Xiph.Org Foundation
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Xiph.Org Foundation is a
nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that op ...
that produces
free Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom, having the ability to act or change without constraint * Emancipate, to procure political rights, as for a disenfranchised group * Free will, control exercised by rational agents over their actions and decis ...
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory) Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theo ...

multimedia
formats and software tools. It focuses on the
Ogg Ogg is a free, open Open or OPEN may refer to: citizen * Open (band), Australian pop/rock band * The Open (band), English indie rock band * ''Open'' (Blues Image album), 1969 * ''Open'' (Gotthard album), 1999 * ''Open'' (Cowboy Junkies ...
family of formats, the most successful of which has been
Vorbis Vorbis is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation. The project produces an audio coding format and software reference encoder/decoder (codec) for lossy compression, lossy audio compression (data), audio compressi ...
, an open and freely licensed audio format and
codec A codec is a device or computer program which encodes or Decoding methods, decodes a data stream or signal. ''Codec'' is a portmanteau of coder/decoder. In electronic communications, an endec is a device which acts as both an encoder and a decode ...
designed to compete with the patented
WMA WMA may refer to: Organizations * Western Manufactured Housing Communities Association, a nonprofit trade association for owners of manufactured home communities in California, US * Western Marble Arch, a synagogue in London * William Morris Agenc ...
,
MP3 MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital a ...
and
AAC AAC may refer to: Aviation * Advanced Aircraft, a company from Carlsbad, California * Alaskan Air Command, a radar network * American Aeronautical Corporation, a company from Port Washington, New York * American Aviation, a company from Clevelan ...
. As of 2013, development work was focused on
Daala Daala is a video coding format under development by the Xiph.Org Foundation under the lead of Timothy B. Terriberry mainly sponsored by the Mozilla Corporation The Mozilla Corporation (stylized as moz://a) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the ...
, an open and patent-free video format and codec designed to compete with
VP9 VP9 is an open Open or OPEN may refer to: citizen * Open (band), Australian pop/rock band * The Open (band), English indie rock band * ''Open'' (Blues Image album), 1969 * ''Open'' (Gotthard album), 1999 * ''Open'' (Cowboy Junkies album), ...
and the patented
High Efficiency Video Coding High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video compression standard designed as part of the MPEG-H project as a successor to the widely used Advanced Video Coding (AVC, H.264, or MPEG-4 Part 10). In compari ...
. In addition to its in-house development work, the foundation has also brought several already-existing but complementary
free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical ...
projects under its aegis, most of which have a separate, active group of developers. These include
Speex Speex is an audio compression codec specifically tuned for the reproduction of human speech and also a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), ins ...
, an audio codec designed for speech, and
FLAC FLAC (; Free Lossless Audio Codec) is an audio coding format for lossless compression of digital audio, developed by the Xiph.Org Foundation, and is also the name of the free software project producing the FLAC tools, the reference software pa ...
, a lossless audio codec. The Xiph.Org Foundation has criticized
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports, and sells Software, computer software, consumer electroni ...

Microsoft
and the
RIAA The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a trade organization A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association, sector association or industry body, is an organization founded and funded by busine ...
for their lack of openness. They state that if companies like Microsoft had owned
patents A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more than ...
on the Internet, then other companies would have tried to compete, and "The Net, as designed by warring corporate entities, would be a battleground of incompatible and expensive 'standards' had it actually survived at all." They also criticize the RIAA for their support of projects such as the
Secure Digital Music Initiative Secure Digital Music Initiative (SDMI) was a forum formed in late 1998,Leonardo ChiariglioneRiding the Media Bits. Opening content protection chiariglione.org, 2003 composed of more than 200 IT, consumer electronics, security technology, ISP and rec ...
. In 2008, the
Free Software Foundation The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on October 4, 1985, to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify compu ...
listed the Xiph.Org projects as High Priority Free Software Projects.


History

Chris Montgomery Christopher "Monty" Montgomery (born June 6, 1972) is an American programmer. He is the original creator of the Ogg Ogg is a free, open Open or OPEN may refer to: citizen * Open (band), Australian pop/rock band * The Open (band), Engli ...
, creator of the
Ogg Ogg is a free, open Open or OPEN may refer to: citizen * Open (band), Australian pop/rock band * The Open (band), English indie rock band * ''Open'' (Blues Image album), 1969 * ''Open'' (Gotthard album), 1999 * ''Open'' (Cowboy Junkies ...
container format, founded the Xiphophorus company and later the Xiph.Org Foundation. The first work that became the Ogg media projects started in 1994. The name "Xiph" abbreviates the original organizational name, "Xiphophorus", named after the Green swordtail, common swordtail fish, ''Xiphophorus hellerii''. It was officially incorporated on 15 May 1996 as Xiphophorus, Inc. The name "Xiphophorus company" was used until 2002, when it was renamed to Xiph.Org Foundation. In 1999, the Xiphophorus company defined itself on its website as ''"a distributed group of Free and Open Source programmers working to protect the foundations of Internet multimedia from domination by self-serving corporate interests."'' In 2002, the Xiph.Org Foundation defined itself on its website as ''"a non-profit corporation dedicated to protecting the foundations of Internet multimedia from control by private interests."'' In March 2003, the Xiph.Org Foundation was recognized by the Internal Revenue Service, IRS as a 501(c)(3) Non-Profit Organization,Xiph.Org (2003-03-24
Speex reaches 1.0; Xiph.Org now a 501(c)(3) Non-Profit Organization
Retrieved 2009-09-01
which means that U.S. citizens can deduct donations made to Xiph.Org from their taxes.


