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Principal clans:

Yamaguchi-gumi Sumiyoshi-kai Inagawa-kai

Yakuza
Yakuza
(Japanese: ヤクザ, [jaꜜkɯza]), also known as gokudō (極道, "the extreme path"), are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan. The Japanese police, and media by request of the police, call them bōryokudan (暴力団, "violent groups"), while the yakuza call themselves "ninkyō dantai" (任侠団体 or 仁侠団体, "chivalrous organizations"). The yakuza are notorious for their strict codes of conduct and their organized fiefdom-nature. They have a large presence in the Japanese media and operate internationally with an estimated 102,000 members.[2]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Divisions of origin 3 Organization and activities

3.1 Structure

3.1.1 Rituals

4 Syndicates

4.1 Four largest syndicates 4.2 Designated bōryokudan

5 Current activities

5.1 Japan

5.1.1 Yakuza's aid in Tōhoku catastrophe

5.2 United States 5.3 North Korea

6 Constituent members

6.1 Burakumin 6.2 Ethnic Koreans

7 Indirect enforcement 8 Legacy

8.1 Yakuza
Yakuza
in society 8.2 Film 8.3 Television 8.4 Video games

9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The name "yakuza" originates from the traditional Japanese card game Oicho-Kabu, a game in which the goal is to draw three cards adding up to a value of 9. If the sum total of your hand exceeds 10, the second digit is used as your total instead, with the exception of 10 (which equals 1). If the three cards drawn are 8-9-3 (pronounced ya-ku-sa in Japanese), the score is 20 and therefore zero, making it the worst possible hand that can be drawn.[3] Divisions of origin[edit]

Throughout history, especially since the modern era, Kyushu
Kyushu
island has been the largest source of yakuza members, including many renowned bosses in the Yamaguchi-gumi. Isokichi Yoshida (1867–1936) was from the Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
area and considered the first renowned modern yakuza. Recently Shinobu Tsukasa and Kunio Inoue, the bosses of the two most powerful clans in the Yamaguchi-gumi, are from Kyushu. Fukuoka, the northernmost part of the island, has the largest number of designated syndicates among all of the prefectures.

Despite uncertainty about the single origin of yakuza organizations, most modern yakuza derive from two classifications which emerged in the mid- Edo period
Edo period
(1603–1868): tekiya, those who primarily peddled illicit, stolen or shoddy goods; and bakuto, those who were involved in or participated in gambling.[4] "Tekiya" (peddlers) were considered one of the lowest social groups in Edo. As they began to form organizations of their own, they took over some administrative duties relating to commerce, such as stall allocation and protection of their commercial activities. During Shinto
Shinto
festivals, these peddlers opened stalls and some members were hired to act as security. Each peddler paid rent in exchange for a stall assignment and protection during the fair. The Edo government eventually formally recognized such tekiya organizations and granted the oyabun (leaders) of tekiya a surname as well as permission to carry a sword[citation needed]—the wakizashi, or short samurai sword (the right to carry the katana, or full-sized samurai swords, remained the exclusive right of the nobility and samurai castes). This was a major step forward for the traders, as formerly only samurai and noblemen were allowed to carry swords. Bakuto
Bakuto
(gamblers) had a much lower social standing even than traders, as gambling was illegal. Many small gambling houses cropped up in abandoned temples or shrines at the edge of towns and villages all over Japan. Most of these gambling houses ran loan sharking businesses for clients, and they usually maintained their own security personnel. The places themselves, as well as the bakuto, were regarded with disdain by society at large, and much of the undesirable image of the yakuza originates from bakuto; this includes the name yakuza itself (ya-ku-za, or 8-9-3, is a losing hand in Oicho-Kabu, a form of Baccarat). Because of the economic situation during the mid-period and the predominance of the merchant class, developing yakuza groups were composed of misfits and delinquents that had joined or formed yakuza groups to extort customers in local markets by selling fake or shoddy goods.[4][clarification needed] The roots of the yakuza can still be seen today in initiation ceremonies, which incorporate tekiya or bakuto rituals. Although the modern yakuza has diversified, some gangs still identify with one group or the other; for example, a gang whose primary source of income is illegal gambling may refer to themselves as bakuto. Organization and activities[edit] Structure[edit]

