The Info List - Yabloko

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The Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko" (Russian: Росси́йская объединённая демократи́ческая па́ртия «Я́блоко» Rossiyskaya obyedinyonnaya demokraticheskaya partiya "Yabloko") is a Russian social-liberal political party founded by Grigory Yavlinsky and currently led by Emilia Slabunova. The party's logo consists of a red circle and a green isosceles triangle, suggesting an apple in a constructivist style, a nod to the party's acronym which is a Russian word for "apple" (Russian: я́блоко, translit. jábloko/yábloko). According to the information on its website, Yabloko’s party platform stands for a social market economy, fair competition in politics and the economy, is for the inviolability of private property, and for equal opportunity.


1 History

1.1 Leadership

2 Election results

2.1 Presidential election 2.2 Parliamentary elections 2.3 Regional parliamentary elections

3 See also 4 Further reading 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] The party dates back to early 1990s. The immediate predecessor of the Yabloko
party was the electoral cartel Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin, formed for the legislative elections of 1993. "Yabloko" is an acronym of the names of its founders: "Я" (Ya) for Grigory Yavlinsky; "Б" (B) for Yuri Boldyrev, and "Л" (L) for Vladimir Lukin, with the full name meaning "apple" in Russian. The party stands for free markets and civil liberties in Russia, better relations with the United States
United States
and membership in the European Union. The party opposed president Boris Yeltsin's and his prime ministers' policies, earning the reputation of a determined opposition movement that nevertheless was devoted to democratic reforms (in contrast, most of the opposition was communist or far right at that time).[12] Similarly, it has continued to oppose Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
for what they see as his increasing authoritarianism and has called for the removal of his government "by constitutional means."[citation needed] Originally established as a public organization in 1993, it transformed into a political party in 2001. It contested the legislative elections of 1993, 1995, 1999, and 2003. It is argued that the vote-count in the 2003 Russian parliamentary election was marred by fraud.[citation needed] Some exit-polls and parallel recounts conducted by opposition observers showed that Yabloko
crossed the 5% threshold needed for parliamentary representation, gaining 6% of the vote, which should have been translated into some 20 parliamentary seats.[citation needed] Vladimir Putin himself telephoned Yavlinsky on the night of the election to congratulate his party on making it back into the Duma. However, most of these polls had a high margin of error (plus or minus three percent) and only showed Yabloko
obtaining seats by a tiny margin. Official results announced by the Central Election Commission gave Yabloko
4.30% of the vote and no seats on the proportional party-list system. Only four Yabloko
candidates won in individual district races and were elected to the Duma. On 4 December 2005 Yabloko-United Democrats, a coalition formed by Yabloko
and the Union of Rightist Forces, won 11% of the vote in the Moscow
municipal elections and became one of only three parties (along with United Russia
and the Communist Party) to enter the new Moscow City Duma. This success was seen by Yabloko
leaders as a hopeful sign for the 2007 Russian parliamentary election, and reinforced the view that Yabloko
and the Union of Rightist Forces
Union of Rightist Forces
need to unite in order to be elected to the State Duma
State Duma
in 2007. The Commission on the Unification of Democratic Forces, under the chairmanship of Boris Nemtsov, was established by the Union of Rightist Forces on February 16, 2006. However, the merger plans were discarded in December 2006 since the differences seemed too large.[13] The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko
had been an observer of the Liberal International
Liberal International
since 2002, and became a full member after the ELDR Bucharest congress in October 2006. The party's central office is located in Moscow. In the Russian legislative election, 2007, Yabloko
lost its representation in the State Duma. In the Russian Regional elections on 4 December 2011 Yabloko
won a few places in regional parliaments of Russia: 6 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of Saint Petersburg, 4 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia
and 1 of 44 in Pskov legislative body. Leadership[edit] The first chairman of the party was Grigory Yavlinsky
Grigory Yavlinsky
(1993–2008). 22 June 2008 15th Congress of the Yabloko
Party elected Sergey Mitrokhin as the chairperson, who held this position until 2015. 19 December 2015 18th Congress of the party decided that no person shall hold the chairperson position for more than two periods, thus, preventing Mitrokhin from continuing in his position. The congress elected a Karelian activist of the party, Emilia Slabunova
Emilia Slabunova
as the chairperson.[1] Election results[edit] Presidential election[edit]