Xiph.Org Foundation projects

*
Ogg Ogg is a free, open Open or OPEN may refer to: citizen * Open (band), Australian pop/rock band * The Open (band), English indie rock band * ''Open'' (Blues Image album), 1969 * ''Open'' (Gotthard album), 1999 * ''Open'' (Cowboy Junkies ...
 – a multimedia Digital container format, container format, a reference implementation, and the native file and stream format for the Xiph.org multimedia codecs **
Vorbis Vorbis is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation. The project produces an audio coding format and software reference encoder/decoder (codec) for lossy compression, lossy audio compression (data), audio compressi ...
 – a lossy Audio compression (data), audio compression format and codec **Theora – a lossy video coding format and codec **FLAC – a lossless audio compression format and software **
Speex Speex is an audio compression codec specifically tuned for the reproduction of human speech and also a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), ins ...
 – a lossy speech encoding format and software (deprecated) **CELT – an ultra-low delay lossy audio compression format that has been merged into Opus, and is now obsolete **Opus (codec), Opus – a low delay lossy audio compression format originally intended for Voice over IP, VoIP **Tremor (software), Tremor – an integer-only implementation of the Vorbis audio decoder for embedded devices (software) **OggPCM – an encapsulation of PCM audio data inside the Ogg container format **Skeleton – a structuring information for multi-track Ogg files (a logical bitstream within an Ogg stream) **Real-time Transport Protocol, RTP payloads – containers for Vorbis, Theora, Speex and Opus. **Continuous Media Markup Language, CMML – an XML-based markup language for time-continuous data (a timed text codec; deprecated) **Ogg Squish – a lossless audio compression format and software (discontinued) **Ogg#Ogg codecs, Tarkin – an experimental lossy video coding format; no stable release (discontinued) **
Daala Daala is a video coding format under development by the Xiph.Org Foundation under the lead of Timothy B. Terriberry mainly sponsored by the Mozilla Corporation The Mozilla Corporation (stylized as moz://a) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the ...
 – a video coding format and codec **Kate – an overlay codec that can carry animated text and images. *libao – an audio-output library that operates on different platforms *Annodex – an encapsulation format, which interleaves time-continuous data with CMML markup in a streamable manner *Icecast – an open source multi-platform streaming server (software) *Icecast, Ices – a source client for broadcasting in Ogg Vorbis or MP3 format to an icecast2 server (software) *IceShare – an unfinished peercasting system for Ogg multimedia (no longer maintained) *cdparanoia – an open source Red Book (CD standard), CD Audio extraction tool that aims to be bit-perfect (currently unmaintained) *XSPF – an XML Shareable Playlist Format


OpenCodecs

''OpenCodecs'' is a software package for Windows adding DirectShow filters for the Theora and WebM codecs. It adds Theora and WebM support to Windows Media Player and enables HTML5 video in Internet Explorer. It consists of: * ''dshow'', Xiph's DirectShow filters for their suite of
Ogg Ogg is a free, open Open or OPEN may refer to: citizen * Open (band), Australian pop/rock band * The Open (band), English indie rock band * ''Open'' (Blues Image album), 1969 * ''Open'' (Gotthard album), 1999 * ''Open'' (Cowboy Junkies ...
formats, including Theora and
Vorbis Vorbis is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation. The project produces an audio coding format and software reference encoder/decoder (codec) for lossy compression, lossy audio compression (data), audio compressi ...
* ''webmdshow'', the DirectShow filter for WebM maintained by the WebM project * An ActiveX plugin adding HTML5 video capability to Internet Explorer older than version 9


QuickTime Components

''Xiph QuickTime Components'' are implementations of the
Ogg Ogg is a free, open Open or OPEN may refer to: citizen * Open (band), Australian pop/rock band * The Open (band), English indie rock band * ''Open'' (Blues Image album), 1969 * ''Open'' (Gotthard album), 1999 * ''Open'' (Cowboy Junkies ...
container along with the
Speex Speex is an audio compression codec specifically tuned for the reproduction of human speech and also a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), ins ...
, Theora, FLAC and
Vorbis Vorbis is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation. The project produces an audio coding format and software reference encoder/decoder (codec) for lossy compression, lossy audio compression (data), audio compressi ...
codec A codec is a device or computer program which encodes or Decoding methods, decodes a data stream or signal. ''Codec'' is a portmanteau of coder/decoder. In electronic communications, an endec is a device which acts as both an encoder and a decode ...
s for QuickTime. It allows users to use Ogg files in any application that uses QuickTime for audio and video file support, such as iTunes and QuickTime Player. Since QuickTime Components does not function in macOS Sierra and above, the project was discontinued in 2016.


References


External links

* {{Xiph.org Free software project foundations in the United States Non-profit organizations based in Massachusetts