XUANZANG (pronounced ; Chinese : 玄奘;
Hsüan-tsang), fl. c. 602–664, was a Chinese Buddhist monk ,
scholar, traveller, and translator who described the interaction
Buddhism and Indian
Buddhism in the early Tang dynasty
. Born in what is now
Henan province around 602, from boyhood he took
to reading religious books, including the
Chinese classics and the
writings of ancient sages.
While residing in the city of
Central China ),
Xuanzang was ordained as a śrāmaṇera (novice monk) at the age of
thirteen. Due to the political and social unrest caused by the fall of
Sui dynasty , he went to
Sichuan , where he was
ordained as a bhikṣu (full monk) at the age of twenty. He later
travelled throughout China in search of sacred books of Buddhism. At
length, he came to Chang\'an , then under the peaceful rule of Emperor
Taizong of Tang , where
Xuanzang developed the desire to visit India.
He knew about
Faxian 's visit to India and, like him, was concerned
about the incomplete and misinterpreted nature of the Buddhist texts
that had reached China.
He became famous for his seventeen-year overland journey to India,
which is recorded in detail in the classic Chinese text Great Tang
Records on the Western Regions , which in turn provided the
inspiration for the novel
Journey to the West
Journey to the West written by Wu Cheng\'en
Ming dynasty , around nine centuries after Xuanzang's
* 1 Nomenclature, orthography and etymology
* 2 Early life
* 3 Pilgrimage
* 4 India
* 5 Return to China
* 6 Chinese
* 6.1 The Perfection of Wisdom
* 7 Autobiography and biography
* 8 Legacy
* 9 Relics
* 10 Works
* 11 See also
* 12 Notes
* 13 References
* 13.1 Citations
* 13.2 Works cited
* 13.3 Other sources
* 14 Further reading
* 15 External links
NOMENCLATURE, ORTHOGRAPHY AND ETYMOLOGY
Ta-shih T'ang Seng
(Cantonese) Jyun4 Zong6
Zong6 Jyun4 Zong6
Saam1 Zong6 Jyun4 Zong6
Daai6 Si1 Tong4 Zang1
Tạng Huyền Trang
Tam Tạng Huyền Trang
Đại Sư Đường Tăng
Xuanzang Great Master
Xuanzang Tang Dynasty Monk
Less common romanizations of "Xuanzang" include Hyun Tsan, Hhuen
Kwan, Hiouen Thsang, Hiuen Tsang, Hiuen Tsiang, Hsien-tsang,
Hsyan-tsang, Hsuan Chwang, Huan Chwang, Hsuan Tsiang, Hwen Thsang,
Hsüan Chwang, Hhüen Kwān, Xuan Cang, Xuan Zang, Shuen Shang, Yuan
Chang, Yuan Chwang, and Yuen Chwang. Hsüan, Hüan, Huan and Chuang
are also found. The sound written x in pinyin and hs in
which represents the s- or sh-like in today's Mandarin, was
previously pronounced as the h-like in early Mandarin, which accounts
for the archaic transliterations with h.
Another form of his official style was "Yuanzang," written 元奘. It
is this form that accounts for such variants as Yuan Chang, Yuan
Chwang, and Yuen Chwang.
Tang Monk (Tang Seng) is also transliterated /Thang Seng/.
Another of Xuanzang's standard aliases is Sanzang Fashi (simplified
Chinese : 玄奘法师; traditional Chinese : 玄奘法師; pinyin :
Sānzàngfǎshī; literally: "Sanzang
Dharma (or Law) Teacher"): 法
being a Chinese translation for
Dharma " or
Dhamma, the implied meaning being "Buddhism".
"Sanzang" is the Chinese term for the Buddhist canon, or Tripiṭaka
, and in some English-language fiction and English translations of
Journey to the West
Journey to the West ,
Xuanzang is addressed as "Tripitaka."
