Zhongnanhai (Chinese: 中南海; pinyin: Zhōngnánhǎi; literally:
"Middle and Southern Seas") is a former imperial garden in the
Imperial City, Beijing,
China adjacent to the Forbidden City; it
serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China
and the State Council (Central government) of China. Zhongnanhai
houses the office of the General Secretary of the Communist Party of
China (paramount leader), who simultaneously also serves as Chairman
of the Central Military Commission and President of China.
Zhongnanhai is closely linked with the central government and
senior Communist Party officials. It is often used as a metonym for
the Chinese leadership at large (in the same sense that the term White
House frequently refers to the
President of the United States
President of the United States and his
staff). The state leaders, including
Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang, and
other top CPC and PRC leadership figures carry out many of their
day-to-day administrative activities inside the compound, such as
meetings with foreign dignitaries.
China Central Television frequently
shows footage of meetings inside the compound, but limits its coverage
largely to views of the interior of buildings.
4 Internal layout
4.1 North Zhongnanhai
4.1.1 Regent Palace
4.1.2 West Flower Hall
4.1.3 State Council Hall
4.1.4 Ziguang Hall
4.1.5 Poolside House
4.1.6 Indoor Pool
4.1.7 Yanqing House
4.1.8 Wan Shan Temple
4.1.9 Water Clouds Pavilion
4.2 South Zhongnanhai
4.2.1 Huairen Hall
4.2.2 Qinzheng Hall
4.2.3 Benevolence Hall
4.2.4 West Building Compound
4.2.5 Fortress Garden
4.2.6 Shuqingyan Pavilion
4.2.7 Building 202
4.2.8 West Four Houses
4.2.9 Gallery Houses
4.2.10 Yingtai Island
4.2.11 Xinhua Gate
5 Image Gallery
6 See also
8 External links
A map of
Zhongnanhai from the Republic of
China era, with the two
lakes shown in green at centre. The western edge of the Forbidden City
is shown at right.
The name of the
Zhongnanhai complex, located west of the Forbidden
City, means "central and southern seas/lakes", referring to two lakes
(the "Central Sea" (中海) and "Southern Sea" (南海)) located
within the compound; it is sometimes translated as "Sea Palaces".
These two lakes are part of a series of projects carried out during
the construction of the nearby Forbidden City. Also part of the same
system is the "Northern Sea", or "Beihai" (北海), now a public
park.The Northern, Central and Southern Seas are called Taiye Lake
(太液池) together. And the "Shichahai" (什剎海) is connected to
Beihai at the north.
Taiye Lake were originally an imperial garden called Xiyuan
(Western Park,西苑), with parklands on the shores, enclosed by a red
wall in the west part of the Imperial City, Beijing. Most of the
pavilions, shrines, and temples survive from this period. Whereas the
Northern sea had a religious focus, the shores of Central and Southern
seas were dotted with a number of palaces.
The Pavilion of the Water and Cloud, on the eastern bank of the
See also: Taiye Lake
During the Jin dynasty (1115–1235), the Emperor Zhangzong of Jin
built the northern lake. The northern section of
Zhongnanhai was the
Taiye Lake, with an attached palace called the "Palace of Great Peace"
(Daninggong). During the Yuan Dynasty,
Taiye Lake was included in the
Imperial City. It was also expanded, covering approximately the area
occupied by the Northern and Central Seas today. Three palaces were
built around the lake.
