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The YAJURVEDA (Sanskrit: यजुर्वेद, _yajurveda_, from _yajus_ meaning "prose mantra" and _veda_ meaning "knowledge") is the Veda of prose mantras. An ancient Vedic Sanskrit text, it is a compilation of ritual offering formulas that were said by a priest while an individual performed ritual actions such as those before the yajna fire. Yajurveda
Yajurveda
is one of the four Vedas
Vedas
, and one of the scriptures of Hinduism . The exact century of Yajurveda's composition is unknown, and estimated by scholars to be around 1200 to 1000 BCE, contemporaneous with Samaveda and Atharvaveda .

The Yajurveda
Yajurveda
is broadly grouped into two – the "black" (_Krishna_) Yajurveda
Yajurveda
and the "white" (_Shukla_) Yajurveda. The term "black" implies "the un-arranged, unclear, motley collection" of verses in Yajurveda, in contrast to the "white" which implies the "well arranged, clear" Yajurveda. The black Yajurveda
Yajurveda
has survived in four recensions, while two recensions of white Yajurveda
Yajurveda
have survived into the modern times.

The earliest and most ancient layer of Yajurveda
Yajurveda
samhita includes about 1,875 verses, that are distinct yet borrow and build upon the foundation of verses in Rigveda . The middle layer includes the Satapatha Brahmana , one of the largest Brahmana texts in the Vedic collection. The youngest layer of Yajurveda
Yajurveda
text includes the largest collection of primary Upanishads, influential to various schools of Hindu philosophy . These include the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad , the Isha Upanishad , the Taittiriya Upanishad , the Katha Upanishad , the Shvetashvatara Upanishad and the Maitri Upanishad .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Text

* 2.1 Recensions

* 2.1.1 Shukla Yajurveda
Yajurveda
* 2.1.2 Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda
Yajurveda

* 2.2 Organization

* 3 Dating and historical context

* 4 Contents

* 4.1 Samhitas * 4.2 Satapatha Brahmana

* 4.3 Upanishads

* 4.3.1 Brihadaranyaka Upanishad * 4.3.2 Isha Upanishad * 4.3.3 Taittiriya Upanishad * 4.3.4 Katha Upanishad * 4.3.5 Shvetashvatara Upanishad * 4.3.6 Maitrayaniya Upanishad

* 4.4 Srautasutras

* 5 Manuscripts and translations

* 5.1 Ezourvedam forgery

* 6 Significance * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

ETYMOLOGY

_ Yajurveda
Yajurveda
text describes formula and mantras to be uttered during sacrificial fire (yajna) rituals, shown. Offerings are typically ghee_ (clarified butter), grains, aromatic seeds, and cow milk.

Yajurveda
Yajurveda
is a compound Sanskrit word, composed of _yajus_ (यजुस्) and _veda_ (वेद). Monier-Williams translates _yajus_ as "religious reverence, veneration, worship, sacrifice, a sacrificial prayer, formula, particularly mantras muttered in a peculiar manner at a sacrifice". _Veda_ means "knowledge". Johnson states _yajus_ means "(mostly) prose formulae or mantras, contained in the Yajur Veda, which are muttered".

Michael Witzel interprets Yajurveda
Yajurveda
to mean a "knowledge text of prose mantras" used in Vedic rituals. Ralph Griffith interprets the name to mean "knowledge of sacrifice or sacrificial texts and formulas". Carl Olson states that Yajurveda
Yajurveda
is a text of "mantras (sacred formulas) that are repeated and used in rituals".

TEXT

RECENSIONS

The Yajurveda
Yajurveda
text includes Shukla Yajurveda
Yajurveda
of which about 16 recensions are known, while the Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda
Yajurveda
may have had as many as 86 recensions. Only two recensions of the Shukla Yajurveda
Yajurveda
have survived, Madhyandina and Kanva, and others are known by name only because they are mentioned in other texts. These two recensions are nearly the same, except for few differences. In contrast to Shukla Yajurveda, the four surviving recensions of Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda
Yajurveda
are very different versions.

