Xuanzang (Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: xuánzàng; Wade–Giles:
Hsüan-tsang; Mandarin: [ɕɥɛ̌ntsâŋ]; fl. c. 602–664) was a
Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who
India in the seventh century and described the
interaction between Chinese
Buddhism and Indian
Buddhism during the
early Tang dynasty. Born in what is now
Henan province around
602, from boyhood he took to reading religious books, including the
Chinese classics and the writings of ancient sages.
While residing in the city of
Henan in Central China),
Xuanzang was ordained as a śrāmaṇera (novice monk) at the age of
thirteen. Due to the political and social unrest caused by the fall of
the Sui dynasty, he went to
Chengdu in Sichuan, where he was ordained
as a bhikṣu (full monk) at the age of twenty. He later travelled
throughout China in search of sacred books of Buddhism. At length, he
came to Chang'an, then under the peaceful rule of Emperor Taizong of
Xuanzang developed the desire to visit India. He knew
about Faxian's visit to
India and, like him, was concerned about the
incomplete and misinterpreted nature of the
Buddhist texts that had
He became famous for his seventeen-year overland journey to India
(including Nalanda), which is recorded in detail in the classic
Chinese text Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, which in turn
provided the inspiration for the novel
Journey to the West
Journey to the West written by
Wu Cheng'en during the Ming dynasty, around nine centuries after
1 Nomenclature, orthography and etymology
2 Early life
5 Return to China
6.1 The Perfection of Wisdom Sutra
7 Autobiography and biography
8.1 Legacy In Fiction
11 See also
13.2 Works cited
13.3 Other sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Nomenclature, orthography and etymology
Tang Dynasty Monk
Less common romanizations of "Xuanzang" include Hyun Tsan, Hhuen Kwan,
Hiouen Thsang, Hiuen Tsang, Hiuen Tsiang, Hsien-tsang, Hsyan-tsang,
Hsuan Chwang, Huan Chwang, Hsuan Tsiang, Hwen Thsang, Hsüan Chwang,
Hhüen Kwān, Xuan Cang, Xuan Zang, Shuen Shang, Yuan Chang, Yuan
Chwang, and Yuen Chwang. Hsüan, Hüan, Huan and Chuang are also
found. The sound written x in pinyin and hs in Wade–Giles, which
represents the s- or sh-like [ɕ] in today's Mandarin, was previously
pronounced as the h-like [x] in early Mandarin, which accounts for the
archaic transliterations with h.
Another form of his official style was "Yuanzang," written 元奘. It
is this form that accounts for such variants as Yuan Chang, Yuan
Chwang, and Yuen Chwang.
Tang Monk (Tang Seng) is also transliterated /Thang Seng/.
Another of Xuanzang's standard aliases is Sanzang Fashi (simplified
Chinese: 三藏法师; traditional Chinese: 三藏法師; pinyin:
Sānzàngfǎshī; literally: "Sanzang
Dharma (or Law) Teacher"): 法
being a Chinese translation for
Sanskrit "Dharma" or Pali/Pakrit
Dhamma, the implied meaning being "Buddhism".
"Sanzang" is the Chinese term for the Buddhist canon, or Tripiṭaka,
and in some English-language fiction and English translations of
Journey to the West,
Xuanzang is addressed as "Tripitaka."[citation
Part of a series on
汉传佛教 / 漢傳佛教
Silk Road transmission
Chinese Buddhist canon
Buddhist architecture in China
Buddhist Association of China
Xuanzang was born Chen Hui (or Chen Yi) around 602 in Chenhe Village,
Goushi Town (Chinese: 緱氏鎮), Luozhou (near present-day Luoyang,
Henan) and died on 5 February 664 in Yuhua Palace (玉華宮, in
present-day Tongchuan, Shaanxi). His family was noted for its
erudition for generations, and
Xuanzang was the youngest of four
children. His ancestor was Chen Shi (陳寔, 104-186), a minister of
the Eastern Han dynasty. His great-grandfather Chen Qin (陳欽)
served as the prefect of Shangdang (上黨; present-day Changzhi,
Shanxi) during the Eastern Wei; his grandfather Chen Kang (陳康) was
a professor in the
Taixue (Imperial Academy) during the Northern Qi.
