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Xenophon
Xenophon
of Athens (/ˈzɛnəfən, -ˌfɒn/; Greek: Ξενοφῶν Greek pronunciation: [ksenopʰɔ̂ːn], Xenophōn; c. 430–354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.[1] As a historian, Xenophon
Xenophon
is known for recording the history of his contemporary time, the late-5th and early-4th centuries BC, in such works as the Hellenica, about the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), a thematic continuation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. As one of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries), he also participated in Cyrus the Younger's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II of Persia
and recounted the events in Anabasis, his most notable history. Like Plato (427–347 BC), Xenophon
Xenophon
is an authority on Socrates, about whom he wrote several books of dialogues (the Memorabilia) and an Apology of Socrates
Socrates
to the Jury, which recounts the philosopher's trial in 399 BC. Despite being born an Athenian citizen, Xenophon
Xenophon
was also associated with Sparta, the traditional enemy of Athens. His pro-oligarchic politics, military service under Spartan generals, in the Persian campaign and elsewhere, and his friendship with King Agesilaus II endeared Xenophon
Xenophon
to the Spartans. Some of his works have a pro–Spartan bias, especially the royal biography Agesilaus and the Constitution of the Spartans. Xenophon's works span several genres and are written in plain-language Attic Greek, for which reason they serve as translation exercises for contemporary students of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
language. In the Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
observed that, as a writer, Xenophon
Xenophon
of Athens was known as the “Attic Muse”, for the sweetness of his diction (2.6).

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Early years 1.2 Anabasis

1.2.1 Expedition with Cyrus 1.2.2 Return

1.3 Exile and death

2 Xenophon's politics

2.1 Cyropaedia

2.1.1 Relations between Medes
Medes
and Persians in the Cyropaedia 2.1.2 Persians as centaurs 2.1.3 Against empire/monarchy 2.1.4 Against democracy

2.2 Constitution of the Spartans 2.3 Old Oligarch

3 Socratic works and dialogues

3.1 Relationship with Socrates 3.2 Socrates: Xenophon
Xenophon
vs. Plato 3.3 Historical reality 3.4 Modern reception

4 List of works

4.1 Historical and biographical works 4.2 Socratic works and dialogues

4.2.1 Defences of Socrates 4.2.2 Other Socratic dialogues 4.2.3 Tyrants

4.3 Short treatises

5 References

5.1 Citations 5.2 Bibliography

6 External links

Life[edit] Early years[edit] Xenophon
Xenophon
was born around 430 BC, near the city of Athens, to Gryllus, of the deme Erchia of Athens. His father's family were a wealthy equestrian family.[2] The history of his youth is little attested before 401 BC, when he was convinced by his Boeotian friend Proxenus (Anabasis 3.1.9) to participate in the military expedition led by Cyrus the Younger
Cyrus the Younger
against his elder brother, King Artaxerxes II of Persia. Anabasis[edit] Main article: Anabasis (Xenophon) Expedition with Cyrus[edit] Written years after these events, Xenophon's book Anabasis (Greek: ἀνάβασις, literally "going up")[3] is his record of the entire expedition of Cyrus against the Persians and the Greek mercenaries’ journey home. Xenophon
Xenophon
writes that he had asked the veteran Socrates
Socrates
for advice on whether to go with Cyrus, and that Socrates
Socrates
referred him to the divinely inspired Pythia. Xenophon's query to the oracle, however, was not whether or not to accept Cyrus' invitation, but "to which of the gods he must pray and do sacrifice, so that he might best accomplish his intended journey and return in safety, with good fortune". The oracle answered his question and told him to which gods to pray and sacrifice. When Xenophon
Xenophon
returned to Athens and told Socrates
Socrates
of the oracle's advice, Socrates
Socrates
chastised him for asking so disingenuous a question (Anabasis 3.1.5–7). Under the pretext of fighting Tissaphernes, the Persian satrap of Ionia, Cyrus assembled a massive army composed of native Persian soldiers, but also a large number of Greeks. Prior to waging war against Artaxerxes, Cyrus proposed that the enemy was the Pisidians, and so the Greeks were unaware that they were to battle against the larger army of King Artaxerxes II (Anabasis 1.1.8–11). At Tarsus the soldiers became aware of Cyrus's plans to depose the king, and as a result, refused to continue (Anabasis 1.3.1). However, Clearchus, a Spartan general, convinced the Greeks to continue with the expedition. The army of Cyrus met the army of Artaxerxes II in the Battle of Cunaxa. Despite effective fighting by the Greeks, Cyrus was killed in the battle (Anabasis 1.8.27–1.9.1). Shortly thereafter, Clearchus was invited to a peace conference, where, alongside four other generals and many captains, he was betrayed and executed (Anabasis 2.5.31–32). Return[edit]