Yakuza
Yakuza
hierarchy

During the formation of the yakuza, they adopted the traditional Japanese hierarchical structure of oyabun-kobun where kobun (子分; lit. foster child) owe their allegiance to the oyabun (親分, lit. foster parent). In a much later period, the code of jingi (仁義, justice and duty) was developed where loyalty and respect are a way of life. The oyabun-kobun relationship is formalized by ceremonial sharing of sake from a single cup. This ritual is not exclusive to the yakuza—it is also commonly performed in traditional Japanese Shinto weddings, and may have been a part of sworn brotherhood relationships.[5] During the World War II
World War II
period in Japan, the more traditional tekiya/bakuto form of organization declined as the entire population was mobilised to participate in the war effort and society came under strict military government. However, after the war, the yakuza adapted again. Prospective yakuza come from all walks of life. The most romantic tales tell how yakuza accept sons who have been abandoned or exiled by their parents. Many yakuza start out in junior high school or high school as common street thugs or members of bōsōzoku gangs. Perhaps because of its lower socio-economic status, numerous yakuza members come from Burakumin
Burakumin
and ethnic Korean backgrounds. Yakuza
Yakuza
groups are headed by an oyabun or kumichō (組長, family head) who gives orders to his subordinates, the kobun. In this respect, the organization is a variation of the traditional Japanese senpai-kōhai (senior-junior) model. Members of yakuza gangs cut their family ties and transfer their loyalty to the gang boss. They refer to each other as family members - fathers and elder and younger brothers. The yakuza is populated almost entirely by men and the very few women who are acknowledged are the wives of bosses, who are referred to by the title ane-san (姐さん, older sister). When the 3rd Yamaguchi-gumi
Yamaguchi-gumi
boss (Kazuo Taoka) died in the early 1980s, his wife (Fumiko) took over as boss of Yamaguchi-gumi, albeit for a short time. Yakuza
Yakuza
have a complex organizational structure. There is an overall boss of the syndicate, the kumicho, and directly beneath him are the saiko komon (senior advisor) and so-honbucho (headquarters chief). The second in the chain of command is the wakagashira, who governs several gangs in a region with the help of a fuku-honbucho who is himself responsible for several gangs. The regional gangs themselves are governed by their local boss, the shateigashira.[6] Each member's connection is ranked by the hierarchy of sakazuki (sake sharing). Kumicho are at the top, and control various saikō-komon (最高顧問, senior advisors). The saikō-komon control their own turfs in different areas or cities. They have their own underlings, including other underbosses, advisors, accountants and enforcers. Those who have received sake from oyabun are part of the immediate family and ranked in terms of elder or younger brothers. However, each kobun, in turn, can offer sakazuki as oyabun to his underling to form an affiliated organisation, which might in turn form lower ranked organizations. In the Yamaguchi-gumi, which controls some 2,500 businesses and 500 yakuza groups, there are fifth rank subsidiary organizations. Rituals[edit]

An early example of Irezumi
Irezumi
tattoos, 1870s.

Yubitsume, or the cutting off of one's finger, is a form of penance or apology. Upon a first offense, the transgressor must cut off the tip of his left little finger and give the severed portion to his boss. Sometimes an underboss may do this in penance to the oyabun if he wants to spare a member of his own gang from further retaliation. This practice has started to wane amongst the younger members, due to it being an easy identifier for police.[7] Its origin stems from the traditional way of holding a Japanese sword. The bottom three fingers of each hand are used to grip the sword tightly, with the thumb and index fingers slightly loose. The removal of digits starting with the little finger moving up the hand to the index finger progressively weakens a person's sword grip. The idea is that a person with a weak sword grip then has to rely more on the group for protection—reducing individual action. In recent years, prosthetic fingertips have been developed to disguise this distinctive appearance.[5] Many yakuza have full-body tattoos (including their genitalia). These tattoos, known as irezumi in Japan, are still often "hand-poked", that is, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, hand-made and handheld tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel. The procedure is expensive, painful, and can take years to complete.[8] When yakuza members play Oicho-Kabu cards with each other, they often remove their shirts or open them up and drape them around their waists. This enables them to display their full-body tattoos to each other. This is one of the few times that yakuza members display their tattoos to others, as they normally keep them concealed in public with long-sleeved and high-necked shirts. When new members join, they are often required to remove their trousers as well and reveal any lower body tattoos.[citation needed] Syndicates[edit] Further information: List of Yakuza
Yakuza
syndicates

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Four largest syndicates[edit] Although yakuza membership has declined following an anti-gang law aimed specifically at yakuza and passed by the Japanese government in 1992, there are thought to be more than 58,000 active yakuza members in Japan
Japan
today.[9] Although there are many different yakuza groups, together they form the largest organized crime group in the world.[10]

Principal families Description Mon (crest)

Yamaguchi-gumi
Yamaguchi-gumi
(六代目山口組, Rokudaime Yamaguchi-gumi) The Yamaguchi-gumi
Yamaguchi-gumi
is the biggest yakuza family, accounting for 50% of all yakuza in Japan, with more than 55,000 members divided into 850 clans. Despite more than one decade of police repression, the Yamaguchi-gumi
Yamaguchi-gumi
has continued to grow. From its headquarters in Kobe, it directs criminal activities throughout Japan. It is also involved in operations in Asia and the United States. Shinobu Tsukasa, also known as Kenichi Shinoda, is the Yamaguchi-gumi's current oyabun. He follows an expansionist policy, and has increased operations in Tokyo (which has not traditionally been the territory of the Yamaguchi-gumi.) The Yamaguchi family is successful to the point where its name has become synonymous with Japanese organized crime in many parts of Asia outside Japan. Many Chinese or Korean persons who do not know the name "Yakuza" would know the name "Yamaguchi-gumi", which is frequently portrayed in gangster films.[citation needed]

"Yamabishi" (山菱)

Sumiyoshi-kai
Sumiyoshi-kai
(住吉会) The Sumiyoshi-kai
Sumiyoshi-kai
is the second largest yakuza family, with an estimated 20,000 members divided into 277 clans. Sumiyoshi-kai
Sumiyoshi-kai
is a confederation of smaller yakuza groups. Its current head (会長 oyabun) is Isao Seki. Structurally, Sumiyoshi-kai
Sumiyoshi-kai
differs from its principal rival, the Yamaguchi-gumi, in that it functions like a federation. The chain of command is more relaxed, and its leadership is distributed among several other members.[citation needed]