His father Chen Hui (陳惠) was a conservative Confucian who served
as the magistrate of
Jiangling County during the Sui dynasty, but
later gave up office and withdrew into seclusion to escape the
political turmoil that gripped China towards the end of the Sui.
According to traditional biographies,
Xuanzang displayed a superb
intelligence and earnestness, amazing his father by his careful
observance of the Confucian rituals at the age of eight. Along with
his brothers and sister, he received an early education from his
father, who instructed him in classical works on filial piety and
several other canonical treatises of orthodox Confucianism.
Although his household was essentially Confucian, at a young age,
Xuanzang expressed interest in becoming a Buddhist monk like one of
his elder brothers. After the death of his father in 611, he lived
with his older brother Chén Sù (Chinese: 陳素) (later known as
Zhǎng jié Chinese: 長捷) for five years at Jingtu Monastery
(Chinese: 淨土寺) in Luoyang, supported by the Sui state. During
this time he studied
Mahayana as well as various early Buddhist
schools, preferring the former.
Xuanzang's former residence in Chenhe Village near Luoyang, Henan.
In 618, the Sui Dynasty collapsed and
Xuanzang and his brother fled to
Chang'an, which had been proclaimed as the capital of the Tang
dynasty, and thence southward to Chengdu, Sichuan. Here the two
brothers spent two or three years in further study in the monastery of
Kong Hui, including the Abhidharma-kośa Śāstra. When Xuanzang
requested to take Buddhist orders at the age of thirteen, the abbot
Zheng Shanguo made an exception in his case because of his precocious
Xuanzang was fully ordained as a monk in 622, at the age of twenty.
The myriad contradictions and discrepancies in the texts at that time
Xuanzang to decide to go to
India and study in the cradle of
Buddhism. He subsequently left his brother and returned to
study foreign languages and to continue his study of Buddhism. He
began his mastery of
Sanskrit in 626, and probably also studied
Tocharian. During this time,
Xuanzang also became interested in the
Yogacara school of Buddhism.
An illustration of
Xuanzang from Journey to the West, a fictional
account of travels.
Xuanzang reportedly had a dream that convinced him to journey
to India. Tang China and the
Göktürks were at war at the time and
Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang had prohibited foreign travel. Xuanzang
persuaded some Buddhist guards at
Yumen Pass and slipped out of the
empire through Liangzhou (Gansu) and
Qinghai in 629. He
subsequently travelled across the
Gobi Desert to Kumul (modern Hami
City), thence following the
Tian Shan westward.
He arrived in
Turpan in 630. Here he met the king of Turpan, a
Buddhist who equipped him further for his travels with letters of
introduction and valuables to serve as funds. The hottest mountain in
China, the Flaming Mountains, is located in
Turpan and was depicted in
the Journey to the West.
Moving further westward,
Xuanzang escaped robbers to reach Karasahr,
then toured the non-
Mahayana monasteries of Kucha. Further west he
passed Aksu before turning northwest to cross the Tian Shan's Bedel
Pass into modern Kyrgyzstan. He skirted
Issyk Kul before visiting
Tokmak on its northwest, and met the great Khagan of the
Göktürks, whose relationship to the Tang emperor was friendly at
the time. After a feast,
Xuanzang continued west then southwest to
Tashkent, capital of modern Uzbekistan. From here, he crossed the
desert further west to Samarkand. In Samarkand, which was under
Persian influence, the party came across some abandoned Buddhist
Xuanzang impressed the local king with his preaching.
Setting out again to the south,
Xuanzang crossed a spur of the Pamirs
and passed through the famous Iron Gates. Continuing southward, he
Amu Darya and Termez, where he encountered a community of
more than a thousand Buddhist monks.
Further east he passed through Kunduz, where he stayed for some time
to witness the funeral rites of Prince Tardu, who had been
poisoned. Here he met the monk Dharmasimha, and on the advice of the
late Tardu made the trip westward to
Balkh (modern Afghanistan), to
see the Buddhist sites and relics, especially the Nava Vihara, which
he described as the westernmost vihara in the world. Here Xuanzang
also found over 3,000 non-
Mahayana monks, including Prajnakara
(般若羯羅 or 慧性), a monk with whom
Xuanzang studied early
Buddhist scriptures. He acquired the important text of the
Mahāvibhāṣa (Chinese: 大毗婆沙論) here, which he later
translated into Chinese.