Ming dynasty moved its capital to Beijing, construction on
the existing Imperial Palace began in 1406. The Ming palace was to the
south of the Yuan palace. As a result, a new Southern Sea was dug to
the south of the old lake. The excavated soil, together with that from
construction of the moat, was piled up to form Jingshan, a hill to the
north of the Forbidden City. At this time, the three lakes were
connected and were collectively called the Taiye Lake. The three
lakes were divided by bridges. The lakes were part of an extensive
royal park called Xiyuan (Western Garden) to the west of the Imperial
Qing dynasty established its capital in Beijing, the
government reduced the size of the royal park to within a small walled
area around the three lakes. Several successive emperors built
pavilions and houses along the lake shores, where they would carry out
government duties in the summer. During the reign of the Empress
Dowager Cixi, the Empress Dowager and the Emperor would often live in
Zhongnanhai compound, travelling to the
Forbidden City only for
Boxer Rebellion of 1900, the Russian army occupied
Zhongnanhai. Almost all artifacts and decorations in the compound were
looted. Later, the
Eight-Nation Alliance commander also lived in
Puyi was crowned Emperor, his father as the Prince
Regent lived for a short time in the compound.
Zhongnanhai attained political significance during the Republic of
China era, when the
Beiyang Government under
Yuan Shikai placed its
presidential palace in the
Zhongnanhai compound from 1911. This
decision was made because the regime wished to house its government
very close to the historical centre of power, the Forbidden City, but
could not use the
Forbidden City itself because the abdicated Emperor
Puyi still lived there. The current main gate, Xinhua Gate or "Gate of
New China", was created by Yuan Shikai. The present "gatehouse" was
previously a pavilion located on the southern shore the Southern Sea,
close to the southern wall. Entry to the compound was instead directly
from the Forbidden City. Yuan wished to create a new entrance from
Chang'an Avenue, independent of the Forbidden City. Thus the pavilion
was modified to become a gatehouse, with nearby walls cut back,
resulting in the angled walls near the entrance today.
When the Republic of
China government moved its capital to Nanjing,
Zhongnanhai compound was opened to the public as a park.
Zhongnanhai has served as a government centre again since the early
days of the People's Republic of China, founded in 1949. The People's
Republic government built many of the structures today seen in the
compound. The compound housed the Communist Party of
Committee, as well as the State Council. Early leaders, such as Mao
Zedong, Zhou Enlai, and
Deng Xiaoping lived in the compound.
Chinese maps of
Zhongnanhai as an insignificant green
area with a water body; in contrast, the municipal government,
however, is shown significantly with a red star.
Late 18th-century painting showing the reception for the victorious
Qing Army from the Jinchuan Campaign (1771–1776) at the Hall of
Purple Light in Zhongnanhai
Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi and servants on a boat in Zhonghai in the
Procession of Leo Karakhan, Soviet Ambassador to
outside the Xinhua Gate of Zhongnanhai.
Leaders of the People's Republic, from left, Zhu De, Mao Zedong, Chen
Zhou Enlai outside the Hall of Purple Light (Ziguangge) in
Hu Jintao with U.S. President
George W. Bush
George W. Bush and
former U.S. President
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush in
Zhongnanhai on August 10,
The Hall of Purple Light (Ziguang Ge) today, used for state
Zhongnanhai became the central government compound, it has been
mostly inaccessible to the general public. The exception to this was
during the years of relative freedom following the end of the Cultural
Revolution, when the compound was open to members of the public, who
could obtain tickets to visit the compound from relevant government
authorities. Following the political turmoil that culminated in the
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, security was greatly increased.
Access has now been closed to the general public, with numerous plain
clothed military personnel patrolling the area on foot. Cars are not
strictly prohibited from stopping on stretches of adjacent roadway.
Cabs, for example, are allowed to stop unless during important
conferences or events.
Zhongnanhai is considered the de jure residence of Politburo Standing
Committee members and other senior leaders for electoral purposes.
Though it serves as their formal residence, many senior party leaders
do not actually live in Zhongnnanhai, preferring to live in homes
elsewhere in the city. Several more recent leaders, such as then
General Secretary and
Hu Jintao reportedly chose to
live in the
Jade Spring Hill
Jade Spring Hill compound in western
Beijing due to
overcrowding inside Zhongnanhai. China's current leader Xi Jinping
also has a home in Jade Spring Hill. There continues to be no
standardized system for awarding certain houses to leaders of a
certain rank in Zhongnanhai. After a senior leader's death, their
spouse is often permitted to stay in the house indefinitely.