Inagawa-kai
Inagawa-kai
(稲川会) The Inagawa-kai
Inagawa-kai
is the third largest yakuza family in Japan, with roughly 15,000 members divided into 313 clans. It is based in the Tokyo-Yokohama area and was one of the first yakuza families to expand its operations outside of Japan.[citation needed]

Aizukotetsu-kai
Aizukotetsu-kai
(六代目会津小鉄会, Rokudaime Aizukotetsu-kai) The Aizukotetsu-kai
Aizukotetsu-kai
is the fourth largest yakuza family in Japan, with roughly 7,000 members. Rather than a stand-alone gang, the Aizukotetsu-kai
Aizukotetsu-kai
is a federation of approximately 100 of Kyoto's various yakuza groups. Its name comes from the Aizu
Aizu
region, "Kotetsu", a type of Japanese sword. Its main base is in Kyoto.[citation needed]

Designated bōryokudan[edit] A designated boryokudan (指定暴力団, Shitei Bōryokudan)[11] is a "particularly harmful" yakuza group[12] registered by the Prefectural Public Safety Commissions under the Organized Crime Countermeasures Law (暴力団対策法, Bōryokudan Taisaku Hō) enacted in 1991.[13] Under the Organized Crime Countermeasures Law, the Prefectural Public Safety Commissions have registered 21 syndicates as the designated boryokudan groups.[14] Fukuoka Prefecture
Fukuoka Prefecture
has the largest number of designated boryokudan groups among all of the prefectures, at 5; the Kudo-kai, the Taishu-kai, the Fukuhaku-kai, the Dojin-kai
Dojin-kai
and the Namikawa-kai.[15] Designated boryokudan groups are usually large organizations (mostly formed before World War II, some before the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
of the 19th century); however, there are some exceptions such as the Namikawa-kai, which, with its blatant armed conflicts with the Dojin-kai, was registered only two years after its formation.[citation needed] Current activities[edit] Japan[edit]

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Yakuza
Yakuza
are regarded as semi-legitimate organizations. For example, immediately after the Kobe
Kobe
earthquake, the Yamaguchi-gumi, whose headquarters are in Kobe, mobilized itself to provide disaster relief services (including the use of a helicopter), and this was widely reported by the media as a contrast to the much slower response by the Japanese government.[16][17] The yakuza repeated their aid after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, with groups opening their offices to refugees and sending dozens of trucks with supplies to affected areas.[18] For this reason, many yakuza regard their income and hustle (shinogi) as a collection of a feudal tax.

...The yakuza tend to be gentler than their Italian cousins. In general, they are not involved in theft, burglary, armed robbery, or other street crimes. — Jake Adelstein[19]

Many yakuza syndicates, notably the Yamaguchi-gumi, officially forbid their members from engaging in drug trafficking, while some yakuza syndicates, notably the Dojin-kai, are heavily involved in it. Some yakuza groups are known to deal extensively in human trafficking.[20] The Philippines, for instance, is a source of young women. Yakuza
Yakuza
trick girls from impoverished villages into coming to Japan, where they are promised respectable jobs with good wages. Instead, they are forced into becoming prostitutes and strippers.[21]

The alleys and streets of Shinjuku are a popular modern Tokyo
Tokyo
yakuza hangout.

Yakuza
Yakuza
frequently engage in a unique form of Japanese extortion known as sōkaiya. In essence, this is a specialized form of protection racket. Instead of harassing small businesses, the yakuza harasses a stockholders' meeting of a larger corporation. They simply scare the ordinary stockholder with the presence of yakuza operatives, who obtain the right to attend the meeting by making a small purchase of stock. Yakuza
Yakuza
also have ties to the Japanese realty market and banking, through jiageya. Jiageya specialize in inducing holders of small real estate to sell their property so that estate companies can carry out much larger development plans. Japan's bubble economy of the 1980s is often blamed on real estate speculation by banking subsidiaries. After the collapse of the Japanese property bubble, a manager of a major bank in Nagoya
Nagoya
was assassinated, and much speculation ensued about the banking industry's indirect connection to the Japanese underworld.[22]

Yakuza
Yakuza
often take part in local festivals such as Sanja Matsuri
Sanja Matsuri
where they often ride the shrine through the streets proudly showing off their elaborate tattoos.

