The RUSSIAN UNITED DEMOCRATIC PARTY "YABLOKO" (Russian :
демократи́ческая па́ртия «Я́блоко»
Rossiyskaya obyedinyonnaya demokraticheskaya partiya "Yabloko"
(Russian : Я́блоко – "
Apple ") is a Russian social liberal
party founded by
Grigory Yavlinsky and currently led by Emilia
Slabunova . The party logo consists of a red circle and a green
isosceles triangle , suggesting an apple in a constructivist style.
According to the information on its website, Yabloko’s party
platform stands for a social market economy , fair competition in
politics and the economy, for inviolability of private property, and
for equal opportunity.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Leadership
* 2 Election results
* 2.1 Presidency election
* 2.2 Parliamentary elections
* 3 See also
* 4 Further reading
* 5 References
* 6 External links
The party dates back to early 1990s. The immediate predecessor of the
Yabloko party was the electoral cartel Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin,
formed for the legislative elections of 1993 . "Yabloko" is an acronym
of the names of its founders: "Я" (Ya) for Grigory Yavlinsky; "Б"
(B) for Yuri Boldyrev , and "Л" (L) for
Vladimir Lukin , the name
meaning "apple" in Russian. The party stands for free markets and
civil liberties in
Russia , better relations with the United States
and membership in the
European Union . The party opposed president
Boris Yeltsin 's and his prime ministers' policies, earning the
reputation of a determined opposition movement that nevertheless was
devoted to democratic reforms (in contrast, most of the opposition was
communist or liberal democratic at that time). Similarly, it has
continued to oppose
Vladimir Putin for what they see as his increasing
authoritarianism and has called for the removal of his government "by
Originally established as a public organization in 1993, it
transformed into a political party in 2001. It contested the
legislative elections of 1993 , 1995 , 1999 , and 2003 .
It is argued that the vote-count in the 2003 Russian parliamentary
election was marred by fraud. Some exit-polls and parallel recounts
conducted by opposition observers showed that
Yabloko crossed the 5%
threshold needed for parliamentary representation, gaining 6% of the
vote, which should have been translated into some 20 parliamentary
Vladimir Putin himself telephoned Yavlinsky on the night of the
election to congratulate his party on making it back into the
However, most of these polls had a high margin of error (plus or minus
three percent) and only showed
Yabloko obtaining seats by a tiny
margin. Official results announced by the Central Election Commission
Yabloko 4.30% of the vote and no seats on the proportional
party-list system. Only four
Yabloko candidates won in individual
district races and were elected to the Duma.
On 4 December 2005
Yabloko-United Democrats , a coalition formed by
Yabloko and the
Union of Rightist Forces , won 11% of the vote in the
Moscow municipal elections and became one of only three parties (along
Russia and the Communist Party ) to enter the new Moscow
City Duma. This success was seen by
Yabloko leaders as a hopeful sign
for the 2007 Russian parliamentary election , and reinforced the view
Yabloko and the
Union of Rightist Forces need to unite in order
to be elected to the
State Duma in 2007.
The Commission on the Unification of Democratic Forces , under the
Boris Nemtsov , was established by the Union of
Rightist Forces on February 16, 2006. However, the merger plans were
discarded in December 2006 since the differences seemed too large.
The Russian Democratic Party
Yabloko had been an observer of the
Liberal International since 2002, and became a full member after the
ELDR Bucharest congress in October 2006. The party's central office is
Russian legislative election, 2007 ,
Yabloko lost its
representation in the
State Duma .
In the Russian Regional elections on 4 December 2011
Yabloko won a
few places in regional parliaments of
Russia : 6 of 50 in Legislative
Assembly of Saint Petersburg , 4 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of the
Karelia and 1 of 44 in Pskov legislative body.
The first chairman of the party was
Grigory Yavlinsky (1993–2008).
22 June 2008 15th Congress of the
Yabloko Party elected Sergey
Mitrokhin as the chairperson, who held this position until 2015. 19
December 2015 18th Congress of the party decided that no person shall
hold the chairperson position for more than two periods, thus,
preventing Mitrokhin from continuing in his position. The congress
elected a Karelian activist of the party,
Emilia Slabunova as the
overall votes % of
overall vote # of
overall votes % of
27 / 450
45 / 450
21 / 450
4 / 450
0 / 450
0 / 450
0 / 450
* Liberalism in
* Hale, Henry (2004). "
Yabloko and the Challenge of Building a
Liberal Party in Russia". Europe-Asia Studies. 56 (7): 993–1020. doi
* White, David (2006). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko:
Opposition in a Managed Democracy, Burlington: Ashgate.
* ^ A B "Партию "Яблоко" возглавила
Lenta.ru . 20 December 2015.
* ^ Memorandum of Political Alternative
* ^ http://rus-green.ru/ http://rus-green.ru/programs. Retrieved 27
March 2017. Missing or empty title= (help ); External link in
website= (help )
Dunphy, Richard; Lythe, Charlotte, eds. (2006). The European Mosaic
(Third ed.). Pearson Education. p. 228.
* ^ "Local Politics and Democratization in Russia". Retrieved 8 May
* ^ https://europeangreens.eu/parties/green-russia
* ^ http://partinform.ru/ros_mn/rm_4.htm
* ^ Sputnik (16 December 2006). "Russian liberal SPS, Yabloko
parties give up unification plans". Retrieved 8 May 2016.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to YABLOKO .
Yabloko Official website (in English