Several of these houses were occupied by the families of their
original owners into the 1990s.
The most important entrance to the compound is the southern one at
Xinhuamen (Xinhua Gate, or "Gate of New China"), surrounded by two
slogans: "long live the great Communist Party of China" and "long live
Mao Zedong Thought." The view behind the entrance is
shielded by a traditional screen wall with the slogan "Serve the
People", written in the handwriting of Mao Zedong. The Xinhuamen
entrance lies on the north side of West Chang'an Avenue.
An annotated map of Zhongnanhai. Click on the links for more
information about each building.
Zhongnanhai is the headquarters of the State Council of the
People's Republic of
China and its affiliate institutions, including
the offices of the Premier and the Vice Premiers as well as the State
Council General Office. Important guests, both foreign and domestic,
are typically received in North Zhongnanhai.
(Chinese: 摄政王府) Located in the northwestern corner of
Zhongnanhai, the building takes its name from Puyi's regent Zaifeng,
Prince Chun who was given the palace in 1909. The Building was not
completed by the time the
Qing Dynasty ended in 1911. Under the
Republic of China, the building was initially the location of the
Prime Minister's office and the meeting place of the Cabinet. In 1918
Xu Shichang switched the President's residence and the Prime
Minister's office, relocating his residence to Regent Palace, while
the Prime Minister and Cabinet moved to Dianxu Hall in Fortress
Huairen Hall became the Presidential residence in
1923, Regent Palace became the location of the army and naval
After 1949, the People's Republic of
China again used the building as
the headquarters of the Premier and State Council. During the massive
Zhongnanhai in the late 1970s, plans were made to
modernize Regent palace. However, it was found that the quality of the
building was very poor, the foundations were loose and the gaps
between the wooden columns were filled with broken brick. As a result,
the main hall and entrance halls were torn down and rebuilt
completely. The State Council's Conference Room Number Four, which
is used for meeting with domestic civil society leaders, was built on
the north side of Regent Palace close to West Flower Hall. The
main meeting place for the State Council is now next door at State
Council Hall. Regent Palace nonetheless continues to be the location
of the offices of the Premier and Vice Premiers.
West Flower Hall
(Chinese: 西花厅) Located in the north west corner of Zhongnanhai,
this building was constructed as the living quarters for Regent
Palace. West Flower Hall served as Premier Zhou Enlai's personal
residence. The building also included the Zhou's personal office and
meeting rooms. After Zhou's death in 1974 his wife
Deng Yingchao lived
here until 1990. Unlike much of the State Council area, West Flower
Hall was not reconstructed in the 1970s. Today the building is
preserved as a museum dedicated to Zhou Enlai.
State Council Hall
(Chinese: 国务院小礼堂) Originally built as a wing of Regent
Palace, State Council Hall is also known as West Hall (Chinese:
西楼大厅) due to its location west of Ziguang Hall. After 1949, a
room in the building was converted to be used as a movie theatre which
held showings several times a week. The building also included a small
cafeteria for State Council staff. In 1979 the movie theatre was
removed and replaced with auditorium for the State Council. Premier
Zhou Enlai resisted renovation efforts citing a commitment to fiscal
austerity. The building now serves as the principle venue for State
Council meetings. Both the full State Council and the weekly
meetings of the State Council Standing Committee meet in Conference
Room Number One. Including its principle conference room, the State
Council possesses a total of six meeting rooms which are used for
various purposes. The northern section of State Council Hall
serves as the headquarters for the State Council General Office.
(Chinese: 紫光阁) Located in the northern west bank of the Central
Sea, Ziguang Hall is a two-storey pavilion. The Ming Dynasty Jiajing
Emperor, built Ziguang Hall as a replacement for Yingtai Island. The
building was rebuilt by
Qing Dynasty Emperor Kangxi, who would use the
location to inspect his bodyguards. During the reign of the Qianlong
Emperor the building was used to display battle wall charts and seized
weapons. The building was also known as the Hall of Barbarian Tributes
and was used to receive tribute missions to the Emperor. After 1949
the building was rebuilt to include a ballroom. A large modern
conference area was later built on the building's western side.