Presidency of Russia

Election year Candidate First Round Second Round

# of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall votes % of overall vote

1996 Grigory Yavlinsky 5,550,752 7.4% (#4)

2000 Grigory Yavlinsky 4,351,450 5.9% (#3)

2018 Grigory Yavlinsky 769,644 1.05% (#5)

Parliamentary elections[edit]

Year Vote percent Seats won

1993 7.86

27 / 450

1995 6.89

45 / 450

1999 5.93

21 / 450

2003 4.3

4 / 450

2007 1.6

0 / 450

2011 3.43

0 / 450

2016 2.0

0 / 450

Regional parliamentary elections[edit] Regional parliaments of Russia
Regional parliaments of Russia
in which Yabloko
is represented.

Regional Parliament Election year Seats

# Position


 Karelia 2016

3 / 36



 Kostroma Oblast 2015

1 / 36


 Pskov Oblast 2016

1 / 44


Federal cities

 Saint Petersburg 2016

2 / 50


^ a b Tied with other parties.

See also[edit]

Liberal democracy Liberalism
in Russia

Further reading[edit]

Hale, Henry (2004). " Yabloko
and the Challenge of Building a Liberal Party in Russia". Europe-Asia Studies. 56 (7): 993–1020. doi:10.1080/1465342042000294338.  White, David (2006). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy, Burlington: Ashgate.


^ a b "Партию "Яблоко" возглавила Эмилия Слабунова". Lenta.ru. 20 December 2015.  ^ a b rus-green.ru/ http://rus-green.ru/programs. Retrieved 27 March 2017.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b c d http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-15939801 ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=sR4Ch1dMe8IC&pg=PA58&lpg=PA58&dq=yabloko+non+interventionism&source=bl&ots=3cHfi23UrV&sig=ZGGxCezXmTii9Gb8GFmiceGMf20&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi29v30uOvVAhUS84MKHTlYDRsQ6AEIUDAF#v=onepage&q=yabloko%20non%20interventionism&f=false ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=jyQ3nR6Jls8C&pg=PA160&lpg=PA160&dq=progressivism+yabloko+russia&source=bl&ots=WaxbEVblbh&sig=yn569N2M4CI30LvQXh0RCGEJEuk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj6p6XSiOLXAhUC4IMKHcMEB_wQ6AEIWjAJ#v=onepage&q=progressivism%20yabloko%20russia&f=false ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=L_tJDI11ZIcC&pg=PA198&lpg=PA198&dq=yabloko+civil+liberties&source=bl&ots=JPanI8a7PE&sig=eGDps5VOI2G4aozUdCRFJyzy07Y&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjImt-9vJXZAhWmpFkKHdJsD0IQ6AEwA3oECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=yabloko%20civil%20liberties&f=false ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=L_tJDI11ZIcC&pg=PA108&lpg=PA108&dq=yabloko+social+market+economy&source=bl&ots=JPanI8a6RE&sig=SYfg4E4KbCb6BOHmI5P_Uclkcts&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjOi6OXvJXZAhUNnFkKHXJACZQQ6AEwAnoECA0QAQ#v=onepage&q=yabloko%20social%20market%20economy&f=false ^ http://eng.yabloko.ru/?p=1642 ^ Gowland, David; Dunphy, Richard; Lythe, Charlotte, eds. (2006). The European Mosaic (Third ed.). Pearson Education. p. 228.  ^ "Local Politics and Democratization in Russia". Retrieved 8 May 2016.  ^ https://europeangreens.eu/parties/green-russia ^ http://partinform.ru/ros_mn/rm_4.htm ^ Sputnik (16 December 2006). "Russian liberal SPS, Yabloko
parties give up unification plans". Retrieved 8 May 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yabloko.

