Xiang River is the chief river of the
Lake Dongting drainage
system of the middle Yangtze, the largest river in
China. It is the 2nd largest tributary (after Min River) in terms of
surface runoff, the 5th largest tributary by drainage area of the
Yangtze tributaries. The river flows generally northeast through
Hunan two provinces, its tributaries reach into Jiangxi
Traditionally, it was regarded that the West (left) Branch is the Main
Stream of the Upper Xiang, which rises in
Haiyang Mountains between
xing'an and Lingchuan counties of Guangxi. According to the 1st
national water census of
China in 2011, the East Branch Xiao River
Lanshan County of Hunan, was identified as the
Main Stem of the Upper Xiang. The
Ping Island of
Yongzhou is the
meeting of the two streams, the West source originating from Guangxi
and the Esat source of the
Xiao River originating from Lanshan County
With the tributaries, the Xiang has a river basin area of 94,721
square kilometres (36,572 sq mi), of which
Hunan has an area
of 85,383 square kilometres (32,967 sq mi). In a
Guangxi source, the Xiang has a length of 844 kilometres
(524 mi); In another situation of
Xiao River as the main source
stream, the Xiang has a length of 948 kilometres (589 mi).
1.1 Upper Course
1.2 Xiao River
2.1 River source
2.2 Right-bank tributaries
2.3 Left-bank tributaries
3 In culture
4 Major cities along the river
5 See also
6 External links
Xiang River in Changsha, the Orange Island Bridge is on the
left and Orange Island (Juzizhou) is in front.
Xiang River has two large Branches, the West (left) and East
(right). The West Branch is traditionally known as the Main Stream
Haiyang Mountains in
Guilin of Guangxi. As the
traditional Main Stream, the West Branch has been widely questioned in
Hunan according to the 2011 national Water Census of China, the
East Branch regarded as the Main Stream of the Xiang is Xiao River,
which rises in Yegou Mountain (野狗岭) of
(湘江源瑶族乡) in Lanshan County, Hunan. The two branches
Ping Island to form the Main Stem of the Xiang. The Main
Stem is located in the eastern part of Hunan. The Xiang generally
flows southwest to northeast from
Lingling District of
Xiangyin County, and empties into the
Yangtze River via Lake Dongting.
The Left Branch, also known as the West Branch of the upper course is
traditionally known the upper Xiang River, the portion of the Xiang
River upstream called Xiangshui River (湘水). From the headwaters at
Xing'an County, Guangxi, the West Branch flows approximately 262
kilometres (163 mi) to
Ping Island of Yongzhou, where it is
joined by the
Xiao River to form the middle Xiang River.
Historically it was recognized that the headwaters of the Xiang rise
in Haiyang Mountains. People say the Xiang and the Li Rivers share the
same origin, because the upper reaches of the two rivers are connected
by the ancient
Lingqu Canal, which is located in Xing'an County,
Guangxi. According to a traditional saying, 70% of the water in Lingqu
flows into the Xiang and 30% flows into the Li River. In the past, the
canal, along with the
Xiang River and the
Gui River provided an
important waterway connecting the
Yangtze River with the Pearl River
Xiao River is the East Branch of the upper course. As of 2011
Water Census of China, it may be regarded as the Main Stream of the
upper Xiang River. Xiao rises in
Xiangjiangyuan Township of Lanshan
County, from the headwaters to
Ping Island at the confluence with the
West Branch (Left Branch) from Guangxi, it runs 346 square kilometres
(134 sq mi). With the tributaries, the
Xiao River has a
drainage basin area of 12,094 square kilometres
(4,670 sq mi).
Xiao River (瀟水) flows into the Xiang near Changsha
Zheng River (蒸水) converges with the Xiang in Chengbei District
Lianshui River (涟水) and
Juan River (涓水) flows into the
Xiang near Hekou Town (河口镇), Xiangtan
Huanglong River (Chinese: 黄龙河), the northernmost one of
right-bank tributaries of
Changsha section; the river mouth is at
Zengzigang between Dalong of
Chating Town and Huashi of Tongguan
Subdistrict of Wangcheng District.
Shizhu River (Chinese: 石渚河), the river mouth is located at
Lanjiapo of Caitaoyuan Village, Tongguan Subdistrict, Wangcheng
Shahe River (Chinese: 沙河), the river mouth is located between
Fanshenyuan Village of
Wangcheng District and Xianinggang Community of
Laodao River (Chinese: 捞刀河), the river mouth is located at
Jiangwan (Chinese: 江湾) of Xiufeng Subdistrict, Kaifu District.
Liuyang River (Chinese: 浏阳河), the river mouth is located at
Xinhe Delta Mouth (Chinese: 新河三角洲) of Kaifu District.
Muyungang River (Chinese: 暮云港河), the southernmost one of
right-bank tributaries of
Changsha section; the river mouth is located
between Dawantang and Maziling of
Muyun Subdistrict, Tianxin District.
Wujia Creek (Chinese: 吴家港)
Lushui River (Chinese: 渌水), the river mouth is located in Lukou,
Mochuan River (Chinese: 漠川河)
Liulin River (Chinese: 柳林江), the northernmost one of left-bank
Changsha section; the river mouth is located between
Xiangyin County and Qiaokou of Wangcheng District.
Wei River (Chinese: 老沩水), the old Wei River, also known as
Yahe River (Chinese: 哑河), is a river system in the region of
Dazhong Batardeau (Chinese: 大众垸).
Wei River (Chinese: 沩水河), the largest left-bank tributary of
Changsha section of Xiang River; the river mouth is located in
Gaotangling Subdistrict of Wangcheng District.
Maqiao River (Chinese: 马桥河), the river mouth is located at
Congshugang (Chinese: 枞树港) of
Waterways of Daze Lake (Chinese: 大泽湖水系), including Daze Lake
and waterways, its main stream joins
Xiang River at Huilong Briage
Longwanggang River (Chinese: 龙王港), the river mouth is located at
Wangyuehu of Yuelu District.
Jin River (Chinese: 靳江河), the river mouth is located in the
south of the Yuelu Mountain, Yuelu District.
Waterways of Tongxi Creek (Chinese: 桐溪港水系)
Guanyin Creek (Chinese: 观音港)
Zhabu Creek (Chinese: 渣埠港)
Zhubu Creek (Chinese: 竹埠港)
Lianshui River (Chinese: 涟水)
Juan River (Chinese: 涓水)
Zijing River (Chinese: 紫荆河)
In the Chinese folk religion, the river is protected by the "Xiang
River goddesses" or "Xiang Consorts"
Ehuang and Nüying. They are said
to have been the daughters of the legendary ruler Yao and the wives of
his successor Shun. Unable to bear the pain of their husband's death,
they committed suicide in this river. An etiological myth relates the
spots on the spotted bamboo (斑竹), also known as the Xiang bamboo
(湘竹 or 湘江竹), Xiang Consort bamboo (湘妃竹), and teardrop
bamboo (淚竹), to the tears of the weeping consorts. They were
worshipped in some form by the people of Chu during the Warring States
and its poet
Qu Yuan is credited with writing the "Ladies Xiang"
(湘夫人) to document the ritual songs in their honor.
The late Tang Dynasty poet
Yu Wuling is supposed to have been fond of
the scenery along the Xiang River.
The classic Chinese novel
The Dream of the Red Chamber
The Dream of the Red Chamber includes a
Shi Xiangyun who takes one of the characters of her name
from the river.
Mao Zedong's Shian Kian Weekly Review, founded on 14 June 1919,
publicized Marxism in Changsha.
Major cities along the river
List of Chinese rivers
"Xiang River", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009 .
Ueki, Hisayuki; Uno, Naoto; Matsubara, Akira (1999). Matsuura,
Tomohisa, ed. Kanshi no Jiten 漢詩の事典 (in Japanese). 1. Tokyo:
Taishūkan Shoten. OCLC 41025662.
^ 长江支流: baidu.com or baike.com
^ a b c 湘江源头在湖南蓝山, 湘江干流全长948公里,
流域面积94,721平方公里 - The source stream of the Xiang is in
Lanshan County, the main river of the Xiang has length of 948
kilometres (589 mi) with a drainage basin area of rough 94,721
square kilometres (36,572 sq mi): hn.xinhuanet.com or
^ A misinformation of millennium of years for the source of Xiangjiang
River - 湘江源头，为何误传千年: voc.com.cn (22-May-13),
rednet.cn (24-Mar-15), ifeng.com (22-May-13), sohu.com (15-May-16),
^ The river basin area in Hunan, according to
Hunan 11th Five-year
Plan on Water Conservation -
湖南省“十一五”水利发展规划: fgw.hunan.gov.cn or
^ first national water census of China: chinadaily.com.cn (20-Dec-11)
or chinadaily.com.cn (18-Mar-11)
Xiang River in
Guangxi Reachers, according to the Guangxi
General Description (广西通志)/Geographica of Guangxi
(地理志)/Waters and Rivers (水系水文) - the
System (长江水系), see gxdqw.com (the
Yangtze River System in
Lingqu Canal (Xiang'an County,
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Qin
Dynasty) (Nomination for the UNESCO Heritage List)
^ Ueki et al. 1999, pp. 133–4.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xiang River.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xiangjiang River.
Xiang Jiang at GEOnet Names Server
Hunan University of Arts and Science
Hunan Normal University
Hunan Agricultural University
Culture of Hunan
Nü shu writing system
Avatar Hallelujah Mountain
Coordinates: 29°26′N 113°8′E / 29.433°N 113.133°E /
Major rivers of China
Seven Great Rivers of Eastern China
Yangtze · Yellow · Pearl · Heilongjiang · Huai · Hai · Liao
Other major rivers
Yarlung Tsangpo (Horse Spring)
North Jiangsu Main Irri