In some sources Xuanzang's is said to have been born Chen Hui or Chen
Part of a series on
汉传佛教 / 漢傳佛教
Silk Road transmission
* Pure Land
Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
Buddhist architecture in China
Buddhist Association of China
* Martial arts
Xuanzang's former residence in Chenhe Village near
Xuanzang was born Chen Hui (or Chen Yi) around 602 in Chenhe Village,
Goushi Town (Chinese : 緱氏鎮), Luozhou (near present-day
Henan ) and died on 5 February 664 in Yuhua Palace (玉華宮, in
Shaanxi ). His family was noted for its
erudition for generations, and
Xuanzang was the youngest of four
children. His ancestor was Chen Shi (陳寔, 104-186), a minister of
the Eastern Han dynasty . His great-grandfather Chen Qin (陳欽)
served as the prefect of Shangdang (上黨; present-day
Shanxi ) during the
Eastern Wei ; his grandfather Chen Kang (陳康)
was a professor in the
Taixue (Imperial Academy) during the Northern
Qi . His father Chen Hui (陳惠) was a conservative Confucian who
served as the magistrate of Jiangling County (江陵縣) during the
Sui dynasty , but later gave up office and withdrew into seclusion to
escape the political turmoil that gripped China towards the end of the
Sui. According to traditional biographies,
Xuanzang displayed a superb
intelligence and earnestness, amazing his father by his careful
observance of the Confucian rituals at the age of eight. Along with
his brothers and sister, he received an early education from his
father, who instructed him in classical works on filial piety and
several other canonical treatises of orthodox Confucianism.
Although his household was essentially Confucian, at a young age,
Xuanzang expressed interest in becoming a Buddhist monk like one of
his elder brothers. After the death of his father in 611, he lived
with his older brother Chén Sù (Chinese : 陳素) (later known as
Zhǎng jié Chinese : 長捷) for five years at Jingtu Monastery
(Chinese : 淨土寺) in
Luoyang , supported by the Sui state. During
this time he studied
Mahayana as well as various early Buddhist
schools , preferring the former.
In 618, the Sui Dynasty collapsed and
Xuanzang and his brother fled
to Chang\'an , which had been proclaimed as the capital of the Tang
dynasty , and thence southward to
Sichuan . Here the two
brothers spent two or three years in further study in the monastery of
Kong Hui , including the Abhidharma-kośa Śāstra . When Xuanzang
requested to take Buddhist orders at the age of thirteen, the abbot
Zheng Shanguo made an exception in his case because of his precocious
Xuanzang was fully ordained as a monk in 622, at the age of twenty.
The myriad contradictions and discrepancies in the texts at that time
Xuanzang to decide to go to India and study in the cradle of
Buddhism. He subsequently left his brother and returned to
study foreign languages and to continue his study of Buddhism. He
began his mastery of
Sanskrit in 626, and probably also studied
Tocharian . During this time,
Xuanzang also became interested in the
Yogacara school of Buddhism.
An illustration of
Journey to the West
Journey to the West , a
fictional account of travels.
Xuanzang reportedly had a dream that convinced him to journey
to India. Tang China and the
Göktürks were at war at the time and
Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang had prohibited foreign travel. Xuanzang
persuaded some Buddhist guards at
Yumen Pass and slipped out of the
empire through Liangzhou (
Gansu ) and
Qinghai in 629. He subsequently
travelled across the
Gobi Desert to Kumul (modern
Hami City ), thence
Tian Shan westward.
He arrived in
Turpan in 630. Here he met the king of Turpan, a
Buddhist who equipped him further for his travels with letters of
introduction and valuables to serve as funds. The hottest mountain in
Flaming Mountains , is located in
Turpan and was depicted
Journey to the West
Journey to the West .
Moving further westward,
Xuanzang escaped robbers to reach
then toured the non-
Mahayana monasteries of
Kucha . Further west he
passed Aksu before turning northwest to cross the Tian Shan's Bedel
Pass into modern
Kyrgyzstan . He skirted
Issyk Kul before visiting
Tokmak on its northwest, and met the great Khagan of the Göktürks,
whose relationship to the Tang emperor was friendly at the time. After
Xuanzang continued west then southwest to
Tashkent , capital
Uzbekistan . From here, he crossed the desert further west
Samarkand . In Samarkand, which was under Persian influence, the
party came across some abandoned Buddhist temples and Xuanzang
impressed the local king with his preaching. Setting out again to the
Xuanzang crossed a spur of the Pamirs and passed through the
famous Iron Gates. Continuing southward, he reached the
Amu Darya and
Termez , where he encountered a community of more than a thousand
Further east he passed through
Kunduz , where he stayed for some time
to witness the funeral rites of Prince Tardu, who had been poisoned.