Official website (in English)

This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. (January 2012) Click [show] for important translation instructions.

View a machine-translated version of the Russian article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary (using German): Content in this edit is translated from the existing German article at [[:de:Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template TranslatedruЯблоко (партия) to the talk page. For more guidance, see:Translation.

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Registered political parties in Russia

Represented in State Duma

United Russia
(339) Communist Party (42) Liberal Democratic Party (40) A Just Russia
(23) Rodina (1) Civic Platform (1)

Only in regional parliaments

Patriots of Russia Communist Party of Social Justice Communists of Russia Green Alliance Russian Party of Pensioners for Social Justice Yabloko Party of Growth People's Freedom Party

Other registered (in the Justice Ministry's order)

Democratic Party of Russia People's Party for the Women of Russia Union Towns People People's Party of Russia Social Democratic Party of Russia Cities of Russia Young Russia New Russia Party of Free Citizens Russian Ecological Party "The Greens" Agrarian Party of Russia Russian All-People's Union Party for Justice Civilian Power Clever Russia Monarchist Party Home Country Party of Peace and Unity Democratic Choice Will Against All Russian United Labour Front Party Action Civil Position Party of Russia's Rebirth

Official list of parties registered by the Ministry of Justice Portal:Politics List of political parties Politics of Russia Russian political movements and non-registered parties

v t e

Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party

European Parliament
European Parliament
group: Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Group


Member parties (EU)


Member parties (non-EU)


Party Presidents

Gaston Thorn Willy De Clercq Colette Flesch Willy De Clercq Uffe Ellemann-Jensen Werner Hoyer Annemie Neyts-Uyttebroeck Graham Watson

European Parliament Group Presidents

Yvon Delbos René Pleven Cornelis Berkhouwer Jean Durieux (fr) Jean-François Pintat (fr) Martin Bangemann Simone Veil Valery Giscard d'Estaing Yves Galland Gijs de Vries Pat Cox Graham Watson Guy Verhofstadt see European Parliament

European Commissionners

Siim Kallas
Siim Kallas
(Transport) Neelie Kroes
Neelie Kroes
(Digital Agenda) Janez Potočnik
Janez Potočnik
(Environment) Androulla Vassiliou
Androulla Vassiliou
(Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth) Karel De Gucht
Karel De Gucht
(Trade) Máire Geoghegan-Quinn
Máire Geoghegan-Quinn
(Research, Innovation and Science) Cecilia Malmström
Cecilia Malmström
(Home Affairs) see Barroso II Commission

Heads of government at the European Council

Charles Michel
Charles Michel
(Belgium) Lars Løkke Rasmussen
Lars Løkke Rasmussen
(Denmark) Taavi Rõivas
Taavi Rõivas
(Estonia) Xavier Bettel
Xavier Bettel
(Luxembourg) Mark Rutte
Mark Rutte
(Netherlands) see European Council