Prajñakara then accompanied the party southward to Bamyan, where
Xuanzang met the king and saw tens of non-
Mahayana monasteries, in
addition to the two large
Buddhas of Bamiyan
Buddhas of Bamiyan carved out of the
rockface. The party then resumed their travel eastward, crossing the
Shibar Pass and descending to the regional capital of Kapisi (about 60
kilometres (37 mi) north of modern Kabul), which sported over 100
monasteries and 6000 monks, mostly Mahayana. This was part of the
fabled old land of Gandhara.
Xuanzang took part in a religious debate
here, and demonstrated his knowledge of many Buddhist schools. Here he
also met the first Jains and
Hindu of his journey. He pushed on to
Adinapur (later named Jalalabad) and Laghman, where he considered
himself to have reached India. The year was 630.
Xuanzang Memorial Hall in Nalanda, Bihar, India.
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Xuanzang left Adinapur, which had few Buddhist monks, but many stupas
and monasteries. His travels included, passing through Hunza and the
Khyber Pass to the east, reaching the former capital of Gandhara,
Purushapura (Peshawar), on the other side. Peshawar was nothing
compared to its former glory, and
Buddhism was declining in the
Xuanzang visited a number of stupas around Peshawar, notably
Kanishka Stupa. This stupa was built just southeast of Peshawar,
by a former king of the city. In 1908, it was rediscovered by D.B.
Spooner with the help of Xuanzang's account.
Xuanzang left Peshawar and travelled northeast to the Swat Valley.
Reaching Oḍḍiyāna, he found 1,400-year-old monasteries, that had
previously supported 18,000 monks. The remnant monks were of the
Xuanzang continued northward and into the Buner
Valley, before doubling back via
Shahbaz Garhi to cross the Indus
river at Hund. He visited Taxila which was desolate and half-ruined,
and found most of its sangharamas still ruined and desolate with the
state having become a dependency of
Kashmir with the local leaders
fighting amongst themselves for power. Only a few monks remained
there. He noted that it had some time previously been a subject of
Kapisa. He went to
Kashmir in 631 where he met a talented monk
Samghayasas (僧伽耶舍), and studied there. In Kashmir, he found
himself in another center of Buddhist culture and describes that there
were over 100 monasteries and over 5,000 monks in the area. Between
632 and early 633, he studied with various monks, including 14 months
with Vinītaprabha (毘膩多缽臘婆 or 調伏光), 4 months with
Candravarman (旃達羅伐摩 or 月胃), and "a winter and half a
spring" with Jayagupta (闍耶毱多). During this time, Xuanzang
wrote about the
Fourth Buddhist council that took place nearby, ca.
100 AD, under the order of King
Kanishka of Kushana. He visited
Lahore as well and provided the earliest writings
available on the ancient cities. In 634,
Xuanzang arrived in Matipura
(秣底補羅), known as Mandawar today.
Travel route of
Xuanzang in India
In 634, he went east to
Jalandhar in eastern Punjab, before climbing
up to visit predominantly non-
Mahayana monasteries in the Kulu valley
and turning southward again to
Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna
river. Mathura had 2,000 monks of both major Buddhist branches,
despite being Hindu-dominated.
Xuanzang travelled up the river to
Shrughna, also mentioned in the works of Udyotakara, before crossing
eastward to Matipura, where he arrived in 635, having crossed the
river Ganges. At Matipura Monastery,
Xuanzang studied under
Mitrasena. From here, he headed south to
Sankasya (Kapitha, then
onward to Kannauj, the grand capital of the
Empire of Harsha
Empire of Harsha under the
northern Indian emperor Harsha. It is believed he also visited
Govishan present day Kashipur in the
Harsha era, in 636, Xuanzang
encountered 100 monasteries of 10,000 monks (both
non-Mahayana), and was impressed by the king's patronage of both
scholarship and Buddhism.
Xuanzang spent time in the city studying
early Buddhist scriptures, before setting off eastward again for
Ayodhya (Saketa), homeland of the
Xuanzang now moved
Kausambi (Kosam), where he had a copy made from an important
local image of the Buddha.
