The Info List - Xiang River

The Xiang River
Xiang River
is the chief river of the Lake Dongting
Lake Dongting
drainage system of the middle Yangtze, the largest river in Hunan
Province, China. It is the 2nd largest tributary (after Min River) in terms of surface runoff, the 5th largest tributary by drainage area of the Yangtze
tributaries.[1] The river flows generally northeast through Guangxi
and Hunan
two provinces, its tributaries reach into Jiangxi and Guangdong. Traditionally, it was regarded that the West (left) Branch is the Main Stream of the Upper Xiang, which rises in Haiyang Mountains between xing'an and Lingchuan counties of Guangxi. According to the 1st national water census of China
in 2011, the East Branch Xiao River originating from Lanshan County
Lanshan County
of Hunan,[2] was identified as the Main Stem of the Upper Xiang. The Ping Island of Yongzhou
is the meeting of the two streams, the West source originating from Guangxi and the Esat source of the Xiao River
Xiao River
originating from Lanshan County of Hunan.[3] With the tributaries, the Xiang has a river basin area of 94,721 square kilometres (36,572 sq mi), of which Hunan
has an area of 85,383 square kilometres (32,967 sq mi).[4] In a situation of Guangxi
source, the Xiang has a length of 844 kilometres (524 mi); In another situation of Xiao River
Xiao River
as the main source stream, the Xiang has a length of 948 kilometres (589 mi).[2]


1 Geography

1.1 Upper Course 1.2 Xiao River

2 Tributaries

2.1 River source 2.2 Right-bank tributaries 2.3 Left-bank tributaries

3 In culture 4 Major cities along the river 5 See also 6 External links 7 Notes

7.1 Bibliography

8 References


Picture of Xiang River
Xiang River
in Changsha, the Orange Island Bridge is on the left and Orange Island (Juzizhou) is in front.

The Upper Xiang River
Xiang River
has two large Branches, the West (left) and East (right). The West Branch is traditionally known as the Main Stream originating from Haiyang Mountains in Guilin
of Guangxi. As the traditional Main Stream, the West Branch has been widely questioned in Hunan
according to the 2011 national Water Census of China,[5] the East Branch regarded as the Main Stream of the Xiang is Xiao River, which rises in Yegou Mountain (野狗岭) of Xiangjiangyuan
Township (湘江源瑶族乡) in Lanshan County, Hunan. The two branches converge at Ping Island to form the Main Stem of the Xiang. The Main Stem is located in the eastern part of Hunan. The Xiang generally flows southwest to northeast from Lingling District
Lingling District
of Yongzhou
to Xiangyin County, and empties into the Yangtze
River via Lake Dongting. Upper Course[edit] The Left Branch, also known as the West Branch of the upper course is traditionally known the upper Xiang River, the portion of the Xiang River upstream called Xiangshui River (湘水). From the headwaters at Xing'an County, Guangxi, the West Branch flows approximately 262 kilometres (163 mi) to Ping Island of Yongzhou, where it is joined by the Xiao River
Xiao River
to form the middle Xiang River.[6] Historically it was recognized that the headwaters of the Xiang rise in Haiyang Mountains. People say the Xiang and the Li Rivers share the same origin, because the upper reaches of the two rivers are connected by the ancient Lingqu
Canal, which is located in Xing'an County, Guangxi. According to a traditional saying, 70% of the water in Lingqu flows into the Xiang and 30% flows into the Li River. In the past, the canal, along with the Xiang River
Xiang River
and the Gui River
Gui River
provided an important waterway connecting the Yangtze
River with the Pearl River Delta.[7] Xiao River[edit] The Xiao River
Xiao River
is the East Branch of the upper course. As of 2011 Water Census of China, it may be regarded as the Main Stream of the upper Xiang River. Xiao rises in Xiangjiangyuan
Township of Lanshan County, from the headwaters to Ping Island at the confluence with the West Branch (Left Branch) from Guangxi, it runs 346 square kilometres (134 sq mi). With the tributaries, the Xiao River
Xiao River
has a drainage basin area of 12,094 square kilometres (4,670 sq mi).[2] Tributaries[edit]

The Xiao River
Xiao River
(瀟水) flows into the Xiang near Changsha The Zheng River (蒸水) converges with the Xiang in Chengbei District (城北區), Hengyang The Lianshui River (涟水) and Juan River (涓水) flows into the Xiang near Hekou Town (河口镇), Xiangtan

River source[edit] Right-bank tributaries[edit]


Huanglong River (Chinese: 黄龙河), the northernmost one of right-bank tributaries of Changsha
section; the river mouth is at Zengzigang between Dalong of Chating Town and Huashi of Tongguan Subdistrict of Wangcheng District. Shizhu River (Chinese: 石渚河), the river mouth is located at Lanjiapo of Caitaoyuan Village, Tongguan Subdistrict, Wangcheng District. Shahe River (Chinese: 沙河), the river mouth is located between Fanshenyuan Village of Wangcheng District and Xianinggang Community of Kaifu District. Laodao River
Laodao River
(Chinese: 捞刀河), the river mouth is located at Jiangwan (Chinese: 江湾) of Xiufeng Subdistrict, Kaifu District. Liuyang River
Liuyang River
(Chinese: 浏阳河), the river mouth is located at Xinhe Delta Mouth (Chinese: 新河三角洲) of Kaifu District. Muyungang River (Chinese: 暮云港河), the southernmost one of right-bank tributaries of Changsha
section; the river mouth is located between Dawantang and Maziling of Muyun
Subdistrict, Tianxin District.


Wujia Creek (Chinese: 吴家港) Honghe Channel


Lushui River (Chinese: 渌水), the river mouth is located in Lukou, Zhuzhou.


Mochuan River (Chinese: 漠川河)

Left-bank tributaries[edit]


Liulin River (Chinese: 柳林江), the northernmost one of left-bank tributaries of Changsha
section; the river mouth is located between Lingbei of Xiangyin County
Xiangyin County
and Qiaokou of Wangcheng District. Old Wei River
Wei River
(Chinese: 老沩水), the old Wei River, also known as Yahe River (Chinese: 哑河), is a river system in the region of Dazhong Batardeau (Chinese: 大众垸). Wei River
Wei River
(Chinese: 沩水河), the largest left-bank tributary of Changsha
section of Xiang River; the river mouth is located in Gaotangling Subdistrict of Wangcheng District. Maqiao River (Chinese: 马桥河), the river mouth is located at Congshugang (Chinese: 枞树港) of Gaotangling Subdistrict. Waterways of Daze Lake (Chinese: 大泽湖水系), including Daze Lake and waterways, its main stream joins Xiang River
Xiang River
at Huilong Briage (Chinese: 回龙桥). Longwanggang River (Chinese: 龙王港), the river mouth is located at Wangyuehu of Yuelu District. Jin River (Chinese: 靳江河), the river mouth is located in the south of the Yuelu Mountain, Yuelu District. Waterways of Tongxi Creek (Chinese: 桐溪港水系) Guanyin Creek (Chinese: 观音港)


Zhabu Creek (Chinese: 渣埠港) Zhubu Creek (Chinese: 竹埠港) Lianshui River (Chinese: 涟水) Juan River (Chinese: 涓水) Zijing River (Chinese: 紫荆河)

In culture[edit] In the Chinese folk religion, the river is protected by the "Xiang River goddesses" or "Xiang Consorts" Ehuang
and Nüying. They are said to have been the daughters of the legendary ruler Yao and the wives of his successor Shun. Unable to bear the pain of their husband's death, they committed suicide in this river. An etiological myth relates the spots on the spotted bamboo (斑竹), also known as the Xiang bamboo (湘竹 or 湘江竹), Xiang Consort bamboo (湘妃竹), and teardrop bamboo (淚竹), to the tears of the weeping consorts. They were worshipped in some form by the people of Chu during the Warring States and its poet Qu Yuan
Qu Yuan
is credited with writing the "Ladies Xiang" (湘夫人) to document the ritual songs in their honor. The late Tang Dynasty poet Yu Wuling
Yu Wuling
is supposed to have been fond of the scenery along the Xiang River.[8] The classic Chinese novel The Dream of the Red Chamber
The Dream of the Red Chamber
includes a character Shi Xiangyun
Shi Xiangyun
who takes one of the characters of her name from the river. Mao Zedong's Shian Kian Weekly Review, founded on 14 June 1919, publicized Marxism in Changsha. Major cities along the river[edit]

Hengyang Zhuzhou Xiangtan Changsha

See also[edit]

Dongting Lake List of Chinese rivers Xiaoxiang

External links[edit] Notes[edit]


"Xiang River", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009 . Ueki, Hisayuki; Uno, Naoto; Matsubara, Akira (1999). Matsuura, Tomohisa, ed. Kanshi no Jiten 漢詩の事典 (in Japanese). 1. Tokyo: Taishūkan Shoten. OCLC 41025662. 