Yakuza
Yakuza
have been known to make large investments in legitimate, mainstream companies. In 1989, Susumu Ishii, the Oyabun
Oyabun
of the Inagawa-kai
Inagawa-kai
(a well known yakuza group) bought US$255 million worth of Tokyo
Tokyo
Kyuko Electric Railway's stock.[23] Japan's Securities and Exchange Surveillance Commission has knowledge of more than 50 listed companies with ties to organized crime, and in March 2008, the Osaka Securities Exchange decided to review all listed companies and expel those with yakuza ties.[24] As a matter of principle, theft is not recognised as a legitimate activity of yakuza. This is in line with the idea that their activities are semi-open; theft by definition would be a covert activity. More importantly, such an act would be considered a trespass by the community. Also, yakuza usually do not conduct the actual business operation by themselves. Core business activities such as merchandising, loan sharking or management of gambling houses are typically managed by non-yakuza members who pay protection fees for their activities. There is much evidence of yakuza involvement in international crime. There are many tattooed yakuza members imprisoned in various Asian prisons for such crimes as drug trafficking and arms smuggling. In 1997, one verified yakuza member was caught smuggling 4 kilograms (8.82 pounds) of heroin into Canada. Prior to his death in 1980, former Italian-American
Italian-American
Mafia
Mafia
member Mickey Zaffarano, who controlled pornography rackets across the United States for the Bonanno family, was overheard talking about the enormous profits from the pornography trade that both families could make together.[25] Another yakuza racket is bringing women of other ethnicities/races, especially East European[25] and Asian,[25] to Japan
Japan
under the lure of a glamorous position, then forcing the women into prostitution.[26] Because of their history as a legitimate feudal organization and their connection to the Japanese political system through the uyoku (extreme right-wing political groups), yakuza are somewhat a part of the Japanese establishment, with six fan magazines reporting on their activities.[27] Yakuza
Yakuza
involvement in politics functions similarly to that of a lobbying group, with them backing those who share in their opinions or beliefs.[28] One study found that 1 in 10 adults under the age of 40 believed that the yakuza should be allowed to exist.[18] In the 1980s in Fukuoka, a yakuza war spiraled out of control and civilians were hurt. It was a large conflict between the Yamaguchi-gumi
Yamaguchi-gumi
and Dojin-kai, called the Yama-Michi War. The police stepped in and forced the yakuza bosses on both sides to declare a truce in public. At various times, people in Japanese cities have launched anti-yakuza campaigns with mixed and varied success. In March 1995, the Japanese government passed the Act for Prevention of Unlawful Activities by Criminal Gang Members, which made traditional racketeering much more difficult. Beginning in 2009, led by agency chief Takaharu Ando, Japanese police
Japanese police
began to crack down on the gangs. Kodo-kai
Kodo-kai
chief Kiyoshi Takayama was arrested in late 2010. In December 2010, police arrested Yamaguchi-gumi's alleged number three leader, Tadashi Irie. According to the media, encouraged by tougher anti-yakuza laws and legislation, local governments and construction companies have begun to shun or ban yakuza activities or involvement in their communities or construction projects.[29] The police are handicapped, however, by Japan's lack of an equivalent to plea bargaining, witness protection, or the United States' Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act.[24] Laws were enacted in Osaka and Tokyo
Tokyo
in 2010 and 2011 to try to combat yakuza influence by making it illegal for any business to do business with the yakuza.[30][31] Yakuza's aid in Tōhoku catastrophe[edit] Following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, the yakuza sent hundreds of trucks filled with food, water, blankets, and sanitary accessories to aid the people in the affected areas of the natural disaster. CNN México said that although the yakuza operates through extortion and other violent methods, they "[moved] swiftly and quietly to provide aid to those most in need."[32] Such actions by the yakuza are a result of their knowing of what it is like to "fend for yourself," without any government aid or community support, because they are also considered "outcast" and "dropouts from society".[32] In addition, the yakuza's code of honor (ninkyo) reportedly values justice and duty above anything else, and forbids allowing others to suffer.[33] United States[edit] Yakuza
Yakuza
activity in the United States is mostly relegated to Hawaii, but they have made their presence known in other parts of the country, especially in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and the San Francisco Bay Area, as well as Seattle, Las Vegas, Arizona, Virginia, Chicago, and New York City.[34][35] The Yakuza
Yakuza
are said to use Hawaii
Hawaii
as a midway station between Japan
Japan
and mainland America, smuggling methamphetamine into the country and smuggling firearms back to Japan. They easily fit into the local population, since many tourists from Japan
Japan
and other Asian countries visit the islands on a regular basis, and there is a large population of residents who are of full or partial Japanese descent. They also work with local gangs, funneling Japanese tourists to gambling parlors and brothels.[34] In California, the Yakuza
Yakuza
have made alliances with local Vietnamese and Korean gangs as well as Chinese triads, with Vietnamese as the most common alliance. The alliances with Vietnamese gangs dated back in the late 1980s, and most Vietnamese gangsters were used as muscle, as they had potential to become extremely violent as needed. (Yakuza saw the potential following the constant Vietnamese cafe shoot outs, and home invasion burglaries throughout the 1980s and early 1990s). In New York City, they appear to collect finders fees from Russian, Irish and Italian mafiosos and businessmen for guiding Japanese tourists to gambling establishments, both legal and illegal.[34] Handguns manufactured in the US account for a large share (33%) of handguns seized in Japan, followed by China
China
(16%), and the Philippines (10%). In 1990, a Smith & Wesson .38 caliber revolver that cost $275 in the US could sell for up to $4,000 in Tokyo. By 1997 it would sell for only $500, due to the proliferation of guns in Japan
Japan
during the 1990s.[35] The FBI
FBI
suspects that the Yakuza
Yakuza
use various operations to launder money in the U.S.[24] In 2001, the FBI's representative in Tokyo
Tokyo
arranged for Tadamasa Goto, the head of the group Goto-gumi, to receive a liver transplant at the UCLA Medical Center
UCLA Medical Center
in the United States, in return for information of Yamaguchi-gumi
Yamaguchi-gumi
operations in the US. This was done without prior consultation of the NPA. The journalist who uncovered the deal received threats by Goto and was given police protection in the US and in Japan.[24] North Korea[edit] In 2009, yakuza member Yoshiaki Sawada was released from North Korea after spending five years in the country for attempting to bribe a North Korean official and smuggle drugs.[36] Constituent members[edit] According to a 2006 speech by Mitsuhiro Suganuma, a former officer of the Public Security Intelligence Agency, around 60 percent of yakuza members come from burakumin, the descendants of a feudal outcast class and approximately 30 percent of them are Japanese-born Koreans, and only 10 percent are from non-burakumin Japanese and Chinese ethnic groups.[37][38] Burakumin[edit] The burakumin are a group that is socially discriminated against in Japanese society, whose recorded history goes back to the Heian period in the 11th century. The burakumin are descendants of outcast communities of the pre-modern, especially the feudal era, mainly those with occupations considered tainted with death or ritual impurity, such as butchers, executioners, undertakers, or leather workers. They traditionally lived in their own secluded hamlets. According to David E. Kaplan and Alec Dubro, burakumin account for about 70% of the members of Yamaguchi-gumi, the largest yakuza syndicate in Japan.[39] Ethnic Koreans[edit]

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While ethnic Koreans make up only 0.5% of the Japanese population, they are a prominent part of yakuza, perhaps because they suffer severe discrimination in Japanese society alongside the burakumin.[40][41] In the early 1990s, 18 of 90 top bosses of Inagawa-kai
Inagawa-kai
were ethnic Koreans. The Japanese National Police Agency suggested Koreans composed 10% of the yakuza proper and 70% of burakumin in the Yamaguchi-gumi.[40] Some of the representatives of the designated Bōryokudan are also Koreans.[42] The Korean significance had been an untouchable taboo in Japan
Japan
and one of the reasons that the Japanese version of Kaplan and Dubro's Yakuza
Yakuza
(1986) had not been published until 1991 with the deletion of Korean-related descriptions of the Yamaguchi-gumi.[43] Japanese-born people of Korean ancestry are considered resident aliens because of their nationality and are often shunned in legitimate trades, and are therefore embraced by the yakuza precisely because they fit the group's "outsider" image.[44][7] Notable yakuza members of Korean ancestry include Hisayuki Machii, the founder of the Tosei-kai, Tokutaro Takayama, the president of the 4th-generation Aizukotetsu-kai, Jiro Kiyota, the president of the 5th-generation Inagawa-kai, Hirofumi Hashimoto, the head of the Kyokushinrengo-kai, and the bosses of the 6th / 7th Sakaume-gumi. Indirect enforcement[edit] Since 2011, regulations that made business with members illegal as well as enactments of Yakuza exclusion ordinances led to the group's membership decline from its 21st century peak. Methods include that which brought down Al Capone; checking the organization's finance. The Financial Services Agency
Financial Services Agency
ordered Mizuho Financial Group
Mizuho Financial Group
Inc. to improve compliance and that its top executives report by 28 October 2013 what they knew and when about a consumer-credit affiliate found making loans to crime groups. This adds pressure to the group from the U.S. as well where an executive order in 2011 required financial institutions to freeze yakuza assets. As of 2013, the U.S. Treasury Department has frozen about US$55,000 of yakuza holdings, including two Japan-issued American Express cards.[45] Legacy[edit] Yakuza
Yakuza
in society[edit] The Yakuza
Yakuza
have had mixed relations with Japanese society. They function as a police force in their areas of operation, to help reduce crime (that would be their competition). They also provide protection to businesses and relief in times of disaster. These actions have painted yakuza in a fairly positive light within Japan. However, gang-wars, and the use of violence as a tool have caused their approval to fall with the general public.[46] Film[edit] The Yakuza
Yakuza
have been represented in media and culture in many different fashions. Creating its own genre of movies within Japan's film industry the portrayal of the Yakuza
Yakuza
mainly manifests in one of two archetypes; they are portrayed as either honorable and respectable men or as criminals who use fear and violence as their means of operation.[47] Movies like Battles Without Honor and Humanity and Dead or Alive portray some of the members as violent criminals, with the focus being on the violence, while other movies focus more on the "business" side of the Yakuza.

Logo for the video game series

Television[edit] The Yakuza
Yakuza
play a very important role in the Hawaii
Hawaii
Five-0 remake. Lead character Kono Kalakaua's husband Adam Noshimuri was the former head of the Yakuza
Yakuza
who took over after his father Hiro Noshimuri died. Adam's brother Michael Noshimuri was also part of the Yakuza. Video games[edit] The video game series Yakuza, portrays the actions of several different ranking members of the Yakuza
Yakuza
throughout the series. The series addresses some of the same themes as the Yakuza
Yakuza
genre of film does, like violence, honor, politics of the syndicates, etc. The series has been moderately successful; spawning sequels, spin-offs, a live action movie and a web TV series. See also[edit]

crime portal gangs portal Japan
Japan
portal

Chimpira, low ranking Yakuza. 893239 or Yakuza-Nijusan-Ku Bōsōzoku Crime in Japan Criminal tattoo Irezumi Kkangpae (Korean mafia) List of criminal enterprises, gangs and syndicates Sicilian Mafia Organized crime Punch perm Russian mafia Triads Yakuza
Yakuza
exclusion ordinances

References[edit]

^ "Criminal Investigation: Fight Against Organized Crime (1)" (PDF). Overview of Japanese Police. National Police Agency. June 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-23. [permanent dead link] ^ Corkill, Edan, "Ex- Tokyo
Tokyo
cop speaks out on a life fighting gangs — and what you can do", Japan
Japan
Times, 6 November 2011, p. 7. ^ "Yakuza" definition. Kotobank (in Japanese) ^ a b Kaplan, David; Dubro, Alec (2004), Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld, pp. 18–21, ISBN 0520274903 . ^ a b Bruno, Anthony. "The Yakuza
Yakuza
- Oyabun-Kobun, Father-Child". truTV. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia
Mafia
- The Crime Library - Crime Library on truTV.com ^ a b "The yakuza: Inside Japan's murky criminal underworld". CNN.  ^ Japanorama, BBC Three, Series 2, Episode 3, first aired 21 September 2006 ^ [1] ^ Johnston, Eric, "From rackets to real estate, yakuza multifaceted", Japan
Japan
Times, 14 February 2007, p. 3. ^ "Police of Japan
Japan
2011, Criminal Investigation : 2. Fight Against Organized Crime", December 2009, National Police Agency ^ "The Organized Crime Countermeasures Law" Archived 19 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine., The Fukuoka Prefectural Center for the Elimination of Boryokudan (in Japanese) ^ "Boryokudan Comprehensive Measures — The Condition of the Boryokudan", December 2010, Hokkaido Prefectural Police (in Japanese) ^ "List of Designated Bōryokudan" Archived 27 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine., 24 February 2011, Nagasaki Prefectural Police (in Japanese) ^ "Retrospection and Outlook of Crime Measure", p.15 Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Masahiro Tamura, 2009, National Police Agency (in Japanese) ^ Sterngold, James (22 January 1995), Quake in Japan: Gangsters; Gang in Kobe
Kobe
Organizes Aid for People In Quake, The New York Times . ^ Sawada, Yasuyuki; Simizutani, Satoshi (2008), "How Do People Cope with Natural Disasters? Evidence from the Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake in 1995", Journal of Money, Credit and Banking (40:2–3), pp. 463–88 . ^ a b Adelstein, Jake (2011-03-18). " Yakuza
Yakuza
to the Rescue". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2011-03-18.  ^ "The Last Yakuza", 3 August 2010, World Policy Institute ^ "HumanTrafficking.org, "Human Trafficking in Japan"".  ^ The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia
Mafia
- The Crime Library - Crime Library on truTV.com ^ "US clamps down on Japanese Yakuza
Yakuza
mafia". Financial Times.  ^ Dubro, Alec; Kaplan, David E, Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld, Questia . ^ a b c d Jake Adelstein. This Mob Is Big in Japan, The Washington Post, 11 May 2008 ^ a b c Kaplan and Dubro; Yakuza: Expanded Edition (2003, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-21562-1) ^ The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia
Mafia
- The Crime Library — Criminal Enterprises — Crime Library on truTV.com ^ "The Yakuza's Ties to the Japanese Right Wing". Vice Today.  ^ "The Yakuza
Yakuza
Lobby". Foreign Policy.  ^ Zeller, Frank (AFP-Jiji), " Yakuza
Yakuza
served notice days of looking the other way are over," Japan
Japan
Times, 26 January 2011, p. 3. ^ Botting, Geoff, "Average Joe could be collateral damage in war against yakuza", Japan
Japan
Times, 16 October 2011, p. 9. ^ Schreiber, Mark, "Anti-yakuza laws are taking their toll", Japan Times, 4 March 2012, p. 9. ^ a b "La mafia japonesa de los 'yakuza' envía alimentos a las víctimas del sismo". CNN México (in Spanish). 25 March 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ Yue Jones, Terril (25 March 2011). " Yakuza
Yakuza
among first with relief supplies in Japan". Reuters. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  ^ a b c Yakuza, Crimelibrary.com ^ a b Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld (2003) Kaplan, D. & Dubro, A Part IV ^ Yakuza
Yakuza
returns after five years in North Korea jail on drug charge 2009-01-16 The Japan
Japan
Times ^ "Mitsuhiro Suganuma, "Japan's Intelligence Services"". The Foreign Correspondents' Club of Japan.  ^ "Capital punishment - Japan's yakuza vie for control of Tokyo". Jane’s Intelligence Review: 4. December 2009. Around 60% of yakuza members come from burakumin, the descendants of a feudal outcast class, according to a 2006 speech by Mitsuhiro Suganuma, a former officer of the Public Security Intelligence Agency. He also said that approximately 30% of them are Japanese-born Koreans, and only 10% are from non-burakumin Japanese and Chinese ethnic groups.  Archived by the author ^ Dubro, Alec and David Kaplan, Yakuza: The Explosive Account of Japan's Criminal Underworld (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1986). ^ a b Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld (2003) Kaplan, D. & Dubro, A. p. 133. ^ KRISTOF, NICHOLAS (1995-11-30). "Japan's Invisible Minority: Better Off Than in Past, but StillOutcasts". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-17.  ^ (in Japanese) "Boryokudan Situation in the Early 2007", National Police Agency, 2007, p. 22. See also Bōryokudan#Designated bōryokudan. ^ Kaplan and Dubro (2003) Preface to the new edition. ^ Bruno, A. (2007). "The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia" CrimeLibrary: Time Warner ^ " Yakuza
Yakuza
Bosses Whacked by Regulators Freezing AmEx Cards". Bloomberg.  ^ "Where Have Japan's Yakuza
Yakuza
Gone?". Daily Beast.  ^ "Yakuza: Kind-hearted criminals or monsters in suits?". Japan Today. 