Xuanzang now returned northward to
Shravasti Bahraich, travelled
Terai in the southern part of modern
Nepal (here he found
deserted Buddhist monasteries) and thence to Kapilavastu, his last
stop before Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha.
Dunhuang cave, 9th century
Xuanzang set out from
Lumbini to Kusinagara, the site of
Buddha's death, before heading southwest to the deer park at Sarnath
where Buddha gave his first sermon, and where
Xuanzang found 1,500
resident monks. Travelling eastward, at first via Varanasi, Xuanzang
Pataliputra (Patna) and Bodh Gaya. He was then
accompanied by local monks to Nalanda, the greatest Indian university
of Indian state of Bihar, where he spent at least the next two years,
He visited Champa Monastery, Bhagalpur. He was in the company
of several thousand scholar-monks, whom he praised.
logic, grammar, Sanskrit, and the
Yogacara school of
his time at Nalanda.
René Grousset notes that it was at Nalanda
(where an "azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned with the
full-blown cups of the blue lotus; the dazzling red flowers of the
lovely kanaka hang here and there, and outside groves of mango trees
offer the inhabitants their dense and protective shade") that Xuanzang
met the venerable Silabhadra, the monastery's superior. Silabhadra
had dreamt of Xuanzang's arrival and that it would help spread far and
wide the Holy Law. Grousset writes: "The Chinese pilgrim had
finally found the omniscient master, the incomparable metaphysician
who was to make known to him the ultimate secrets of the idealist
systems...The founders of
Vasubandhu...Dignaga...Dharmapala had in turn trained Silabhadra.
Silabhadra was thus in a position to make available to the
Sino-Japanese world the entire heritage of Buddhist idealism, and the
Siddhi Xuanzang's great philosophical treatise...is none other than
the Summa of this doctrine, the fruit of seven centuries of Indian
Xuanzang travelled through several kingdoms, including
Pundranagara, to the capital of Pundravardhana, identified with modern
Mahasthangarh, in present-day Bangladesh. There
Xuanzang found 20
monasteries with over 3,000 monks studying both the
Hinayana and the
Mahayana. One of them was the Vāśibhã Monastery (Po Shi Po), where
he found over 700
Mahayana monks from all over East India. He
Somapura Mahavihara at Paharpur in the district of
Naogaon, in modern-day Bangladesh.
Xuanzang turned southward and travelled to
Andhradesa to visit the
Viharas at Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda. He stayed at Amaravati and
studied 'Abhidhammapitakam'. He observed that there were many
Viharas at Amaravati and some of them were deserted. He later
proceeded to Kanchi, the imperial capital of
Pallavas and a strong
centre of Buddhism. He continued traveling to Nasik, Ajanta, Malwa,
from there he went to Multan and Pravata before returning to Nalanda
At the invitation of
Hindu king Kumar Bhaskar Varman, he went east to
the ancient city of
Pragjyotishpura in the kingdom of
crossing the Karatoya and spent three months in the region.Before
Kamarupa he visited
Sylhet what is now a modern city Of
Bangladesh.He gives detailed account about culture and people of
Sylhet. Later, the king escorted
Xuanzang back to the
Kannauj at the
request of king Harshavardhana, who was an ally of Kumar Bhaskar
Varman, to attend a great Buddhist Assembly there which was attended
by both of the kings as well as several other kings from neighbouring
kingdoms, buddhist monks, Brahmans and Jains. King
Xuanjang to Kumbh Mela in Prayag where he witnessed king Harsha's
generous distribution of gifts to the poor.
After visiting Prayag he returned to
Kannauj where he was given a
grand farewell by king Harsha. Traveling through the
Khyber Pass of
Xuanzang passed through Kashgar, Khotan, and Dunhuang
on his way back to China. He arrived in the capital, Chang'an, on the
seventh day of the first month of 645, 16 years after he left Chinese
territory, and a great procession celebrated his return.