Here he met the monk Dharmasimha , and on the advice of the late Tardu
made the trip westward to
Afghanistan ), to see the
Buddhist sites and relics, especially the
Nava Vihara , which he
described as the westernmost vihara in the world. Here
found over 3,000 non-
Mahayana monks, including Prajnakara
(般若羯羅 or 慧性), a monk with whom
Xuanzang studied early
Buddhist scriptures . He acquired the important text of the
Mahāvibhāṣa (Chinese : 大毗婆沙論) here, which he later
translated into Chinese.
Prajñakara then accompanied the party southward to
Bamyan , where
Xuanzang met the king and saw tens of non-
Mahayana monasteries, in
addition to the two large
Buddhas of Bamiyan
Buddhas of Bamiyan carved out of the
rockface. The party then resumed their travel eastward, crossing the
Shibar Pass and descending to the regional capital of Kapisi (about 60
kilometres (37 mi) north of modern
Kabul ), which sported over 100
monasteries and 6000 monks, mostly Mahayana. This was part of the
fabled old land of
Xuanzang took part in a religious debate
here, and demonstrated his knowledge of many Buddhist schools. Here he
also met the first Jains and
Hindu of his journey. He pushed on to
Adinapur (later named
Jalalabad ) and Laghman , where he considered
himself to have reached India. The year was 630.
Xuanzang Memorial Hall in Nalanda, Bihar, India.
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Xuanzang left Adinapur, which had few Buddhist monks, but many stupas
and monasteries. His travels included, passing through Hunza and the
Khyber Pass to the east, reaching the former capital of
Purushapura (Peshawar), on the other side. Peshawar was nothing
compared to its former glory, and
Buddhism was declining in the
Xuanzang visited a number of stupas around Peshawar, notably
Stupa . This stupa was built just southeast of Peshawar,
by a former king of the city. In 1908, it was rediscovered by D.B.
Spooner with the help of Xuanzang's account.
Xuanzang left Peshawar and travelled northeast to the
Swat Valley .
Oḍḍiyāna , he found 1,400-year-old monasteries, that had
previously supported 18,000 monks. The remnant monks were of the
Xuanzang continued northward and into the Buner
Valley , before doubling back via
Shahbaz Garhi to cross the Indus
river at Hund . He visited Taxila which was desolate and half-ruined,
and found most of its sangharamas still ruined and desolate with the
state having become a dependency of
Kashmir with the local leaders
fighting amongst themselves for power. Only a few monks remained
there. He noted that it had some time previously been a subject of
Kapisa . He went to
Kashmir in 631 where he met a talented monk
Samghayasas (僧伽耶舍), and studied there. In Kashmir, he found
himself in another center of Buddhist culture and describes that there
were over 100 monastries and over 5,000 monks in the area. Between 632
and early 633, he studied with various monks, including 14 months with
Vinītaprabha (毘膩多缽臘婆 or 調伏光), 4 months with
Candravarman (旃達羅伐摩 or 月胃), and "a winter and half a
spring" with Jayagupta (闍耶毱多). During this time, Xuanzang
wrote about the
Fourth Buddhist council that took place nearby, ca.
100 AD, under the order of King
Kanishka of Kushana . He visited
Lahore as well and provided the earliest writings
available on the ancient cities. In 634,
Xuanzang arrived in Matipura
(秣底補羅), known as
Mandawar today. Travel route of
Xuanzang in India
In 634, he went east to
Jalandhar in eastern Punjab , before climbing
up to visit predominantly non-
Mahayana monasteries in the Kulu valley
and turning southward again to
Bairat and then Mathura , on the Yamuna
river . Mathura had 2,000 monks of both major Buddhist branches,
despite being Hindu-dominated.
Xuanzang travelled up the river to
Shrughna , also mentioned in the works of
Udyotakara , before crossing
eastward to Matipura , where he arrived in 635, having crossed the
river Ganges . At Matipura Monastery,
Xuanzang studied under
Mitrasena. From here, he headed south to
Sankasya (Kapitha, then
Kannauj , the grand capital of the
Empire of Harsha under
the northern Indian emperor
Harsha . It is believed he also visited
Govishan present day Kashipur in the
Harsha era, in 636, Xuanzang
encountered 100 monasteries of 10,000 monks (both
non-Mahayana), and was impressed by the king's patronage of both
scholarship and Buddhism.