Shukla Yajurveda

The samhita in the Shukla Yajurveda
Yajurveda
is called the _Vajasaneyi Samhita_. The name _Vajasaneyi_ is derived from Vajasaneya, patronymic of sage Yajnavalkya , and the founder of the Vajasaneyi branch. There are two (nearly identical) surviving recensions of the Vajasaneyi Samhita (VS): _Vajasaneyi Madhyandina_ and _Vajasaneyi Kanva_. The lost recensions of White Yajurveda, mentioned in other texts of ancient India, include _Jabala_, _Baudhya_, _Sapeyi_, _Tapaniya_, _Kapola_, _Paundravatsa_, _Avati_, _Paramavatika_, _Parasara_, _Vaineya_, _Vaidheya_, _Katyayana_ and _Vaijayavapa_.

Recensions of the White Yajurveda
Yajurveda
Recension Name Adhyayas Anuvakas No. of Verses Regional presence Reference

Madhyandina 40 303 1975 Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, North India

Kanva 40 328 2086 Maharashtra, Odisha, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda

There are four surviving recensions of the Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda
Yajurveda
– Taittirīya saṃhitā, Maitrayani saṃhitā, Kaṭha saṃhitā and Kapiṣṭhala saṃhitā. A total of eighty six recensions are mentioned to exist in Vayu Purana, however vast majority of them are believed to be lost. The Katha school is referred to as a sub-school of _Carakas_ (wanderers) in some ancient texts of India, because they did their scholarship as they wandered from place to place.

Recensions of the Black Yajurveda
Yajurveda
Recension Name No. of Sub-recensions Kanda Prapathaka No. of Mantras Regional presence Reference

Taittiriya 2 7 42

South India

Maitrayani 6 4 54

Western India

Kāṭhaka (Caraka) 12 5 40 3093 Kashmir, North India, East India

Kapiṣṭhala 5 6 48

Haryana, Rajasthan

The best known and best preserved of these recensions is the _Taittirīya saṃhitā_. Some attribute it to Tittiri, a pupil of Yaksa and mentioned by Panini . The text is associated with the _Taittiriya_ school of the Yajurveda, and attributed to the pupils of sage Tittiri (literally, partridge birds).

The _Maitrayani saṃhitā_ is the oldest Yajurveda
Yajurveda
Samhita that has survived, and it differs largely in content from the Taittiriyas, as well as in some different arrangement of chapters, but is much more detailed.

The _Kāṭhaka saṃhitā_ or the _Caraka-Kaṭha saṃhitā_, according to tradition was compiled by Katha, a disciple of Vaisampayana . Like the Maitrayani Samhita, it offers much more detailed discussion of some rituals than the younger _Taittiriya samhita_ that frequently summarizes such accounts. The _Kapiṣṭhala saṃhitā_ or the _Kapiṣṭhala-Kaṭha saṃhitā_, named after the sage Kapisthala is extant only in some large fragments and edited without accent marks. This text is practically a variant of the _Kāṭhaka saṃhitā_.

ORGANIZATION

Each regional edition (recension) of Yajurveda
Yajurveda
had Samhita , Brahmana , Aranyakas , Upanishads as part of the text, with Shrautasutras , Grhyasutras and Pratishakhya attached to the text. In Shukla Yajurveda, the text organization is same for both Madhayndina and Kanva shakhas. The texts attached to Shukla Yajurveda
Yajurveda
include the _Katyayana Shrautasutra_, _Paraskara Grhyasutra_ and _Shukla Yajurveda Pratishakhya_.

In Krishna
Krishna
Yajurveda, each of the recensions has or had their Brahmana text mixed into the Samhita text, thus creating a motley of the prose and verses, and making it unclear, disorganized.

DATING AND HISTORICAL CONTEXT

The core text of the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
falls within the classical Mantra period of Vedic Sanskrit at the end of the 2nd millennium BCE - younger than the Rigveda , and roughly contemporary with the Atharvaveda , the Rigvedic Khilani , and the Sāmaveda . The scholarly consensus dates the bulk of the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
and Atharvaveda hymns to the early Indian Iron Age , c. 1200 or 1000 BC, corresponding to the early Kuru Kingdom .

The Vedas
Vedas
are notoriously hard to date accurately as they are compilations and were traditionally preserved through oral tradition leaving virtually no archaeological evidence. Scholars such as Georg Feuerstein and others suggest that the dates given to most of these texts is far too late.

CONTENTS

SAMHITAS

The _Vajasaneyi Samhita_ has forty chapters or _adhyayas_, containing the formulas used with the following rituals:

Chapters of the White Yajurveda
Yajurveda
Chapter No. Ritual Name Days Nature of Ritual Reference

1-2 Darsapurnamasa (Full and new moon rituals) 2 Offer cow milk to fire. Separate calves from the cows.

3 Agnihotra 1 Offer butter and milk to fire. Welcome three chief seasons: Spring, Rains and Autumn.

4-8 Somayajna

Bathe in river. Offer milk and soma to fire. Offerings to deities of thought, speech. Prayer to Vishnu
Vishnu
to harm no crop, guard the cattle, expel demons.

9-10 Vajapeya and Rajasuya
Rajasuya

Cup of Victory, Inauguration of a King. Offering of butter and Sura (a kind of beer or wine) to fire.

11-18 Agnicayana 360 Formulas and rituals for building altars and hearths for Agni
Agni
yajna , with largest in the shape of outspread eagle or falcon.

19-21 Sautramani

Offerings of _Masara_ (rice-barley liquor plus boiled millet) to fire. Expiate evil indulgences in soma-drinking. For dethroned king, for soldiers going to war for victory, for regulars to acquire cattle and wealth.

22-25 Ashvamedha 180 or 360 Only by King. A horse is released, followed by armed soldiers, wherein anyone who stops or harms the wandering horse is declared enemy of state. The horse is returned to the capital and is ceremoniously slaughtered by the soldiers. Eulogy to the departed horse. Prayers to deities.

26-29

Supplementary formulas for above sacrifices

30-31 Purushamedha

Symbolic sacrifice of Purusha (Cosmic Man). Nominal victim played the part, but released uninjured after the ceremony, according to Max Muller and others. A substitute for _Ashvamedha_ (horse sacrifice). The ritual plays out the cosmic creation.

32-34 Sarvamedha 10 Stated to be more important than _Purushamedha_ above. This ritual is a sacrifice for Universal Success and Prosperity. Ritual for one to be wished well, or someone leaving the home, particularly for solitude and moksha , who is offered "curd and ghee (clarified butter)".

35 Pitriyajna

Ritual funeral-related formulas for cremation . Sacrifice to the Fathers and Ancestors.

36-39 Pravargya

According to Griffith, the ritual is for long life, unimpaired faculties, health, strength, prosperity, security, tranquility and contentment. Offerings of cow milk and grains to yajna fire.

40

This chapter is not an external sacrifice ritual-related. It is Isha Upanishad , a philosophical treatise about inner Self (Atman , Soul). The verse 40.6 states, "The man who in his Self beholds all creatures and all things that be, And in all beings sees his Self, then he doubts no longer, ponders not.

Structure of the mantras

The various ritual mantras in the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
Samhitas are typically set in a meter, and call on Vedic deities such as the Savita (Sun), Indra, Agni, Prajapati, Rudra
Rudra
and others. The Taittiriya Samhita in Book 4, for example, includes the following verses for the Agnicayana ritual recitation (abridged),

First harnessing the mind, Savita; creating thoughts and perceiving light, brought Agni
Agni
from the earth. Harnessing the gods with mind; they who go with thought to the sky, to heaven, Savita instigates those who will make great light. With the mind harnessed, we are instigated by god Savita, for strength to go to heaven.

Whose journey the other gods follow, praising the power of the god, who measured the radiant regions of the earth, he is the great god Savita. God Savita, impel the ritual, impel for good fortune the lord of ritual ! Divine Gandharva, purifier of thought, purify our thoughts ! May the lord of speech make our words sweet !

God Savita, impel for us this ritual, Honoring the gods, gaining friends, always victorious, winning wealth, winning heaven ! — Taittiriya Samhita 4.1.1, Translated by Frits Staal

SATAPATHA BRAHMANA

Main article: Satapatha Brahmana

The title _Satapatha Brahmana_ means " Brahmana of the Hundred Paths". It is one of the largest Brahmana text that has survived. It includes, states Staal, a "veritable encyclopedia of meandering opinions on ritual and other matters".

The Satapatha Brahmana was translated by Eggeling in late 19th-century, reprinted often and has been well read because of the translation. However, it has been misinterpreted and misused, states Staal, because "it contains enough material to support _any_ theory". Eggeling, the first translator of Satapatha Brahmana called it "flimsy symbolism rather than serious reasoning", similar to "speculative vaporings" found in the Christian and non-Christian variety of Gnosticism .

UPANISHADS

The Yajurveda
Yajurveda
has six primary Upanishads embedded within it.

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is found in the White Yajurveda. It is one of the Mukhya Upanishads , and among the largest and oldest as well (~700 BCE). It is a key scripture of Hinduism that has influenced all schools of Hindu philosophy . The text is a treatise on Ātman (Soul, Self), with passages on metaphysics, ethics and a yearning for knowledge that influenced various Indian religions , ancient and medieval scholars.

The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is among the earliest extensive discussions of the Hindu
Hindu
concept of dharma , karma and moksha (liberation from sorrow, freedom, emancipation, self-realization). Paul Deussen calls it, "unique in its richness and warmth of presentation", with profoundness that retains its full worth in modern times. Max Muller illustrated its style as follows,

But when he fancies that he is, as it were, a god, or that he is, as it were, a king, or "I am this altogether," that is his highest world, This indeed is his (true) form, free from desires, free from evil, free from fear.

Now as a man, when embraced by a beloved wife, knows nothing that is without, nothing that is within, thus this person, when embraced by the _Prajna_ (conscious, aware) Self, knows nothing that is without, nothing that is within. This indeed is his (true) form, in which his wishes are fulfilled, in which the Self only is his wish, in which no other wish is left, he is free from any sorrow. — Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Chapter 4, Brahmanam 3, Hymns 20-32, Translated by Max Muller

Isha Upanishad

The Isha Upanishad is found in the White Yajurveda. It is one of the shortest Upanishads , embedded as the final chapter of the Shukla Yajurveda. A key scripture of the Vedanta sub-schools of Hinduism, its name is derived from "hidden in the Lord (Self)".

The Isha Upanishad discusses the Atman (Soul, Self) theory of Hinduism, and is referenced by both Dvaita (dualism) and Advaita (non-dualism) sub-schools of Vedanta. It is classified as a "poetic Upanishad" along with Kena, Katha, Svetasvatara and Mundaka Upanishads.

Taittiriya Upanishad

The Taittiriya Upanishad is found in the black Yajurveda. It is the seventh, eighth and ninth chapters of Taittiriya Aranyaka , which are also called, respectively, the _Siksha Valli_, the _Ananda Valli_ and the _Bhrigu Valli_.

The Taittiriya Upanishad includes verses that are partly prayers and benedictions, partly instruction on phonetics and praxis, partly advice on ethics and morals given to graduating students from ancient Vedic _gurukul_ (schools), partly a treatise on allegory, and partly philosophical instruction.

The text offers a view of education system in ancient India. It also includes sections on ethics and invocation for one's personal development. Max Muller translates the text's tenth anuvaka, for example, as an affirmation of one's Self as a capable, empowered blissful being. The tenth anuvaka asserts, "I am he who shakes the tree. I am glorious like the top of a mountain. I, whose pure light (of knowledge) has risen, am that which is truly immortal, as it resides in the sun. I (Soul, Self) am the treasure, wise, immortal, imperishable. This is the teaching of the Veda, by sage Trisanku."

Katha Upanishad

The Katha Upanishad is found in the black Yajurveda. The Upanishad is the legendary story of a little boy, Nachiketa – the son of sage Vajasravasa, who meets Yama
Yama
– the Indian deity of death. Their conversation evolves to a discussion of the nature of man, knowledge, Ātman (Soul, Self) and moksha (liberation).

The Kathaka Upanishad is an important ancient Sanskrit corpus of the Vedanta sub-schools. It asserts that "Atman (Soul, Self) exists", teaches the precept "seek Self-knowledge which is Highest Bliss", and expounds on this premise like the other primary Upanishads of Hinduism. The detailed teachings of Katha Upanishad have been variously interpreted, as Dvaita (dualistic) and as Advaita (non-dualistic ).

The Katha Upanishad found in the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
is among the most widely studied Upanishads. Philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer praised it, Edwin Arnold
Edwin Arnold
rendered it in verse as "The Secret of Death", and Ralph Waldo Emerson credited Katha Upanishad for the central story at the end of his essay _Immortality_, as well as his poem "_Brahma_".

Shvetashvatara Upanishad

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is found in the black Yajurveda. The text opens with metaphysical questions about the primal cause of all existence, its origin, its end, and what role if any did time, nature, necessity, chance, the spirit had as primal cause? It then develops its answer, concluding that "the Universal Soul exists in every individual, it expresses itself in every creature, everything in the world is a projection of it, and that there is Oneness, a unity of souls in one and only Self".

The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is notable for its discussion of the concept of personal god – Ishvara , and suggesting it to be a path to one's own Highest Self. The text is also notable for its multiple mentions of both Rudra
Rudra
and Shiva
Shiva
, along with other Vedic deities, and of crystallization of Shiva
Shiva
as a central theme.

Maitrayaniya Upanishad

The Maitrayaniya Upanishad , also known as the Maitri Upanishad, is found in the black Yajurveda. It consists of seven _Prapathakas_ (lessons). The first _Prapathaka_ is introductory, the next three are structured in a question-answer style and discuss metaphysical questions relating to Atman (Self, Soul), while the fifth to seventh _Prapathaka_ are supplements. However, several manuscripts discovered in different parts of India contain lesser number of _Prapathakas_, with a Telugu language version showing just four.

The common kernel of the Maitri Upanishad across different recensions, states Max Muller , is a reverence for soul, that can be summarized in a few words as, "(Man) is the Self – the immortal, the fearless, the Brahman ". The Maitrayaniya Upanishad is notable for its references to theories also found in Buddhism
Buddhism
, elements of the Samkhya and Yoga
Yoga
schools of Hinduism, as well as the Ashrama system.

SRAUTASUTRAS

The Yajurveda
Yajurveda
had Shrautasutras and Grhyasutras attached to it, from fifteen schools: Apastamba , Agastya, Agniveshyaka, Baudhayana , Bharadvaja, Hiranyakeshi, Kaundinya , Kusidaka, Katyayana, Lokaksita, Madhyamdina, Panca-Kathaka, Satyasadha, Sakala, Sandilya, Vaikhanasa
Vaikhanasa
, and Vadula . Of these nine have survived, along with portions of Kaundinya.

MANUSCRIPTS AND TRANSLATIONS

Most surviving manuscripts and recensions of Yajurveda's Samhitas, Aranyakas and Brahmanas remain untranslated into Western languages. The two reliable translations are from British India colonial era, and have been widely studied. These are AB Keith's translation of Taittiriya Samhita of the Black Yajurveda, and Juliu Eggeling's translation of Satapatha Brahmana of the White Yajurveda.

Ralph Griffith published an early translation of White Yajurveda Samhita. However, Frits Staal has questioned his translations and considers them "fantasies and best discarded".

Devi
Devi
Chand published a re-interpreted translation of Yajurveda
Yajurveda
in 1965, reprinted as 3rd edition in 1980, wherein the translation incorporated Dayananda Saraswati's monotheistic interpretations of the Vedic text, and the translation liberally adds "O Lord" and "the Creator" to various verses, unlike other translators.

EZOURVEDAM FORGERY

In 18th century, French Jesuits published Ezourvedam , claiming it to be a translation of a recension of the Yajurveda. The Ezourveda was studied by Voltaire
Voltaire
, and later declared a forgery, representing Jesuit ideas to Indians as a Vedic school.

SIGNIFICANCE

Ashvamedhika parva of the Mahabharata describes the year long ceremony according to Yajurveda.

The text is a useful source of information about the agriculture, economic and social life during the Vedic era. The verses, for example, list the types of crops considered important in ancient India,

May my rice plants and my barley, and my beans and my sesame , and my kidney-beans and my vetches, and my pearl millet and my proso millet , and my sorghum and my wild rice, and my wheat and my lentils , prosper by sacrifice. — White Yajurveda
Yajurveda
18.12,

SEE ALSO

* Karpuragauram Karunavtaaram * Kalpa (Vedanga) * Mahīdhara * Shatapatha Brahmana * Vedas
Vedas
* Yajna * Hinduism * Hindu philosophy

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Michael Witzel (2003), " Vedas
Vedas
and Upaniṣads", in The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Gavin Flood), Blackwell, ISBN 0-631215352 , pages 76-77 * ^ Michael Witzel (2003), " Vedas
Vedas
and Upaniṣads", in The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Gavin Flood), Blackwell, ISBN 0-631215352 , pages 68-70 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Paul Deussen , Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 217-219 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ CL Prabhakar (1972), The Recensions of the Sukla Yajurveda, Archív Orientální, Volume 40, Issue 1, pages 347-353 * ^ Antonio de Nicholas (2003), Meditations Through the Rig Veda: Four-Dimensional Man, ISBN 978-0595269259 , pages 273-274 * ^ Edmund Gosse, _Short histories of the literatures of the world_, p. 181, at Google Books , New York: Appleton, page 181 * ^ Frits Staal (2009), Discovering the Vedas: Origins, Mantras, Rituals, Insights, Penguin, ISBN 978-0143099864 , pages 149-153, Quote: "The Satapatha is one of the largest Brahmanas..." * ^ _A_ _B_ Paul Deussen , The Philosophy of the Upanishads, Motilal Banarsidass (2011 Edition), ISBN 978-8120816206 , page 23 * ^ _A_ _B_ Patrick Olivelle (1998), Upaniṣhads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-282292-6 , pages 1-17 * ^ Monier Monier Williams, Sanskrit English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Entry for Yajus, page 839 * ^ WJ Johnson (2009), Yajus, A Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198610250 * ^ Ralph Griffith, The texts of the white Yajurveda
Yajurveda
EJ Lazarus, page xvii * ^ Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 978-0813540689 , page 13 * ^ _A_ _B_ GS Rai, Sakhas of the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
in the Puranas, Purana, Vol 7, No. 1, pages 11-16 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Ralph Griffith, The texts of the white Yajurveda
Yajurveda
EJ Lazarus, page i-xvi * ^ GS Rai, Sakhas of the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
in the Puranas, Purana, Vol 7, No. 1, page 13 * ^ GS Rai, Sakhas of the Yajurveda
Yajurveda
in the Puranas, Purana, Vol 7, No. 1, page 14 * ^ Michael Witzel, Early Sanskritization, Origins and Development of the Kuru State, Harvard University (1996) * ^ GS Rai, Sakhas of the Krsna Yajurveda
Yajurveda
in the Puranas, Purana, Vol 7, No. 2, page 235 * ^ GS Rai, Sakhas of the Krsna Yajurveda
Yajurveda
in the Puranas, Purana, Vol 7, No. 2, pages 236-238 * ^ _A_ _B_ GS Rai, Sakhas of the Krsna Yajurveda
Yajurveda
in the Puranas, Purana, Vol 7, No. 2, pages 238-241 * ^ AB Keith, THE VEDA OF THE BLACK YAJUS SCHOOL: Taittiriya Sanhita, Oxford University, pages i-xii * ^ GS Rai, Sakhas of the Krsna Yajurveda
Yajurveda
in the Puranas, Purana, Vol 7, No. 2, pages 244 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gonda, Jan (1975). _A History of Indian Literature: Veda and Upanishads_. Vol.I. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 326–327. ISBN 3-447-01603-5 . * ^ GS Rai, Sakhas of the Krsna Yajurveda
Yajurveda
in the Puranas, Purana, Vol 7, No. 2, pages 241-242 * ^ Dowson, John (1984) . _A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology, and Religion, Geography, History_. Calcutta: Rupa & Co. p. 319. * ^ A Weber, _History of Indian Literature_, p. 87, at Google Books , Trubner Also see A Weber's agreement that this was symbolic on page 413 * ^ Oliver Leaman (2006), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415172813 , page 557, Quote: "It should be mentioned that although provision is made for human sacrifice (purusha-medha) this was purely symbolic and did not involve harm to anyone". * ^ Ralph Griffith, The texts of the white Yajurveda
Yajurveda
EJ Lazarus, pages 255-263 * ^ Ralph Griffith, The texts of the white Yajurveda
Yajurveda
EJ Lazarus, pages 264-287 * ^ Ralph Griffith, The texts of the white Yajurveda
Yajurveda
EJ Lazarus, pages 288-290 * ^ Ralph Griffith, The texts of the white Yajurveda
Yajurveda
EJ Lazarus, pages 291-303 * ^ Ralph Griffith, The texts of the white Yajurveda
Yajurveda
EJ Lazarus, pages 304-310 * ^ _A_ _B_ Frits Staal (2009), Discovering the Vedas: Origins, Mantras, Rituals, Insights, Penguin, ISBN 978-0143099864 , pages 127-128 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Frits Staal (2009), Discovering the Vedas: Origins, Mantras, Rituals, Insights, Penguin, ISBN 978-0143099864 , pages 151-152 * ^ _A_ _B_ Julius Eggeling, Satapatha Brahmana, Part 1, Book 1 and 2, Max Muller (Editor), Oxford University Press, page ix Introduction * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad with Adi Shankara\'s commentary S. Madhavananada (Translator) * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanisad with the commentary of Madhvacharya, Translated by Rai Bahadur Sriśa Chandra Vasu (1933), OCLC 222634127 * ^ Patrick Olivelle (1998), _Upaniṣhads_, Oxford University Press, 1998, pages 1-23 * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , page 482 * ^ Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Max Muller, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 15, Oxford University Press * ^ Max Muller , The Upanishads, The Sacred Books of the East , Part 1, Oxford University Press, Reprinted by Routledge in 2013, ISBN 978-0700706006 , Vol. 1, pages 311-319 * ^ AK Bhattacharyya, Hindu
Hindu
Dharma: Introduction to Scriptures and Theology, ISBN 978-0595384556 , pages 25-46 * ^ Madhava Acharya, The Commentary of Sri Madhva on Isha and Kena Upanishad, OCLC 24455623 ; also Isavasyopanisad bhasya sangraha, ISBN 978-8187177210 , OCLC 81882275 * ^ Deussen, Paul (1908), The philosophy of the Upanishads * ^ Taittiriya Upanishad SS Sastri (Translator), The Aitereya and Taittiriya Upanishad, pages 57-192 * ^ _A_ _B_ Max Muller, The Sacred Books of the East, Volume 15, Oxford University Press, Chapter 3: Taittiriya Upanishad, see Siksha Valli - Tenth Anuvaka * ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684 , pages 269-273 * ^ Ariel Glucklich (2008), The Strides of Vishnu: Hindu
Hindu
Culture in Historical Perspective, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-531405-2 , page 70 * ^ _A_ _B_ SH Nasr (1989), Knowledge and the Sacred: Revisioning Academic Accountability, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791401767 , page 99, Quote: "Emerson was especially inebriated by the message of the Upanishads, whose nondualistic doctrine contained so lucidly in the Katha Upanishad, is reflected in his well known poem Brahma". * ^ Kathopanishad, in The Katha and Prasna Upanishads with Sri Shankara's Commentary, Translated by SS Sastri, Harvard College Archives, pages 1-3 * ^ Patrick Olivelle (1996), The Early Upanishads: Annotated Text ">

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