Return to China
On his return to China in AD 645,
Xuanzang was greeted with much honor
but he refused all high civil appointments offered by the
still-reigning emperor, Emperor Taizong of Tang. Instead, he retired
to a monastery and devoted his energy in translating Buddhist texts
until his death in AD 664. According to his biography, he returned
with, "over six hundred
Hinayana texts, seven statues of
the Buddha and more than a hundred sarira relics." In celebration
of Xuanzang's extraordinary achievement in translating the Buddhist
Emperor Gaozong of Tang
Emperor Gaozong of Tang ordered renowned Tang calligrapher Chu
Suiliang (褚遂良) and inscriber Wan Wenshao (萬文韶) to install
two stele stones, collectively known as The Emperor’s Preface to the
Sacred Teachings (雁塔聖教序), at the Giant Wild Goose
Xuanzang at the
Great Wild Goose Pagoda
Great Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an
During Xuanzang's travels, he studied with many famous Buddhist
masters, especially at the famous center of Buddhist learning at
Nalanda. When he returned, he brought with him some 657 Sanskrit
texts. With the emperor's support, he set up a large translation
Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), drawing students and
collaborators from all over East Asia. He is credited with the
translation of some 1,330 fascicles of scriptures into Chinese. His
strongest personal interest in
Buddhism was in the field of Yogācāra
(瑜伽行派), or Consciousness-only (唯識).
The force of his own study, translation and commentary of the texts of
these traditions initiated the development of the
(法相宗) in East Asia. Although the school itself did not thrive
for a long time, its theories regarding perception, consciousness,
Karma, rebirth, etc. found their way into the doctrines of other more
successful schools. Xuanzang's closest and most eminent student was
Kuiji (窺基) who became recognized as the first patriarch of the
Faxiang school. Xuanzang's logic, as described by Kuiji, was often
misunderstood by scholars of Chinese
Buddhism because they lack the
necessary background in Indian logic. Another important disciple
was the Korean monk Woncheuk.
Xuanzang was known for his extensive but careful translations of
Buddhist texts to Chinese, which have enabled subsequent
recoveries of lost Indian
Buddhist texts from the translated Chinese
copies. He is credited with writing or compiling the Cheng Weishi Lun
as a commentary on these texts. His translation of the Heart Sutra
became and remains the standard in all East Asian Buddhist sects; as
well, this translation of the
Heart Sutra was generally admired within
the traditional Chinese gentry and is still widely respected as
numerous renowned past and present Chinese calligraphers have penned
its texts as their artworks. He also founded the short-lived but
Faxiang school of Buddhism. Additionally, he was known for
recording the events of the reign of the northern Indian emperor,
The Perfection of Wisdom Sutra
Statue of Xuanzang. Great Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an.
Xuanzang returned to China with three copies of the Mahaprajnaparamita
Sutra. Xuanzang, with a team of disciple translators, commenced
translating the voluminous work in 660 CE, using all three versions to
ensure the integrity of the source documentation.
being encouraged by a number of his disciple translators to render an
abridged version. After a suite of dreams quickened his decision,
Xuanzang determined to render an unabridged, complete volume, faithful
to the original of 600 chapters.
Autobiography and biography
In 646, under the Emperor's request,
Xuanzang completed his book Great
Tang Records on the Western Regions (大唐西域記), which has
become one of the primary sources for the study of medieval Central
Asia and India. This book was first translated into French by the
Stanislas Julien in 1857.
There was also a biography of
Xuanzang written by the monk Huili
(慧立). Both books were first translated into English by Samuel
Beal, in 1884 and 1911 respectively. An English translation
with copious notes by Thomas Watters was edited by T.W. Rhys Davids
and S.W. Bushell, and published posthumously in London in 1905.
Xuanzang Temple in Taiwan
Xuanzang at Longmen Grottoes, Luoyang
A half-monk at thirteen
restless to find the truth
one night I saw in my dream
an azure pool
a blue lotus
dazzling red flowers
thick mango groves
wrinkled face of a Bhikchhu
I set out for Yintu
secretly escaping the Middle Kingdom
at night, like the young Siddhartha
against the Emperor’s diktats
I travelled alone for years
a fakir along the Silk Road
hungry, naked but blessed...
"Hiuen Tsang: A Poem by Abhay K.