Xuanzang spent time in the city studying
early Buddhist scriptures, before setting off eastward again for
Ayodhya (Saketa), homeland of the
Xuanzang now moved
Kausambi (Kosam), where he had a copy made from an important
local image of the Buddha.
Xuanzang now returned northward to
Shravasti Bahraich, travelled
Terai in the southern part of modern
Nepal (here he found
deserted Buddhist monasteries) and thence to
Kapilavastu , his last
Lumbini , the birthplace of Buddha . Xuan Zang,
Dunhuang cave, 9th century
Xuanzang set out from
Kusinagara , the site of
Buddha's death, before heading southwest to the deer park at Sarnath
where Buddha gave his first sermon, and where
Xuanzang found 1,500
resident monks. Travelling eastward, at first via
Varanasi , Xuanzang
Pataliputra (Patna ) and
Bodh Gaya . He was then
accompanied by local monks to
Nalanda , the greatest Indian university
of Indian state of
Bihar , where he spent at least the next two years,
He visited Champa Monastery,
Bhagalpur . He was in the company of
several thousand scholar-monks, whom he praised.
logic , grammar ,
Sanskrit , and the
Yogacara school of Buddhism
during his time at Nalanda.
René Grousset notes that it was at
Nalanda (where an "azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned
with the full-blown cups of the blue lotus; the dazzling red flowers
of the lovely kanaka hang here and there, and outside groves of mango
trees offer the inhabitants their dense and protective shade") that
Xuanzang met the venerable
Silabhadra , the monastery's superior.
Silabhadra had dreamt of Xuanzang's arrival and that it would help
spread far and wide the Holy Law. Grousset writes: "The Chinese
pilgrim had finally found the omniscient master, the incomparable
metaphysician who was to make known to him the ultimate secrets of the
idealist systems...The founders of
Dignaga ...Dharmapala had in turn trained Silabhadra.
Silabhadra was thus in a position to make available to the
Sino-Japanese world the entire heritage of Buddhist idealism, and the
Siddhi Xuanzang's great philosophical treatise...is none other than
the Summa of this doctrine, the fruit of seven centuries of Indian
Xuanzang travelled through several kingdoms, including
Pundranagara , to the capital of
Pundravardhana , identified with
Mahasthangarh , in present-day
Bangladesh . There Xuanzang
found 20 monasteries with over 3,000 monks studying both the Hinayana
and the Mahayana. One of them was the Vāśibhã Monastery (Po Shi
Po), where he found over 700
Mahayana monks from all over East India.
He also visited
Somapura Mahavihara at Paharpur in the district of
Naogaon , in modern-day Bangladesh.
Xuanzang turned southward and travelled to
Andhradesa to visit the
Viharas at Amaravati and
Nagarjunakonda . He stayed at Amaravati and
Abhidhammapitakam '. He observed that there were many
Viharas at Amaravati and some of them were deserted. He later
Kanchi , the imperial capital of
Pallavas and a strong
Buddhism . He continued traveling to Nasik, Ajanata, Malwa,
from there he went to Multan and Pravata before returning to Nalanda
At the invitation of
Hindu king Kumar
Bhaskar Varman , he went east
to the ancient city of
Pragjyotishpura in the kingdom of Kamarupa
after crossing the Karatoya and spent three months in the region. He
gives detailed account about culture and people of Kamrup . Later, the
Xuanzang back to the
Kannauj at the request of king
Harshavardhana , who was an ally of Kumar Bhaskar Varman, to attend a
great Buddhist Assembly there which was attended by both of the kings
as well as several other kings from neighbouring kingdoms, buddhist
monks, Brahmans and Jains. King
Harsha invited Xuanjang to Kumbh Mela
in Prayag where he witnessed king Harsha's generous distribution of
gifts to the poor.
After visiting Prayag he returned to
Kannauj where he was given a
grand farewell by king Harsha. Traveling through the
Khyber Pass of
Hindu Kush ,
Xuanzang passed through
Khotan , and
Dunhuang on his way back to China. He arrived in the capital,
Chang'an, on the seventh day of the first month of 645, and a great
procession celebrated his return.