Ziguang Hall is used today as the main reception area in Zhongnanhai
for meeting with foreign diplomats and conducting talks with world
Poolside House was built adjacent to the existing concrete pool that
dates from the time of the Republic of China. Because Mao Zedong
frequently worked at the nearby indoor pool rather than at his
official residence in Fortress Garden, he chose to build a house here
in order to be permanently close to the pool. The pool was remodeled
and the house constructed under the supervision of Zhongnanhai's
engineer Tian Genggui.
Mao Zedong moved into the house in 1966 at the
beginning of the Cultural Revolution. The building initially had
minimal furnishings and no kitchen, requiring food to be delivered by
staff. After Mao's death, Zhou Enlai's wife
Deng Yingchao briefly
lived here before returning to West Flower Hall.
The indoor swimming pool was built in 1955 by the Urban Construction
and Design Institute. Mao Zedong's wife
Jiang Qing reportedly proposed
the building's construction during Mao's absence in order to secure
its approval. Mao nonetheless used the pool because it was more
convenient than traveling to the pool at Tsinghua University. Mao
often stayed and worked at the pool for long periods of time. In 1958,
Mao met with Soviet General Secretary
Nikita Khrushchev at the pool.
Today the pool is used by senior party leaders and also contains a
(Chinese: 延庆楼) Yanqing House as well as several other adjoining
buildings were built during the
Beiyang Government around 1922. Cao
Kun used Yanqing House as his workplace while living in nearby Huairen
Hall. His wives and concubines lived in several of the adjoining
Cao Kun was overthrown in 1924, he was imprisoned in
Yanqing House for two years.
Wan Shan Temple
(Chinese: 万善殿) Known in English as Thousand Benevolence Hall,
Wan Shan is a
Buddhist Temple located in the east coast of the Central
Sea. The Temple was built by the
Shunzhi Emperor for a
famous monk that he admired. Statues of the Buddha line the hall.
Behind the temple is Thousand Sage Hall, which includes a dome and
seven story Pagoda.
Water Clouds Pavilion
(Chinese: 水云榭) Located on an island in the Central Sea, the
pavilion contains a stele engraved by the
Qianlong Emperor reading
"Autumn Wind on the Taiye Lake".
Taiye Lake is an old name for the all
three of the seas.
Zhongnanhai is the headquarters of the Communist Party of China,
including the office of the General Secretary and the offices of the
staff of the Central Committee General Office. South
includes the meeting places for the Politburo, Standing Committee and
Main article: Huairen Hall
Huairen Hall (Chinese: 怀仁堂; literally: "Hall of Cherished
Compassion") is a two-story Chinese style hall that is used by the
Communist Party as a meeting place for the Politburo and the Politburo
Standing Committee. The building is also the meeting location
of several of the Communist Party's leading groups such as the
Financial and Economic Affairs Leading Group and the Leading Group for
Comprehensively Deepening Reforms.
The building served as the daily workplace of Dowager Empress Cixi,
the then de facto ruler of China, replacing the Hall of Mental
Cultivation in the nearby Forbidden City. After the Boxer rebellion,
Huairen Hall became the headquarters of the occupying Eight Nation
Alfred von Waldersee
Alfred von Waldersee until the building was
damaged in a fire. In 1902 Empress Cixi rebuilt
Huairen Hall at a cost
of five million taels of silver before ultimately dying here in
1908. After the founding of the Republic of
China in 1911,
Yuan Shikai used the building to meet with foreign guests
and to accept
New Year's day
New Year's day greetings. After Yuan's death, it was the
sight of his funeral. When
Cao Kun became president, he used Huairen
Hall as his residence. After the end of the
Beiyang Government Huairen
Hall had no permanent use and was given to the
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the first
plenary session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative
Conference was held in
Huairen Hall in 1949 and the first session of
National People's Congress
National People's Congress was held there as well in 1954.
Huairen Hall became the auditorium of the central government, often
hosting various art shows and political meetings, including Central
Committee plenums before the construction of
Jingxi Hotel in 1964.
In 1953, the building was remodeled in preparation for the
Asia-Pacific Peace Conference by Premier Zhou Enlai.
(Chinese: 勤政殿) Qinzheng Hall is the main meeting place of the
Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. As the headquarters of
the Secretariat, the building houses of the office of the party's
General Secretary, a title currently synonymous with the Paramount
Leader of the country. The building also includes a conference
room that is used as an alternative meeting place for the Politburo
Standing Committee. There is an encrypted hotline that runs from
Qinzheng Hall to the
White House in
Washington DC for the purpose of
conducting high level talks with American leaders.
The original Qinzheng hall was built by the
Kangxi Emperor as the main
hall of the
Zhongnanhai complex, serving as the Emperor's primary
living and working space in Zhongnanhai. After the 1911
revolution, the building served as a venue for government conferences
during both the Republic of
China and the People's Republic of China.
Qinzheng Hall served as the meeting place for the Central People's
Government Committee, the interim council that governed
1949 until the promulgation of the 1954 Constitution. In the late
1970s, Wang Dongxing, the director of the Central Committee General
Office, demolished Qinzheng hall and spent 6.9 million yuan intended
for its reconstruction to build his own private residence there.
Wang's removal as head of the Central Committee General Office in 1978
prevented him from completing his plan. Qinzheng hall was inaugurated
as the Secretariat's headquarters in 1980.
(Chinese: 居仁堂) The building was originally a two-story western
style palace known as the Hall of the Calm Sea (Haiyantang) during the
Dowager Empress Cixi
Dowager Empress Cixi had the building built to entertain
her female guests and also to receive foreign diplomats. After the
suppression of the Boxer Rebellion,
Eight Nation Alliance
Eight Nation Alliance commander
Alfred von Waldersee
Alfred von Waldersee moved here after Yi Luang Temple was destroyed in
a fire. After the founding of the Republic of
China the building was
renamed the Hall of Benevolence (Jerentang), by Yuan Shikai, who
continued to use it to host visitors.
After 1949, the building served as the first headquarters of the
Central Military Commission (CMC) before the CMC staff relocated
outside of Zhongnanhai. In 1956, the
CPC Secretariat became an
institution separate from the staff of the Party Chairman and required
its own headquarters. The new General Secretary, Deng Xiaoping, chose
Benevolence Hall to house the Secretariat. The original building was
demolished in 1964 and replaced with a smaller Chinese-style pavilion.
The Secretariat offices temporarily moved to "Building C" in the West
Building compound before moving to Qinzheng Hall in 1980.
West Building Compound
(Chinese: 西楼大院) This complex of buildings is named for its
location in the south western corner of Zhongnanhai. The buildings
were built in the early 1950s to house workplaces and apartments for
the Central Committee General Office's staff. In addition to the West
Building, the other buildings were designated A, B, C, D and F. Many
of the Mishus or secretarial staff assigned to support the General
Office work here. The West Building thus serves as the workplace of
the Director of the Central Committee General Office. The West
Building includes a large kitchen, a cafeteria for the Zhongnanhai
staff and a smaller eating area that doubles as a conference room for
the use of senior leadership.
The President's office and staff were also located in the West
Building during the time when the office of was not also
simultaneously held by the Paramount Leader, such as during Liu
Shaoqi's term from 1959-1967. Likewise, Marshal Zhu De's
office was located in the West Building when he served as Vice
President of China.