Xuanzang's work, the Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, is the
longest and most detailed account of the countries of Central and
South Asia that has been bestowed upon posterity by a Chinese Buddhist
pilgrim. While his main purpose was to obtain Buddhist books and to
receive instruction on
Buddhism while in India, he ended up doing much
more. He has preserved the records of political and social aspects of
the lands he visited.
His record of the places visited by him in Bengal — mainly
Raktamrittika near Karnasuvarna,
Pundranagara and its environs,
Samatata , Tamralipti and Harikela— have been very helpful in
the recording of the archaeological history of
Bengal what is now .
His account has also shed welcome light on the history of 7th century
Bengal, especially the Gauda kingdom under Shashanka, although at
times he can be quite partisan.
Xuanzang obtained and translated 657
Sanskrit Buddhist works. He
received the best education on
Buddhism he could find throughout
India. Much of this activity is detailed in the companion volume to
Xiyu Ji, the Biography of
Xuanzang written by Huili, entitled the Life
His version of the
Heart Sutra is the basis for all Chinese
commentaries on the sutra, and recitations throughout China, Korea and
Japan. His style was, by Chinese standards, cumbersome and overly
literal, and marked by scholarly innovations in terminology; usually,
where another version by the earlier translator
Kumārajīva's is more popular.
Legacy In Fiction
Xuanzang's journey along the so-called Silk Road, and the legends that
grew up around it, inspired the Ming novel Journey to the West, one of
the great classics of Chinese literature. The fictional counterpart
Tang Sanzang is the reincarnation of the Golden Cicada, a disciple of
Gautama Buddha, and is protected on his journey by three powerful
disciples. One of them, the monkey, was a popular favorite and
profoundly influenced Chinese culture and contemporary Japanese manga
and anime (including the popular Dragon Ball and Saiyuki series), and
became well known in the West by Arthur Waley's translation and later
the cult TV series Monkey.
In the Yuan Dynasty, there was also a play by Wu Changling (吳昌齡)
Xuanzang obtaining scriptures.
A skull relic purported to be that of
Xuanzang was held in the Temple
of Great Compassion,
Tianjin until 1956 when it was taken to
allegedly by the
Dalai Lama - and presented to India. The relic was in
Patna Museum for a long time but was moved to a newly built
memorial hall in
Nalanda in 2007. The Wenshu Monastery in Chengdu,
Sichuan province also claims to have part of Xuanzang's skull.
Part of Xuanzang's remains were taken from
Nanjing by soldiers of the
Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army in 1942, and are now enshrined at
Watters, Thomas (1904). On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, 629-645
A.D. Vol.1. Royal Asiatic Society, London. Volume 2. Reprint.
Hesperides Press, 1996. ISBN 978-1-4067-1387-9.
Beal, Samuel (1884). Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World,
by Hiuen Tsiang. 2 vols. Translated by Samuel Beal. London. 1884.
Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969. Vol. 1, Vol.
Julien, Stanislas, (1857/1858). Mémoires sur les contrées
occidentales, L'Imprimerie impériale, Paris. Vol.1 Vol.2
Li, Rongxi (translator) (1995). The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the
Western Regions. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research.
Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-02-8
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism in China
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
Chinese Translation Theory
^ There is some dispute over the Chinese character for Xuanzang's
given name at birth. Historical records provide two different Chinese
characters, 褘 and 禕, both are similar in writing except that the
former has one more stroke than the latter. Their pronunciations in
pinyin are also different: the former is pronounced as Huī while the
latter is pronounced as Yī. See here and here. (Both sources are in
^ Wriggins, Sally (27 November 2003). The
Silk Road Journey With
Xuanzang (1 ed.). Washington DC: Westview press (Penguin).
^ Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India:
From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education.
^ Wriggins, Sally (27 November 2003). The
Silk Road Journey With
Xuanzang. New York: Westview (Penguin). ISBN 0813365996.
^ Cao Shibang (2006). "Fact vs. Fiction: From Record of the Western
Regions to Journey to the West". In Wang Chichhung. Dust in the Wind:
Dharma Master Xuanzang's Western Pilgrimage. p. 62.
Retrieved 2 February 2014.
^ Rhys Davids, T. W. (1904). On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India
629–645 A.D. London: Royal Asiatic Society. pp. xi–xii.