RETURN TO CHINA
On his return to China in AD 645,
Xuanzang was greeted with much
honor but he refused all high civil appointments offered by the
Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang . Instead, he retired
to a monastery and devoted his energy in translating Buddhist texts
until his death in AD 664. According to his biography, he returned
with, "over six hundred
Hinayana texts, seven statues of
the Buddha and more than a hundred sarira relics." In celebration of
Xuanzang's extraordinary achievement in translating the Buddhist
Emperor Gaozong of Tang ordered renowned Tang calligrapher Chu
Suiliang (褚遂良) and inscriber Wan Wenshao (萬文韶) to install
two stele stones, collectively known as The Emperor’s Preface to the
Sacred Teachings (雁塔聖教序), at the
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda .
CHINESE BUDDHISM (INFLUENCE)
Xuanzang at the
Great Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi\'an
During Xuanzang's travels, he studied with many famous Buddhist
masters, especially at the famous center of Buddhist learning at
Nalanda. When he returned, he brought with him some 657 Sanskrit
texts. With the emperor's support, he set up a large translation
bureau in Chang\'an (present-day Xi\'an ), drawing students and
collaborators from all over
East Asia . He is credited with the
translation of some 1,330 fascicles of scriptures into Chinese. His
strongest personal interest in
Buddhism was in the field of Yogācāra
(瑜伽行派), or Consciousness-only (唯識) .
The force of his own study, translation and commentary of the texts
of these traditions initiated the development of the
(法相宗) in East Asia. Although the school itself did not thrive
for a long time, its theories regarding perception , consciousness ,
Karma , rebirth , etc. found their way into the doctrines of other
more successful schools. Xuanzang's closest and most eminent student
Kuiji (窺基) who became recognized as the first patriarch of the
Faxiang school. Xuanzang's logic, as described by Kuiji, was often
misunderstood by scholars of Chinese
Buddhism because they lack the
necessary background in
Indian logic . Another important disciple was
the Korean monk
Xuanzang was known for his extensive but careful translations of
Buddhist texts to Chinese, which have enabled subsequent
recoveries of lost Indian
Buddhist texts from the translated Chinese
copies. He is credited with writing or compiling the Cheng Weishi Lun
as a commentary on these texts. His translation of the Heart Sutra
became and remains the standard in all East Asian Buddhist sects; as
well, this translation of the
Heart Sutra was generally admired within
the traditional Chinese gentry and is still widely respected as
numerous renowned past and present Chinese calligraphers have penned
its texts as their artworks. He also founded the short-lived but
Faxiang school of Buddhism. Additionally, he was known for
recording the events of the reign of the northern Indian emperor,
THE PERFECTION OF WISDOM SUTRA
Statue of Xuanzang.
Great Wild Goose Pagoda , Xi'an.
Xuanzang returned to China with three copies of the
Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra . Xuanzang, with a team of disciple
translators, commenced translating the voluminous work in 660 CE,
using all three versions to ensure the integrity of the source
Xuanzang was being encouraged by a number of his
disciple translators to render an abridged version. After a suite of
dreams quickened his decision,
Xuanzang determined to render an
unabridged, complete volume, faithful to the original of 600 chapters.
AUTOBIOGRAPHY AND BIOGRAPHY
In 646, under the Emperor's request,
Xuanzang completed his book
Great Tang Records on the Western Regions (大唐西域記), which has
become one of the primary sources for the study of medieval Central
Asia and India. This book was first translated into French by the
Stanislas Julien in 1857.
There was also a biography of
Xuanzang written by the monk Huili
(慧立). Both books were first translated into English by Samuel Beal
, in 1884 and 1911 respectively. An English translation with copious
notes by Thomas Watters was edited by T.W. Rhys Davids and S.W.
Bushell , and published posthumously in London in 1905.
Xuanzang Temple in
Taiwan Statue of
Xuanzang at Longmen
A half-monk at thirteen
restless to find the truth
one night I saw in my dream
an azure pool
a blue lotus
dazzling red flowers
thick mango groves
wrinkled face of a Bhikchhu
I set out for Yintu
secretly escaping the Middle Kingdom
at night, like the young Siddhartha
against the Emperor’s diktats
I travelled alone for years
a fakir along the Silk Road
hungry, naked but blessed... “ ” "Hiuen Tsang: A Poem by Abhay
Xuanzang's work, the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, is
the longest and most detailed account of the countries of Central and
South Asia that has been bestowed upon posterity by a Chinese Buddhist
pilgrim. While his main purpose was to obtain Buddhist books and to
receive instruction on
Buddhism while in India, he ended up doing much
more. He has preserved the records of political and social aspects of
the lands he visited.
His record of the places visited by him in
Bengal — mainly
Pundranagara and its environs,
Tamralipti — have been very helpful in the recording of
the archaeological history of Bengal. His account has also shed
welcome light on the history of 7th century Bengal, especially the
Gauda kingdom under
Shashanka , although at times he can be quite
Xuanzang obtained and translated 657
Sanskrit Buddhist works. He
received the best education on
Buddhism he could find throughout
India. Much of this activity is detailed in the companion volume to
Xiyu Ji, the Biography of
Xuanzang written by Huili, entitled the Life
His version of the
Heart Sutra is the basis for all Chinese
commentaries on the sutra, and recitations throughout China, Korea and
Japan. His style was, by Chinese standards, cumbersome and overly
literal, and marked by scholarly innovations in terminology; usually,
where another version by the earlier translator
Kumārajīva's is more popular.
Xuanzang's journey along the so-called
Silk Road , and the legends
that grew up around it, inspired the Ming novel
Journey to the West
Journey to the West ,
one of the great classics of
Chinese literature . The
Xuanzang of the
novel is the reincarnation of the Golden Cicada, a disciple of Gautama
Buddha , and is protected on his journey by three powerful disciples.
One of them, the monkey , was a popular favorite and profoundly
influenced Chinese culture and contemporary Japanese manga and anime
(including the popular Dragon Ball and Saiyuki series), and became
well known in the West by
Arthur Waley 's translation and later the
cult TV series Monkey .
Yuan Dynasty , there was also a play by Wu Changling
Xuanzang obtaining scriptures.
A skull relic purported to be that of
Xuanzang was held in the Temple
of Great Compassion ,
Tianjin until 1956 when it was taken to Nalanda
- allegedly by the
Dalai Lama - and presented to India. The relic was
Patna Museum for a long time but was moved to a newly built
memorial hall in
Nalanda in 2007. The Wenshu Monastery in
Sichuan province also claims to have part of Xuanzang's skull.
Part of Xuanzang's remains were taken from
Nanjing by soldiers of the
Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army in 1942, and are now enshrined at
Nara , Japan.
* Watters, Thomas (1904). On Yuan Chwang\'s Travels in India,
629-645 A.D. Vol.1. Royal Asiatic Society, London. Volume 2. Reprint.
Hesperides Press, 1996. ISBN 978-1-4067-1387-9 .
* Beal, Samuel (1884). Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western
World, by Hiuen Tsiang. 2 vols. Translated by Samuel Beal. London.
1884. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969. Vol.
1, Vol. 2
* Julien, Stanislas, (1857/1858). Mémoires sur les contrées
occidentales, L'Imprimerie impériale, Paris. Vol.1 Vol.2
* Li, Rongxi (translator) (1995). The Great Tang Dynasty Record of
the Western Regions. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and
Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-02-8
Silk Road transmission of
Buddhism in China
Chinese Translation Theory
* ^ There is some dispute over the
Chinese character for Xuanzang's
given name at birth. Historical records provide two different Chinese
characters, 褘 and 禕, both are similar in writing except that the
former has one more stroke than the latter. Their pronunciations in
pinyin are also different: the former is pronounced as Huī while the
latter is pronounced as Yī. See here and here. (Both sources are in
* ^ Cao Shibang (2006). "Fact vs. Fiction: From Record of the
Western Regions to Journey to the West". In Wang Chichhung. Dust in
the Wind: Retracing
Dharma Master Xuanzang\'s Western Pilgrimage. p.
62. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
* ^ Rhys Davids, T. W. (1904). On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India
629–645 A.D. London: Royal Asiatic Society. pp. xi–xii.
* ^ Christie 123, 126, 130, and 141
* ^ History text book - Standard 8. New Delhi, India: NCERT -
National Council of Educational Research and Teaching. 1 March 2015.
access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ Wriggins 1996, pp. 7, 193
* ^ "Note sur la chronologie du voyage de Xuanzang." Étienne de la
Journal Asiatique , Vol. 298, 1. (2010), pp. 157-168. Eh?
Qinghai and Gobi are all east of Yumen.
Tong Yabghu Qaghan or possibly his son
* ^ Baumer,Hist Cent Asia,2,200 says Tardush Shad (see Shad
(prince) ), eldest son of
Tong Yabghu Qaghan advanced as far as the
Indus. In 630 his son Ishbara Yabghu had his new wife poison him,
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