(Chinese: 丰泽园) These buildings were built by
Emperor Kangxi who
used them to raise silkworms. The main building in Fortress Garden is
Dianxu Hall, which was known as Chong Ya Temple during the Qianlong
Emperor's reign, Yiennian Temple during the Guangxu Emperor's reign
and as Yitingnian during the Republic of China. During the Beiyang
Government of the Republic of China, the office of the President was
initially located in Dianxu Hall. In 1918 President Xu Shichang
switched the President's residence and the Prime Minister's office,
relocating his residence to Regent Palace, while the Prime Minister
and Cabinet moved to Dianxu Hall in Fortress Garden. Dianxu Hall
became a general purpose meeting area after 1949.
Fortress Garden was the site of several other early party leader's
houses. Mao Zedong's first residence and office from 1949-1966 were
located in Fortress Garden in a building called the Chrysanthemum
Library (Chinese: 菊香书屋). Mao relocated to a new building known
as the Poolside House in 1966 at the start of the Cultural Revolution.
After Mao's death, the Chrysanthemum Library was preserved as a museum
which is not accessible to the general public.
(Chinese: 淑清院) Located in the northeast corner of the Southern
Sea, the building was built for the
Qianlong Emperor as part of a
small garden, similar in style to the Beihai Park. After 1959, the
original building was destroyed in order to make way for the
construction of a barracks and officer staff quarters for Unit 8341,
Zhongnanhai security guard regiment.
(Chinese: 202别墅) The building next to
Huairen Hall was constructed
in 1974 as a specially reinforced earthquake shelter. Mao Zedong
was relocated here from Poolside House after the July 1976 Tangshan
earthquake. Mao died in this building on September 9, 1976.
West Four Houses
(Chinese: 西四所) These four houses were built as part of the
western wing of the
Huairen Hall complex. After the end of the Beiyang
government these buildings were acquired by the Peking Institute of
Historic Research. After 1949 several communist party leaders
lived in these buildings including Deng Xiaoping, Li Fuchun, Chen Yi
and Tan Zhenlin. During his Paramount Leadership, Deng Xiaoping
used his home as a meeting place for informal conferences that would
include members of the Central Advisory Commission, the Politburo, the
Secretariat and the party elders. It was in Deng's home that the
decision was made to use force against the demonstrators during the
Tiananmen Square Protests.
(Chinese: 万字廊) The original buildings in this area were built by
Qianlong Emperor to celebrate his mother's 50th birthday. Today
the location is the site of a road through south western Zhongnanhai
lined with houses that serve as residences of party leaders. A number
of early party leaders such as
Liu Shaoqi and
Yang Shangkun lived
here. Mao's wife
Jiang Qing also lived in one of these buildings,
known as the Spring Lotus Chamber.
(Chinese: 瀛台) Located in the Southern Sea, the artificial island
was completed by in 1421 by Ming emperor
Zhu Di after he relocated his
capital to Beijing. The island was given its current name by Qing
Emperor Shunzhi in 1655. Yingtai Island is connected with the shore
via a stone bridge. Due to the slope of the island, the northern
elevation of the island's main temple is a single-story building while
the south elevation is a two-story pavilion, called "Penglai
Pavilion." There are two temples to the north of Hanyuan Temple,
Qingyun Temple to the east and Jingxing Temple to the west. In July
1681 the Qing
Emperor Kangxi held the "Yingtai hearings," on the
development of a national strategy to put down civil strife. Dowager
Empress Cixi imprisoned
Emperor Guangxu at Hanyuan Temple on Yingtai
in August 1898 after the failure of Hundred Days Reform. Emperor
Guangxu was subsequently poisoned and died here in 1908.