Bibliography[edit]

Bruno, A. (2007). "The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia" CrimeLibrary: Time Warner Blancke, Stephan. ed. (2015). East Asian Intelligence and Organised Crime. China
China
- Japan
Japan
- North Korea - South Korea - Mongolia Berlin: Verlag Dr. Köster (ISBN 9783895748882) Kaplan, David, Dubro Alec. (1986). Yakuza
Yakuza
Addison-Wesley (ISBN 0-201-11151-9) Kaplan, David, Dubro Alec. (2003). Yakuza: Expanded Edition University of California Press (ISBN 0-520-21562-1) Hill, Peter B.E. (2003). The Japanese Mafia: Yakuza, Law, and the State Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-925752-3) Johnson, David T. (2001). The Japanese Way of Justice: Prosecuting Crime in Japan
Japan
Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-511986-X) Miyazaki, Manabu. (2005) Toppamono: Outlaw. Radical. Suspect. My Life in Japan's Underworld Kotan Publishing (ISBN 0-9701716-2-5) Seymour, Christopher. (1996). Yakuza
Yakuza
Diary Atlantic Monthly Press (ISBN 0-87113-604-X) Saga, Junichi., Bester, John. (1991) Confessions of a Yakuza: A Life in Japan's Underworld Kodansha America Schilling, Mark. (2003). The Yakuza
Yakuza
Movie Book Stone Bridge Press (ISBN 1-880656-76-0) Sterling, Claire. (1994). Thieves' World Simon & Schuster (ISBN 0-671-74997-8) Sho Fumimura (Writer), Ryoichi Ikegami (Artist). (Series 1993-1997) "Sanctuary" Viz Communications Inc (Vol 1: ISBN 0-929279-97-2; Vol 2:ISBN 0-929279-99-9; Vol 3: ISBN 1-56931-042-4; Vol 4: ISBN 1-56931-039-4; Vol 5: ISBN 1-56931-112-9; Vol 6: ISBN 1-56931-199-4; Vol 7: ISBN 1-56931-184-6; Vol 8: ISBN 1-56931-207-9; Vol 9: ISBN 1-56931-235-4) Tendo, Shoko (2007). Yakuza
Yakuza
Moon: Memoirs of a Gangster's Daughter Kodansha International [2] (ISBN 978-4-7700-3042-9) Young Yakuza. Dir. Jean-Pierre Limosin. Cinema Epoch, 2007.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yakuza.

101 East – Battling the Yakuza— Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
(Video) https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/organized-crime#Asian-TOC Yakuza
Yakuza
Portal site Blood ties: Yakuza
Yakuza
daughter lifts lid on hidden hell of gangsters' families Crime Library: Yakuza Yakuza
Yakuza
distribution map Japanese Mayor Shot Dead; CBS News, 17 April 2007 Yakuza: The Japanese Mafia Yakuza
Yakuza
distribution map Yakuza: Kind-hearted criminals or monsters in suits?

v t e

Organized crime
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groups in Asia

China, Hong Kong and Taiwan

Triads

India

Organised crime in India Mumbai underworld Dacoity

Israel

Israeli mafia

Japan

Yakuza

Lebanon

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Pakistan

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Post-Soviet states

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South Korea

Kkangpae

Turkey

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v t e

Organized crime
Organized crime
groups active in the Americas

Argentina

Ashkenazum Puccio family Zwi Migdal

Brazil

Amigos dos Amigos Comando Vermelho Primeiro Comando da Capital Terceiro Comando Terceiro Comando Puro Hells Angels Zwi Migdal

Canada

See: Organized crime
Organized crime
groups in Canada

Caribbean

No Limit Soldiers (Curaçao) Yardies (Jamaica) Shower Posse (Jamaican) Zoe Pound (Haiti)

Colombia

Clan del Golfo Oficina de Envigado

Mexico

Gulf Cartel Juárez Cartel Knights Templar Cartel Los Zetas Sinaloa Cartel Tijuana Cartel

U

n

i

t

e

d

S

t

a

t

e

s

Various European

Albanian Boys Albanian Mafia American Mafia
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(Italian-American) Dixie Mafia
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(White Southerner) Friends Stand United Greek mafia

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The Westies The Winter Hill Gang The K&A Gang

Jewish Mob Polish Mob Odessa mafia (Ukrainian Jewish) Russian mafia Serbian Mafia Simon City Royals Chicago
Chicago
Gaylords Dead Man Incorporated Popes Juggalo Gangs Zwi Migdal