Eurofoundation: European Liberal Forum

v t e

Member parties of international liberal organisations

Liberal International

Andorra: PLA Belgium: MR, VLD Bosnia and Herzegovina: LDS* Botswana: BMD* Bulgaria: DPS, NDSV Burkina Faso: ADF-RDA* Burma: NLD-LA* Burundi: ADR Cambodia: PSR Canada: Liberal Party Colombia: U* DR Congo: ANADER, ARC*, URC* Costa Rica: PML Côte d'Ivoire: RDR Croatia: HSLS Cuba: PLC, PSD, ULC Denmark: RV, Venstre Egypt: FEP, Ghad* Equatorial Guinea: UDENA Estonia: RE Ethiopia: EDP* Finland: Keskusta, SFP Georgia: RPG* Germany: FDP Gibraltar: Liberal Party Guatemala: MR*, PP Guinea: UFDG*, UFR* Honduras: PLH Hungary: MLP Iceland: FSF Indonesia: PD* Ireland: FF* Israel: Shinui Italy: Rad, FdL* Kenya: LDP* Kosovo: PLK* Latvia: LPP/LC Lebanon: Future Movement* Lithuania: LCU Luxembourg: DP Macedonia: LDP Madagascar: MFM* Malawi: UDF Malaysia: Gerakan*, PKR* Mali: PCR* Mexico: NA* Moldova: PRL* Mongolia: IZN Montenegro: LSCG Morocco: AdL*, UC, MP Mozambique: PPDD* Netherlands: D66 , VVD Nicaragua: PLI* Norway: Venstre Paraguay: PLRA Philippines: LP Romania: PNL Russia: Yabloko Senegal: PDS Serbia: LDP Seychelles: SNP* Slovakia: ANO Slovenia: LDS South Africa: DA Spain: CDC Sri Lanka: LP Sweden: Cp*, FpL Switzerland: FDP.The Liberals Taiwan: DPP Tanzania: CCW/CUF Thailand: DP Ukraine: UM* United Kingdom: APNI, Lib Dems Zambia: UNDP*

National groups:

Brazilian Group* German Group Israeli Group Italian Group* Netherlands
Group Catalan Group British Group

* observer

Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party

Andorra: PLA Austria: LIF Belgium: MR, VLD Bosnia and Herzegovina: LDS Bulgaria: DPS, NSDV Croatia: HNS-LD, HSLS, IDS Cyprus: ?D Czech Republic: ODA Denmark: RV , Venstre Estonia: Kesk, Reform Finland: Keskusta, SFP Germany: FDP Greece: DI.SY Hungary: SzDSz Ireland: FF Italy: Rad, IdV Kosovo: PLK Latvia: LC Lithuania: LRLS Luxembourg: DP Macedonia: LPM, LDP Moldova: AMN Netherlands: D66, VVD Norway: Venstre Poland: UED Portugal: IL Romania: ALDE Russia: Yabloko, RPR-PARNAS Serbia: LS Slovakia: ANO Slovenia: LDS Spain: CDC, C’s Sweden: Cp, FpL Switzerland: FDP.The Liberals United Kingdom: APNI, Lib Dems Youth organisation: LYMEC

Liberal South East European Network

Bosnia and Herzegovina: LDS Bulgaria: DPS, NSDV Croatia: HNS-LD, HSLS, IDS Hungary: SzDSz Kosovo: PLK Macedonia: LPM, LDP Romania: PNL Serbia: LS Slovenia: LDS

Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats

Cambodia: PSR Hong Kong: DP (represented through two individual members) Indonesia: PDI-P, PKB** Japan: DPJ** Malaysia: PGRM Mongolia: IZN Myanmar: NCUB Pakistan: LFP* Philippines: LP Singapore: SDP Sri Lanka: LP ROC Taiwan: DPP Thailand: DP

*associate member **observer

Africa Liberal Network

Angola: PLD Burkina Faso: ADF-RDA DR Congo: ANADER Côte d'Ivoire: RDR Equatorial Guinea: UDENA Madagascar: MFM Malawi: UDF Morocco: MP, UC Mozambique: PDD Senegal: PDS Seychelles: SNP South Africa: DA Tanzania: CUF, UDP Tunisia: PSL Zambia: UNDP

Liberal Network for Latin America

Argentina: Recrear, PPG Costa Rica: PML Guatemala: MR Mexico: NA Peru: JN

Arab Liberal Federation

Comoros: NAC Egypt: DFP, FEP, GTP Lebanon: NLP, FM Morocco: MP, UC Sudan: LDP Tunisia: PR

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 139855634 LCCN: no96028174 ISNI: 0000 0001 1012 7353 GND: 3035779-2 SUDOC: 121672476 NKC: