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The RUSSIAN UNITED DEMOCRATIC PARTY "YABLOKO" (Russian : Росси́йская объединённая демократи́ческая па́ртия «Я́блоко» Rossiyskaya obyedinyonnaya demokraticheskaya partiya "Yabloko" (Russian : Я́блоко – " Apple
Apple
") is a Russian social liberal party founded by Grigory Yavlinsky and currently led by Emilia Slabunova . The party logo consists of a red circle and a green isosceles triangle , suggesting an apple in a constructivist style. According to the information on its website, Yabloko’s party platform stands for a social market economy , fair competition in politics and the economy, for inviolability of private property, and for equal opportunity.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Leadership

* 2 Election results

* 2.1 Presidency election * 2.2 Parliamentary elections

* 3 See also * 4 Further reading * 5 References * 6 External links

HISTORY

The party dates back to early 1990s. The immediate predecessor of the Yabloko
Yabloko
party was the electoral cartel Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin, formed for the legislative elections of 1993 . "Yabloko" is an acronym of the names of its founders: "Я" (Ya) for Grigory Yavlinsky; "Б" (B) for Yuri Boldyrev , and "Л" (L) for Vladimir Lukin , the name meaning "apple" in Russian. The party stands for free markets and civil liberties in Russia
Russia
, better relations with the United States and membership in the European Union
European Union
. The party opposed president Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
's and his prime ministers' policies, earning the reputation of a determined opposition movement that nevertheless was devoted to democratic reforms (in contrast, most of the opposition was communist or liberal democratic at that time). Similarly, it has continued to oppose Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
for what they see as his increasing authoritarianism and has called for the removal of his government "by constitutional means."

Originally established as a public organization in 1993, it transformed into a political party in 2001. It contested the legislative elections of 1993 , 1995 , 1999 , and 2003 .

It is argued that the vote-count in the 2003 Russian parliamentary election was marred by fraud. Some exit-polls and parallel recounts conducted by opposition observers showed that Yabloko
Yabloko
crossed the 5% threshold needed for parliamentary representation, gaining 6% of the vote, which should have been translated into some 20 parliamentary seats. Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
himself telephoned Yavlinsky on the night of the election to congratulate his party on making it back into the Duma
Duma
. However, most of these polls had a high margin of error (plus or minus three percent) and only showed Yabloko
Yabloko
obtaining seats by a tiny margin. Official results announced by the Central Election Commission gave Yabloko
Yabloko
4.30% of the vote and no seats on the proportional party-list system. Only four Yabloko
Yabloko
candidates won in individual district races and were elected to the Duma.

On 4 December 2005 Yabloko-United Democrats , a coalition formed by Yabloko
Yabloko
and the Union of Rightist Forces , won 11% of the vote in the Moscow
Moscow
municipal elections and became one of only three parties (along with United Russia
Russia
and the Communist Party ) to enter the new Moscow City Duma. This success was seen by Yabloko
Yabloko
leaders as a hopeful sign for the 2007 Russian parliamentary election , and reinforced the view that Yabloko
Yabloko
and the Union of Rightist Forces need to unite in order to be elected to the State Duma
State Duma
in 2007.

The Commission on the Unification of Democratic Forces , under the chairmanship of Boris Nemtsov
Boris Nemtsov
, was established by the Union of Rightist Forces on February 16, 2006. However, the merger plans were discarded in December 2006 since the differences seemed too large.

The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko
Yabloko
had been an observer of the Liberal International since 2002, and became a full member after the ELDR Bucharest congress in October 2006. The party's central office is located in Moscow
Moscow
.

In the Russian legislative election, 2007 , Yabloko
Yabloko
lost its representation in the State Duma
State Duma
.

In the Russian Regional elections on 4 December 2011 Yabloko
Yabloko
won a few places in regional parliaments of Russia
Russia
: 6 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of Saint Petersburg , 4 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia
Karelia
and 1 of 44 in Pskov legislative body.

LEADERSHIP

The first chairman of the party was Grigory Yavlinsky (1993–2008). 22 June 2008 15th Congress of the Yabloko
Yabloko
Party elected Sergey Mitrokhin as the chairperson, who held this position until 2015. 19 December 2015 18th Congress of the party decided that no person shall hold the chairperson position for more than two periods, thus, preventing Mitrokhin from continuing in his position. The congress elected a Karelian activist of the party, Emilia Slabunova as the chairperson.

ELECTION RESULTS

PRESIDENCY ELECTION

Presidency of Russia
Russia

ELECTION YEAR CANDIDATE FIRST ROUND SECOND ROUND

# of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall votes % of overall vote

1996 Grigory Yavlinsky 5,550,752 7.4% (#4)

2000 Grigory Yavlinsky 4,351,450 5.9% (#3)

PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS

YEAR VOTE PERCENT SEATS WON

1993 7.86 27 / 450

1995 6.89 45 / 450

1999 5.93 21 / 450

2003 4.3 4 / 450

2007 1.6 0 / 450

2011 3.43 0 / 450

2016 2.0 0 / 450

SEE ALSO

* Liberal democracy
Liberal democracy
* Liberalism in Russia
Russia

FURTHER READING

* Hale, Henry (2004). " Yabloko
Yabloko
and the Challenge of Building a Liberal Party in Russia". Europe-Asia Studies. 56 (7): 993–1020. doi :10.1080/1465342042000294338 . * White, David (2006). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy, Burlington: Ashgate.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "Партию "Яблоко" возглавила Эмилия Слабунова". Lenta.ru . 20 December 2015. * ^ Memorandum of Political Alternative * ^ http://rus-green.ru/ http://rus-green.ru/programs. Retrieved 27 March 2017. Missing or empty title= (help ); External link in website= (help ) * ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=sR4Ch1dMe8IC&pg=PA58&lpg=PA58&dq=yabloko+non+interventionism&source=bl&ots=3cHfi23UrV&sig=ZGGxCezXmTii9Gb8GFmiceGMf20&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi29v30uOvVAhUS84MKHTlYDRsQ6AEIUDAF#v=onepage&q=yabloko%20non%20interventionism Dunphy, Richard; Lythe, Charlotte, eds. (2006). The European Mosaic (Third ed.). Pearson Education. p. 228. * ^ "Local Politics and Democratization in Russia". Retrieved 8 May 2016. * ^ https://europeangreens.eu/parties/green-russia * ^ http://partinform.ru/ros_mn/rm_4.htm * ^ Sputnik (16 December 2006). "Russian liberal SPS, Yabloko parties give up unification plans". Retrieved 8 May 2016.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to YABLOKO .

* Yabloko
Yabloko
Official website (in English

.