2013 what they knew and when about a consumer-credit affiliate found
making loans to crime groups. This adds pressure to the group from the
U.S. as well where an executive order in 2011 required financial
institutions to freeze yakuza assets. As of 2013, the U.S. Treasury
Department has frozen about US$55,000 of yakuza holdings, including
two Japan-issued American Express cards.
Yakuza in society
Yakuza have had mixed relations with Japanese society. They
function as a police force in their areas of operation, to help reduce
crime (that would be their competition). They also provide protection
to businesses and relief in times of disaster. These actions have
painted yakuza in a fairly positive light within Japan. However,
gang-wars, and the use of violence as a tool have caused their
approval to fall with the general public.
Yakuza have been represented in media and culture in many
different fashions. Creating its own genre of movies within Japan's
film industry the portrayal of the
Yakuza mainly manifests in one of
two archetypes; they are portrayed as either honorable and respectable
men or as criminals who use fear and violence as their means of
operation. Movies like Battles Without Honor and Humanity and Dead
or Alive portray some of the members as violent criminals, with the
focus being on the violence, while other movies focus more on the
"business" side of the Yakuza.
Logo for the video game series
Yakuza play a very important role in the
Hawaii Five-0 remake.
Lead character Kono Kalakaua's husband Adam Noshimuri was the former
head of the
Yakuza who took over after his father Hiro Noshimuri died.
Adam's brother Michael Noshimuri was also part of the Yakuza.
The video game series Yakuza, portrays the actions of several
different ranking members of the
Yakuza throughout the series. The
series addresses some of the same themes as the
Yakuza genre of film
does, like violence, honor, politics of the syndicates, etc. The
series has been moderately successful; spawning sequels, spin-offs, a
live action movie and a web TV series.
Chimpira, low ranking Yakuza.
893239 or Yakuza-Nijusan-Ku
Crime in Japan
Kkangpae (Korean mafia)
List of criminal enterprises, gangs and syndicates
Yakuza exclusion ordinances
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Post, 11 May 2008
^ a b c Kaplan and Dubro; Yakuza: Expanded Edition (2003, University
of California Press, ISBN 0-520-21562-1)
^ The Yakuza, the Japanese
Mafia - The Crime Library — Criminal
Enterprises — Crime Library on truTV.com
^ "The Yakuza's Ties to the Japanese Right Wing". Vice Today.
Yakuza Lobby". Foreign Policy.
^ Zeller, Frank (AFP-Jiji), "
Yakuza served notice days of looking the
other way are over,"
Japan Times, 26 January 2011, p. 3.
^ Botting, Geoff, "Average Joe could be collateral damage in war
Japan Times, 16 October 2011, p. 9.
^ Schreiber, Mark, "Anti-yakuza laws are taking their toll", Japan
Times, 4 March 2012, p. 9.
^ a b "La mafia japonesa de los 'yakuza' envía alimentos a las
víctimas del sismo". CNN México (in Spanish). 25 March 2011.
Retrieved 28 February 2012.
^ Yue Jones, Terril (25 March 2011). "
Yakuza among first with relief
supplies in Japan". Reuters. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
^ a b c Yakuza, Crimelibrary.com
^ a b Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld (2003) Kaplan, D. &
Dubro, A Part IV
Yakuza returns after five years in North Korea jail on drug charge
^ "Mitsuhiro Suganuma, "Japan's Intelligence Services"". The Foreign
Correspondents' Club of Japan.
^ "Capital punishment - Japan's yakuza vie for control of Tokyo".
Jane’s Intelligence Review: 4. December 2009. Around 60% of yakuza
members come from burakumin, the descendants of a feudal outcast
class, according to a 2006 speech by Mitsuhiro Suganuma, a former
officer of the Public Security Intelligence Agency. He also said that
approximately 30% of them are Japanese-born Koreans, and only 10% are
from non-burakumin Japanese and Chinese ethnic groups. Archived
by the author
^ Dubro, Alec and David Kaplan, Yakuza: The Explosive Account of
Japan's Criminal Underworld (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Co., 1986).
^ a b Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld (2003) Kaplan, D. &
Dubro, A. p. 133.
^ KRISTOF, NICHOLAS (1995-11-30). "Japan's Invisible Minority: Better
Off Than in Past, but StillOutcasts". The New York Times. Retrieved
^ (in Japanese) "Boryokudan Situation in the Early 2007", National
Police Agency, 2007, p. 22. See also Bōryokudan#Designated
^ Kaplan and Dubro (2003) Preface to the new edition.
^ Bruno, A. (2007). "The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia" CrimeLibrary:
Yakuza Bosses Whacked by Regulators Freezing AmEx Cards".
^ "Where Have Japan's
Yakuza Gone?". Daily Beast.
^ "Yakuza: Kind-hearted criminals or monsters in suits?". Japan
Bruno, A. (2007). "The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia" CrimeLibrary: Time
Blancke, Stephan. ed. (2015). East Asian Intelligence and Organised
Japan - North Korea - South Korea - Mongolia Berlin:
Verlag Dr. Köster (ISBN 9783895748882)
Kaplan, David, Dubro Alec. (1986).
Kaplan, David, Dubro Alec. (2003). Yakuza: Expanded Edition University
of California Press (ISBN 0-520-21562-1)
Hill, Peter B.E. (2003). The Japanese Mafia: Yakuza, Law, and the
State Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-925752-3)
Johnson, David T. (2001). The Japanese Way of Justice: Prosecuting
Japan Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-511986-X)
Miyazaki, Manabu. (2005) Toppamono: Outlaw. Radical. Suspect. My Life
in Japan's Underworld Kotan Publishing (ISBN 0-9701716-2-5)
Seymour, Christopher. (1996).
Yakuza Diary Atlantic Monthly Press
Saga, Junichi., Bester, John. (1991) Confessions of a Yakuza: A Life
in Japan's Underworld Kodansha America
Schilling, Mark. (2003). The
Yakuza Movie Book Stone Bridge Press
Sterling, Claire. (1994). Thieves' World Simon & Schuster
Sho Fumimura (Writer), Ryoichi Ikegami (Artist). (Series 1993-1997)
"Sanctuary" Viz Communications Inc (Vol 1: ISBN 0-929279-97-2;
Vol 2:ISBN 0-929279-99-9; Vol 3: ISBN 1-56931-042-4; Vol 4:
ISBN 1-56931-039-4; Vol 5: ISBN 1-56931-112-9; Vol 6:
ISBN 1-56931-199-4; Vol 7: ISBN 1-56931-184-6; Vol 8:
ISBN 1-56931-207-9; Vol 9: ISBN 1-56931-235-4)
Tendo, Shoko (2007).
Yakuza Moon: Memoirs of a Gangster's Daughter
Kodansha International  (ISBN 978-4-7700-3042-9)
Young Yakuza. Dir. Jean-Pierre Limosin. Cinema Epoch, 2007.
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