Italian and Italian-American

American Mafia

Bufalino crime family (Northeastern PA; mostly defunct) Buffalo crime family Chicago
Chicago
Outfit Cleveland crime family DeCavalcante crime family (Northern New Jersey) Detroit Partnership Five Families
Five Families
(New York City) Kansas City crime family Los Angeles
Los Angeles
crime family Milwaukee crime family New Orleans crime family
New Orleans crime family
(possibly defunct) Patriarca crime family
Patriarca crime family
(New England) Philadelphia crime family Pittsburgh crime family Trafficante crime family (Florida) St. Louis crime family

Camorra
Camorra
(Neapolitan / Campanian) 'Ndrangheta
'Ndrangheta
(Calabrian) Sicilian Mafia South Brooklyn Boys The Tanglewood Boys

African-American

Black Disciples Black Guerrilla Family Black Mafia
Mafia
(Muslim / Nation of Islam)

Junior Black Mafia

Black P. Stones

Jungles

Black Spades Bloods

Bounty Hunter Bloods Pirus Sex Money Murda United Blood Nation Nine Trey Gangsters

Crips

Du Roc Crips East Nashville Crips Grape Street Watts Crips Rollin' 30s Harlem Crips Rollin 60's Neighborhood Crips Venice Shoreline Crips

D.C. Blacks Four Corner Hustlers Gangster Disciples

OutLaw Gangster Disciples

Hidden Valley Kings KUMI 415 Lucerne Street Doggz Mickey Cobras Savage Skulls Supreme Team Vice Lords Westmob

Hispanic and Latin American

The Corporation (Cuban) Dominicans Don't Play Trinitarios (Dominican) Latin Eagles Spanish Gangster Disciples Latin Kings (Mexican / Puerto Rican) Maniac Latin Disciples Ñetas (Puerto Rican) Mara Salvatrucha (Central American) Marielitos (Cuban 18th Street gang
18th Street gang
(Mexican / Central American) 38th Street gang
38th Street gang
(primarily Mexican) Barrio Azteca (Mexican) El Monte Flores 13 (Mexican) Florencia 13 (Mexican) Fresno Bulldogs
Fresno Bulldogs
(Mexican) Hermanos de Pistoleros Latinos (primarily Mexican) Mexican Mafia Los Mexicles Mexikanemi Norteños
Norteños
(Mexican) Nuestra Familia (Mexican) Puro Tango Blast (Mexican) La Raza Nation (Mexican) Almighty Saints (primarily Hispanic, also European-American) Savage Skulls Siete Viejo Sureños
Sureños
(Mexican)

38th Street gang The Avenues Barriox13 Culver City Boys 13 Eastside Bolen Parque 13 El Monte Flores 13 Logan Heights Gang Northside Bolen Parque 13 Playboys Pomona 12th Street Sharkies Puente 13 Santa Monica 13 Varrio Nuevo Estrada Venice 13 White Fence

Toonerville Rifa 13
Toonerville Rifa 13
(Mexican) Texas Syndicate (primarily Mexican)

Asian

Asian Boyz (Southeast Asian) Bahala Na Gang (Filipino) Black Dragons (Chinese) Born To Kill (Vietnamese) Fullerton Boys (Korean) Flying Dragons (primarily Chinese) Ghost Shadows (Chinese/Vietnamese) Indian Mafia Jackson Street Boys (Chinese) Menace of Destruction (Hmong) Satanas (Filipino) Tiny Rascal Gang (Cambodian) Tongs (Chinese)

On Leong Tong Hip Song Tong Four Brothers

Triad (Chinese)

14K Triad Big Circle Gang Four Seas Gang Jackson Street Boys Snakehead

VVT (Tamil) Wah Ching (Chinese) Yakuza
Yakuza
(Japanese)

Pacific Islander

Sons of Samoa Tongan Crip Gang Uso Family, Samoan for Brother (Samoan) The Company (Native Hawaiian)

Native American

Aboriginal-based organized crime (Native American) Indian Posse (Native American) Native Mob (Native American)

Middle Eastern / Western Asian

Armenian Power Chaldean Mafia Israeli Mafia Turkish Mafia

African

Cape Verdean organized crime Organized crime
Organized crime
in Nigeria

Non-Hispanic Caribbean

Yardies / Posses (Jamaican) Shower Posse (Jamaican) Zoe Pound (Haitian)

Outlaw motorcycle clubs and One percenter gangs

69'ers Bandidos Motorcycle Club The Breed Motorcycle Club Brother Speed Devils Diciples Diablos Motorcycle Club El Forastero Motorcycle Club Free Souls Motorcycle Club Grim Reapers (U.S.) Gypsy Joker Motorcycle Club Hells Angels Highwaymen Motorcycle Club Iron Horsemen Mongols Motorcycle Club Outlaws Motorcycle Club Pagan's Motorcycle Club Rock Machine Motorcycle Club Satan's Soldiers Sin City Deciples Sons of Satan MC Sons of Silence Vagos Motorcycle Club Warlocks Motorcycle Club (Florida) Warlocks Motorcycle Club (Philadelphia / Delaware Valley)

White supremacist
White supremacist
gangs

211 Crew Aryan Brotherhood Aryan Brotherhood
Aryan Brotherhood
of Texas Aryan Circle Aryan Nation Aryan Republican Army Combat 18 European Kindred Hammerskins Nazi Lowriders Public Enemy No. 1 Keystone State Skinheads

Mafia
Mafia

.