After 1949 Yingtai was used as the site of banquets and other
hospitality activities. According to some sources Jiang Zemin
lived in Hanyuan Temple on Yingtai Island during his time as Paramount
(Chinese: 新华门) Zhongnanhai's main entrance, Xinhua Gate is
located on West Chang'an Avenue. The gate was originally built by
Emperor Qianlong as a pavilion for one his concubines. After the 1911
Yuan Shikai transformed the pavilion into a gate and
named it "Xinhua Gate" or "New
China Gate". The slogans "Long live the
great Chinese Communist Party " and "long live invincible Mao Zedong
Thought " are now on the walls on both sides of Xinhua Gate. On the
door is the inscription "serve the people" in Mao Zedong's
Office buildings inside Zhongnanhai
The western wall of the
Zhongnanhai compound and Imperial City of
Road inside Zhongnanhai
From the central part of
Zhongnanhai across the Middle Sea, to the
bridge that divides
Zhongnanhai from Beihai Park, with the White Stupa
Beihai Park seen in the distance
History of Beijing
Imperial City, Beijing
Old Summer Palace
Jade Spring Hill
Presidential Palace, Nanjing
^ a b c d e f g "
Zhongnanhai - the Political Center of China".
travelchinaguide.com. TravelChinaGuide. Retrieved 7 February
Zhongnanhai (Central and South Lakes)". china.org.cn. China
Internet Information Center. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
^ a b "随历史远去的中南海居仁堂".
随历史远去的中南海居仁堂. Phoenix New Media Limited.
Retrieved 8 February 2018.
^ a b "神秘的中南海建筑群". 360doc.com.
Information Technology Co. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
^ a b http://www.25dx.com/beijing/2006/200607/2006-07-09/206729.html
^ a b c d "毛泽东在中南海的家". 360doc.com.
Information Technology Co. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
^ a b Kristof, Nicholas (January 25, 1991). "Columnist". New York
Times. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
^ "Chinese leaders vote in local elections". People's Daily Online.
people.cn. November 9, 2006. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
^ "罗冰：江泽民抓到胡锦涛甚么把柄". duping.net. The
Independent Review. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
Beijing Police Detain Hundreds For Trying to Visit Chinese Leaders
Over New Year". Broadcasting Board of Governors. Radio Free Asia.
2015-02-20. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
^ Wang, Dongya. "文汪东亚". NetEase Inc. Retrieved 10 February
^ Zhen, Jiang. "袁世凯做洪宪梦
xueshu.com. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
kknews.cc. DMCA. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
^ a b
wenxuecity.com. wenxuecity.com. 2017-07-04. Retrieved 22 February
^ "总理吃中餐也要排队 走进神秘的中南海(组图)".
wenxuecity.com. 2005-09-01. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
^ "西花厅". Baike.com. Baidu Baike. Retrieved 7 February
^ "中南海里的建筑也曾遭"拆迁"". sohu.com. Retrieved 7
mxzx123.net. Star Information Network. Retrieved 26 February
^ "General Office of the State Council". google.com/maps. Google.
Retrieved 4 March 2018.
^ "中南海舞会见闻：毛主席跳舞踩不到点". People's
Network. people.com.cn. 2011-03-01. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
^ "中南海紫光阁史话". 360doc.com.
Beijing six-chi Information
Technology Co. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
^ "中南海内修缮工程杂忆". people.com.cn. Retrieved 7
360doc.com. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
^ "游泳池 卫生间…如何修缮中南海内毛泽东住所".
www.people.com.cn. People's Network. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
^ Ok, Tim. "导游图库（122）中南海". blog.sina.com.cn/. SINA
Corporation. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
^ "中南海前传（6）烧成灰烬的仪鸾殿". blog.sina.com.cn/.
SINA Corporation. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
^ Wang, Jun (15 June 2013). "中央政治局如何开会". qikan.com.
Retrieved 18 October 2017.
^ ""怀仁堂政变"后的政治局紧急会议". DWnews.com. Deutsche
Welle. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
^ Chen, Zhu Qin (2014-06-19).
Shanghai Oriental Press Co. The Paper. Retrieved 11 February
eastday.com. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
people.com.cn. People's Network. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
^ "中共第八届历次中央全会". gov.cn. gov.cn. Retrieved 25
^ a b "文革后的中南海：中央办事效率最高的时期".
LYWZC.com. Comsenz Inc. Retrieved 7 February 2018. .
^ Li, Xiaoqing (2015-06-10). "卓琳以死相逼之前
曾被江泽民一度糊弄". Epoch USA, Inc. The Epoch Times.