^ 长江支流: baidu.com or baike.com ^ a b c 湘江源头在湖南蓝山, 湘江干流全长948公里, 流域面积94,721平方公里 - The source stream of the Xiang is in Lanshan County, the main river of the Xiang has length of 948 kilometres (589 mi) with a drainage basin area of rough 94,721 square kilometres (36,572 sq mi): hn.xinhuanet.com or rednet.cn (21-May-13) ^ A misinformation of millennium of years for the source of Xiangjiang River - 湘江源头,为何误传千年: voc.com.cn (22-May-13), rednet.cn (24-Mar-15), ifeng.com (22-May-13), sohu.com (15-May-16), (22-May-13) ^ The river basin area in Hunan, according to Hunan
11th Five-year Plan on Water Conservation - 湖南省“十一五”水利发展规划: fgw.hunan.gov.cn or findlaw.cn ^ first national water census of China: chinadaily.com.cn (20-Dec-11) or chinadaily.com.cn (18-Mar-11) ^ about Xiang River
Xiang River
in Guangxi
Reachers, according to the Guangxi General Description (广西通志)/Geographica of Guangxi (地理志)/Waters and Rivers (水系水文) - the Yangtze
River System (长江水系), see gxdqw.com (the Yangtze
River System in Guangxi) ^ Lingqu Canal
Lingqu Canal
(Xiang'an County, Guangxi
Zhuang Autonomous Region Qin Dynasty) (Nomination for the UNESCO Heritage List) ^ Ueki et al. 1999, pp. 133–4.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xiang River.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xiangjiang River.

Xiang Jiang at GEOnet Names Server

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Greater Changsha

River Xiang River Zi River Yuanjiang River Lishui River Wuling Mountains Xuefeng Mountains Nanling Mountains Luoxiao Mountains Lake Dongting


University Hunan
University of Arts and Science Hunan
Normal University Hunan
Agricultural University


Culture of Hunan Hunanese people Xiang dialect Shaozhou Tuhua Nü shu writing system Xiang embroidery Huaguxi Yuelu Academy Xiang Army Miao people Tujia people


cuisine Stinky tofu Dong'an chicken Hongshao rou Lei cha

Visitor attractions

Village Avatar Hallelujah Mountain Mount Heng Zhangjiajie


Fenghuang County

Category Commons

Coordinates: 29°26′N 113°8′E / 29.433°N 113.133°E / 29.433; 113.133

v t e

Major rivers of China

Seven Great Rivers of Eastern China Yangtze
· Yellow · Pearl · Heilongjiang · Huai · Hai · Liao


Yalong Min Dadu Qingyi (Sichuan) Tuo Jialing Bailong Fu (Sichuan) Qu Wu Hanshui Muma Chi Du Bao Qing Chishui Xiang

Xiao Lei Mi

Zi Yuan Lishui Miluo Gan Fu (Jiangxi) Xin Qingyi (Anhui) Qinhuai Xitiao Huangpu Suzhou Creek

Yellow system

Daxia Tao Qingshui Wuding Fen Wei Jing Luo (Henan) Luo (Shaanxi) Qin Xiaoqing

Pearl system

North East Han (Guangdong) Mei Ting West Yujiang Yong Xun Qian Hongshui Nanpan Beipan Rong Li (Guangxi) Gui Liu

Heilongjiang system

Songhua 2nd Songhua Nen Mudan Ussuri Argun Kherlen Woken Huifa

Huai system

Guo Ying Shiguan Quan Hui Hong

Hai system

Chaobai Yongding Hutuo Ziya Daqing Wenyu Juma Sanggan Fuyang Wei Ju Jiyunhe

Liao system

Hun Taizi Xar Moron Xinkai Western Liao Eastern Liao

Other major rivers

Tarim Black Karatash Ili Shule Tumen Yalu Luan Red Minjiang Longjiang Lancang Beilun Nujiang Lion Spring Elephant Spring Yarlung Tsangpo (Horse Spring) Nyang Subansiri Irtysh Suifen Qiantang Puyang Jiao (Shandong) Dai Si Shu Cao'e Jiao (Zhejiang) Ou Mulan Jin (Fujian) Nandu Wanquan Taping

Major canals

Grand Canal Lingqu North Jiangsu Main Irri