^ Christie 123, 126, 130, and 141
^ Wriggins 1996, pp. 7, 193
^ "Note sur la chronologie du voyage de Xuanzang." Étienne de la
Vaissière. Journal Asiatique, Vol. 298, 1. (2010), pp. 157-168.
Eh? Liangzhou, Gansu,
Qinghai and Gobi are all east of Yumen.
Tong Yabghu Qaghan
Tong Yabghu Qaghan or possibly his son
^ Baumer,Hist Cent Asia,2,200 says Tardush Shad (see Shad (prince)),
eldest son of
Tong Yabghu Qaghan
Tong Yabghu Qaghan advanced as far as the Indus. In 630
his son Ishbara Yabghu had his new wife poison him, 'which Xuanzang
^ a b "玄奘法師年譜". ccbs.ntu.edu.tw. Retrieved 13 December
^ Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and monthly record
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pp. 39, 46.
^ Elizabeth Errington, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis. Persepolis to the
Punjab: Exploring Ancient Iran,
Afghanistan and Pakistan. British
Museum Press. p. 134. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter
^ Stephen Gosch, Peter Stearns. Premodern Travel in World History.
Routledge. p. 89.
^ trans. by Samuel Beal. Si-yu-ki: Buddhist Records of the Western
World. Motilal Banarasidass.
^ Men and Thought in Ancient
India by Radhakumud Mookerji, 1912
edition published by McMillan and Co., reprinted by Motilal
Banarasidass (1996) page 169
^ Nakamura, Hajime (2000). Gotama Buddha. Kosei. pp. 47, 53–54.
^ René Grousset. In the Footsteps of the Buddha. JA Underwood (trans)
Orion Press. New York. 1971. p159-160.
^ Rene Grousset. In the Footsteps of the Buddha. JA Underwood (trans)
Orion Press. New York. 1971.p161
^ Rene Grousset. In the Footsteps of the Buddha. JA Underwood (trans)
Orion Press. New York. 1971 p161
^ Watters II (1996), pp. 164-165.
^ Li (1996), pp. 298-299
^ "Xuan Zang stayed in Vijayawada to study Buddhist scriptures".
Xuanzang Pilgrimage Route Google Maps, retrieved July 17, 2016
^ Assembly at Prayag Ancient Indian History and Culure by Sailendra
Nath Sen, page 260, ISBN 81-224-1198-3, 2nd ed. 1999, New Age
International(P) Limited Publishers
^ Wriggins 186-188.
^ Strong 2007, p. 188.
^ "The Emperor's Preface to the Sacred Teachings". Vincent's
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^ See Eli Franco, "Xuanzang's proof of idealism." Horin 11 (2004):
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^ a b Wriggins 1996, pg.206
^ Wriggins 1996, pg. 207
^ Deeg, Max (2007). „Has
Xuanzang really been in Mathurā? :
Interpretatio Sinica or Interpretatio Occidentalia — How to
Critically Read the Records of the Chinese Pilgrim.“ - In:
西脇常記教授退休記念論集 = Essays on East Asian religion
and culture: Festschrift in honour of Nishiwaki Tsuneki on the
occasion of his 65th birthday /
クリスティアン・ウィッテルン, 石立善編集 = ed. by
Christian Wittern und Shi Lishan. - 京都 [Kyōto] :
京都大���人文科學研究所 ; Christian Wittern,
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^ Beal 1911
^ Hiuen Tsang Asia Literary Review, 3 May 2017
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^ of famous Chinese monk moved to new memorial hall in N India
China.com, Xinhua, February 11, 2007
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Wriggins, Sally Hovey (2004). The
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Media related to
Xuanzang at Wikimedia Commons
Hiuen Tsang A Poem on
Xuanzang in Asia Literary Review by Indian
poet-diplomat Abhay K.
A Tour of Hiuen Tsang Museum
Nalanda A Video Tour of
Xuanzang Memorial, Nava
Nalanda Mahavihara on Google Cultural
Details of Xuanzang's life and works Internet Encyclopedia of
History of San Zang A narration of Xuan Zang's journey to India.
"大慈恩寺三藏法师传 (全文)". Archived from the original on
13 February 2005. Chinese text of The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang, by
Shaman (monk) Hwui Li (Hui Li) (沙门慧立)
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