Retrieved 10 February 2018.
李鹏日志：邓小平提戒严令". backchina.com. Overseas
Chinese. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
Phoenix New Media Limited. ifeng.com. January 13, 2014. Retrieved 9
^ "中南海勤政殿见证特殊友谊". qd8.com.cn. qd8.com.cn.
Retrieved 12 February 2018.
消息被封杀". aboluowang.com. aboluowang.com. Retrieved 23
^ "1949年10月1日 中央人民政府委员会举行第一次会议".
people.com.cn. People's Network. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
^ "Zhongnanhai". GlobalSecurity.org. John Pike. Retrieved 8 February
^ Wu, Han. "百年烟云居仁堂". 51bidlive.com. Missing or
empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help)
^ "readers365.com". 第一篇在爷爷奶奶身边长大. Retrieved 9
^ "中南海里的日常生活". 360doc.com.
Information Technology Co. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
Beijing six-chi Information Technology Co. Retrieved 13
^ "毛泽东指责哪位高干"荒淫"". qq.com. Tencent. Retrieved 7
^ Tian, Baojun.
Phoenix New Media Limited. ifeng.com. Retrieved 17 February
zhuanlan.zhihu.com. Integrity website demonstration enterprises.
Retrieved 8 February 2018.
history.people.com.cn. People's Network. Retrieved 7 February
^ Terrill, Ross (August 2010). 毛泽东传. Renmin University of
China. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
^ "Introduction to
Zhongnanhai CP Leadership Compound Schematic Map
02". drben.net. ChinaReport.com. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
^ "苏秉琦的六十年考古人生". mjlsh.usc.cuhk.edu.hk/. Chinese
University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
^ Zhao, Ziyang (2009). General Secretary. Simon & Schuster.
p. 23. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
^ Wang, Shen (2009-11-05). ""四人帮"被捕：江青很平静
王洪文反抗最激烈". Phoenix New Media Limited. Retrieved 8
^ "The Last Week of Mao Zedong". bostonese.com. bostonese.com Online
Journal. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
^ SalviNg (2014-11-14).
LIMITED. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
^ Lin, Feng (2015-03-23). "江泽民架空胡锦涛的内幕". The
Epoch Times. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
Phoenix New Media Limited. ifeng.com. March 10, 2013. Retrieved 15
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zhongnanhai.
TIME: Walled Heart of China's Kremlin
Google Satellite picture
China.org.cn - Introduction to Zhongnanhai
(in Chinese) China.com.cn -
Zhongnanhai with images of Zhongnanhai
Old city of Beijing
Fortifications and towers
Bell and Drum towers
Gate of Supreme Harmony
Hall of Mental Cultivation
Hall of Supreme Harmony
Belvedere of Embodying Benevolence
Hall of Central Harmony
Belvedere of Spreading Righteousness
Hall of Preserving Harmony
Gate of Thriving Imperial Clan
Gate of Heavenly Purity
Palace of Heavenly Purity
Hall of Union
Palace of Earthly Tranquility
Gate of Divine Might
temples and offices
Taimiao (Imperial Ancestral Temple)
Beijing Ancient Observatory
Old Summer Palace
Jade Spring Hill
Temple of Heaven
Temple of Earth
Temple of the Sun
Temple of the Moon
Xiannongtan (Temple of Agriculture)
Temples and gardens
White Cloud Temple
Temple of Azure Clouds
Big Bell Temple
Mosques and churches
St. Michael's Church
East Asian traditional landscape design
Classical Gardens of Suzhou
Gardens around the West Lake
Old Summer Palace
Chengde Mountain Resort
Rear Garden of Changdeokgung
Katsura Imperial Villa
Shugakuin Imperial Villa
Hayama Imperial Villa
Suzaki Imperial Villa
Garden of the Prince Gong Mansion
Gardens in Peking University
Qing Hui Yuan
Yu Yin Shan Fang
Du Fu Thatched Cottage