Route of Xenophon
Xenophon
and the Ten Thousand

The mercenaries, known as the Ten Thousand, found themselves without leadership far from the sea, deep in hostile territory near the heart of Mesopotamia. They elected new leaders, including Xenophon
Xenophon
himself, and fought their way north along the Tigris
Tigris
through hostile Persians and Medes
Medes
to Trapezus on the coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
(Anabasis 4.8.22). They then made their way westward back to Greece
Greece
via Chrysopolis (Anabasis 6.3.16). Once there, they helped Seuthes II make himself king of Thrace, before being recruited into the army of the Spartan general Thibron. The Spartans were at war with Tissaphernes
Tissaphernes
and Pharnabazus II, Persian satraps in Anatolia, probably on account of the aforementioned treacherous slaughter of their general Clearchus. Xenophon’s military activity with these Spartans marks the final episodes of the Anabasis (Books 6–7). Exile and death[edit] Upon his return to Greece
Greece
proper, Xenophon
Xenophon
continued to associate with the Spartans and even fought under the Spartan king Agesilaus II against his native Athens in the Battle of Coronea in 394 BC.[4] Because of this, Xenophon
Xenophon
was exiled from Athens. There may have been contributory causes, such as his support for Socrates, as well as the fact that he had taken service with the Persians.[5] The Spartans gave him property at Scillus, near Olympia in Elis, where he likely composed the Anabasis.[6] Because his son Gryllus fought and died for Athens at the Battle of Mantinea in 362 BC, while Xenophon
Xenophon
was still alive, Xenophon's banishment may have been revoked. Nevertheless, after the Battle of Leuctra
Battle of Leuctra
in 371 and the end of Spartan hegemony, Xenophon
Xenophon
moved to Corinth or Athens where he died, around 355 BC;[7] historians know only that he survived his patron Agesilaus II, for whom he wrote an encomium which shared the Spartan king's name. Xenophon's politics[edit] Xenophon
Xenophon
has long been associated with the opposition of democracy.[8] Although Xenophon
Xenophon
seems to prefer oligarchy, or at least the aristocracy, especially in light of his associations with Sparta, none of his works explicitly attack democracy, unless his account of democratic proceedings in the Anabasis be interpreted as anti-democracy when deliberations are intimidated by cries of "pelt" if a speaker says something others disagree with. Some scholars[9] go so far as to say his views aligned with those of the democracy in his time. However, certain works of Xenophon, in particular the Cyropaedia, seem to show his oligarchic politics. This historical-fiction serves as a forum for Xenophon
Xenophon
to subtly display his political inclinations. Cyropaedia[edit] Relations between Medes
Medes
and Persians in the Cyropaedia[edit] Xenophon
Xenophon
wrote the Cyropaedia to outline his political and moral philosophy. He did this by endowing a fictional version of the Cyrus the Great, founder of the first Persian Empire, with the qualities of what Xenophon
Xenophon
considered the ideal ruler. Historians have asked whether Xenophon's portrait of Cyrus was accurate or if Xenophon imbued Cyrus with events from Xenophon's own life. The consensus is that Cyrus’s career is best outlined in the Histories of Herodotus. But Steven Hirsch writes, "Yet there are occasions when it can be confirmed from Oriental evidence that Xenophon
Xenophon
is correct where Herodotus
Herodotus
is wrong or lacks information. A case in point involves the ancestry of Cyrus."[10] Herodotus
Herodotus
contradicts Xenophon
Xenophon
at several other points, most notably in the matter of Cyrus’s relationship with the Median Kingdom. Herodotus
Herodotus
says that Cyrus led a rebellion against his maternal grandfather, Astyages
Astyages
king of Media, and defeated him, thereafter (improbably) keeping Astyages
Astyages
in his court for the remainder of his life (Histories 1.130). The Medes
Medes
were thus "reduced to subjection" (1.130) and became "slaves" (1.129) to the Persians 20 years before the capture of Babylon in 539 BC. The Cyropaedia relates instead that Astyages
Astyages
died and was succeeded by his son Cyaxares II, the maternal uncle of Cyrus (1.5.2). In the initial campaign against the Lydians, Babylonians and their allies, the Medians were led by Cyaxares and the Persians by Cyrus, who was crown prince of the Persians, since his father was still alive (4.5.17). Xenophon
Xenophon
relates that at this time the Medes
Medes
were the strongest of the kingdoms that opposed the Babylonians (1.5.2). There is an echo of this statement, verifying Xenophon
Xenophon
and contradicting Herodotus, in the Harran Stele, a document from the court of Nabonidus.[11] In the entry for year 14 or 15 of his reign (542-540 BC), Nabonidus
Nabonidus
speaks of his enemies as the kings of Egypt, the Medes, and the Arabs. There is no mention of the Persians, although according to Herodotus
Herodotus
and the current consensus the Medians had been made "slaves" of the Persians several years previously. It does not seem that Nabonidus
Nabonidus
would be completely misled about who his enemies were, or who was really in control over the Medes
Medes
and Persians just one to three years before his kingdom fell to their armies.

Bas-reliefs of Persian soldiers together with Median soldiers are prevalent in Persepolis. The ones with rounded caps are Median.

Other archaeological evidence supporting Xenophon’s picture of a confederation of Medes
Medes
and Persians, rather than a subjugation of the Medes
Medes
by the Persians, comes from the bas-reliefs in the stairway at Persepolis. These show no distinction in official rank or status between the Persian and Median nobility. Although Olmstead followed the consensus view that Cyrus subjugated the Medes, he nevertheless wrote, " Medes
Medes
were honored equally with Persians; they were employed in high office and were chosen to lead Persian armies."[12] A more extensive list of considerations related to the credibility of the Cyropaedia’s picture of the relationship between the Medes
Medes
and Persians is found on the Cyropaedia page. Both Herodotus
Herodotus
(1.123,214) and Xenophon
Xenophon
(1.5.1,2,4, 8.5.20) present Cyrus as about 40 years old when his forces captured Babylon. In the Nabonidus
Nabonidus
Chronicle, there is mention of the death of the wife of the king (name not given) within a month after the capture of Babylon.[13] It has been conjectured that this was Cyrus’s first wife, which lends credibility to the Cyropaedia’s statement (8.5.19) that Cyaxares II gave his daughter in marriage to Cyrus soon (but not immediately) after the fall of the city, with the kingdom of Media as her dowry. When Cyaxares died about two years later the Median kingdom passed peaceably to Cyrus, so that this would be the true beginning of the Medo- Persian Empire
Persian Empire
under just one monarch. Persians as centaurs[edit] The Cyropaedia as a whole lavishes a great deal of praise on the first Persian emperor, Cyrus the Great, on account of his virtue and leadership quality, and it was through his greatness that the Persian Empire held together. Thus this book is normally read as a positive treatise about Cyrus. However, following the lead of Leo Strauss, David Johnson suggests that there is a subtle but strong layer to the book in which Xenophon
Xenophon
conveys criticism of not only the Persians but the Spartans and Athenians as well.[14] In section 4.3 of the Cyropaedia Cyrus makes clear his desire to institute cavalry. He even goes so far to say that he desires that no Persian kalokagathos ("noble and good man" literally, or simply "noble") ever be seen on foot but always on a horse, so much so that the Persians may actually seem to be centaurs (4.3.22–23). Centaurs were often thought of as creatures of ill repute, which makes even Cyrus’ own advisors wary of the label. His minister Chrysantas admires the centaurs for their dual nature, but also warns that the dual nature does not allow centaurs to fully enjoy or act as either one of their aspects in full (4.3.19–20). In labelling Persians as centaurs through the mouth of Cyrus, Xenophon plays upon the popular post-Persian-war propagandistic paradigm of using mythological imagery to represent the Greco-Persian conflict. Examples of this include the wedding of the Lapiths, giantomachy, Trojan War, and Amazonomachy
Amazonomachy
on the Parthenon
Parthenon
frieze. Johnson reads even more deeply into the centaur label. He believes that the unstable dichotomy of man and horse found in a centaur is indicative of the unstable and unnatural alliance of Persian and Mede formulated by Cyrus.[15] The Persian hardiness and austerity is combined with the luxuriousness of the Medes, two qualities that cannot coexist. He cites the regression of the Persians directly after the death of Cyrus as a result of this instability, a union made possible only through the impeccable character of Cyrus.[16] In a further analysis of the centaur model, Cyrus is likened to a centaur such as Chiron, a noble example from an ignoble race. Thus this entire paradigm seems to be a jab at the Persians and an indication of Xenophon’s general distaste for the Persians. Against empire/monarchy[edit] The strength of Cyrus in holding the empire together is praiseworthy according to Xenophon. However, the empire began to decline upon the death of Cyrus. By this example Xenophon
Xenophon
sought to show that empires lacked stability and could only be maintained by a person of remarkable prowess, such as Cyrus.[17] Cyrus is idealized greatly in the narrative. Xenophon
Xenophon
displays Cyrus as a lofty, temperate man. This is not to say that he was not a good ruler, but he is depicted as surreal and not subject to the foibles of other men. By showing that only someone who is almost beyond human could conduct such an enterprise as empire, Xenophon
Xenophon
indirectly censures imperial design. Thus he also reflects on the state of his own reality in an even more indirect fashion, using the example of the Persians to decry the attempts at empire made by Athens and Sparta.[18] Although partially graced with hindsight, having written the Cyropaedia after the downfall of Athens in the Peloponnesian War, this work criticizes the Greek attempts at empire and "monarchy", dooming them to failure. Against democracy[edit] Another passage that Johnson cites as criticism of monarchy and empire concerns the devaluation of the homotīmoi. The manner in which this occurs seems also to be a subtle jab at democracy. Homotīmoi were highly and thoroughly educated and thus became the core of the soldiery as heavy infantry. As the name homotīmoi ("equal", or "same honours" i.e. "peers") suggests, their small band (1000 when Cyrus fought the Assyrians) shared equally in the spoils of war.[19] However, in the face of overwhelming numbers in a campaign against the Assyrians, Cyrus armed the commoners with similar arms instead of their normal light ranged armament ( Cyropaedia 2.1.9). Argument ensued as to how the spoils would now be split, and Cyrus enforced a meritocracy. Many homotīmoi found this unfair because their military training was no better than the commoners, only their education, and hand-to-hand combat was less a matter of skill than strength and bravery. As Johnson asserts, this passage decries imperial meritocracy and corruption, for the homotīmoi now had to sychophantize to the emperor for positions and honours;[20] from this point they were referred to as entīmoi, no longer of the "same honours" but having to be "in" to get the honour. On the other hand, the passage seems to be critical of democracy, or at least sympathetic to aristocrats within democracy, for the homotīmoi (aristocracy/oligarchs) are devalued upon the empowerment of the commoners (demos). Although empire emerges in this case, this is also a sequence of events associated with democracy. Through his dual critique of empire and democracy, Xenophon subtly relates his support of oligarchy. Constitution of the Spartans[edit] Main article: Polity of the Lacedaemonians The Spartans wrote nothing about themselves, or if they did it is lost. Therefore, what we know about them comes exclusively from outsiders like Xenophon. Xenophon’s affinity for the Spartans is clear in the Constitution of the Spartans, as well as his penchant for oligarchy. The opening line reads:

It occurred to me one day that Sparta, though among the most thinly populated of states, was evidently the most powerful and most celebrated city in Greece; and I fell to wondering how this could have happened. But when I considered the institutions of the Spartans, I wondered no longer.[21]

Xenophon
Xenophon
goes on to describe in detail the main aspects of Laconia, handing to us the most comprehensive extant analysis of the institutions of Sparta. Old Oligarch[edit] A short treatise on the Constitution of the Athenians exists that was once thought to be by Xenophon, but which was probably written when Xenophon
Xenophon
was about five years old. The author, often called in English the "Old Oligarch" or Pseudo-Xenophon, detests the democracy of Athens and the poorer classes, but he argues that the Periclean institutions are well designed for their deplorable purposes. Although the real Xenophon
Xenophon
seems to prefer oligarchy over democracy, none of his works so ardently decry democracy as does the Constitution of the Athenians. However, this treatise makes evident that anti-democratic sentiments were extant in Athens in the late 5th century BC and were only increased after its shortcomings were exploited and made apparent during the Peloponnesian War. Socratic works and dialogues[edit] Xenophon’s works includes a selection of Socratic dialogues; these writings are completely preserved. Except for the dialogues of Plato, they are the only surviving representatives of the genre of Socratic dialogue. These works include Xenophon's Apology, Memorabilia, Symposium, and Oeconomicus. The Symposium outlines the character of Socrates
Socrates
as he and his companions discuss what attribute they take pride in. In Oeconomicus, Socrates
Socrates
explains how to manage a household. Both the Apology and Memorabilia defend Socrates’ character and teachings. The former is set during the trial of Socrates, essentially defending Socrates’ loss and death, while the latter is a defence of Socrates, explaining his moral principles and that he was not a corrupter of the youth. Relationship with Socrates[edit] Xenophon
Xenophon
was a student of Socrates, and their personal relationship is evident through a conversation between the two in Xenophon’s Anabasis. In his Lives of Eminent Philosophers, the Greek biographer Diogenes Laertius reports how Xenophon
Xenophon
met Socrates. "They say that Socrates
Socrates
met [Xenophon] in a narrow lane, and put his stick across it and prevented him from passing by, asking him where all kinds of necessary things were sold. And when he had answered him, he asked him again where men were made good and virtuous. And as he did not know, he said, ‘Follow me, then, and learn.’ And from this time forth, Xenophon
Xenophon
became a follower of Socrates."[22] Diogenes Laertius also relates an incident "when in the battle of Delium Xenophon
Xenophon
had fallen from his horse" and Socrates
Socrates
reputedly "stepped in and saved his life."[23] Xenophon's admiration for his teacher is clear in writings such as Symposium, Apology, and Memorabilia. Xenophon
Xenophon
was away on his Persian campaign during the trial and death of Socrates. Nevertheless, much of Xenophon's Socratic writing, especially Apology, concerns that very trial and the defence Socrates
Socrates
put forward. Socrates: Xenophon
Xenophon
vs. Plato[edit] Both Plato
Plato
and Xenophon
Xenophon
wrote an Apology concerning the death of Socrates. The two writers seem more concerned about answering questions that arose after the trial than about the actual charges. In particular, Xenophon
Xenophon
and Plato
Plato
are concerned with the failures of Socrates
Socrates
to defend himself. The Socrates
Socrates
that Xenophon
Xenophon
portrayed was different from Plato’s in multiple respects. Xenophon
Xenophon
asserts that Socrates
Socrates
dealt with his prosecution in an exceedingly arrogant manner, or at least was perceived to have spoken arrogantly. Conversely, while not omitting it completely, Plato
Plato
worked to temper that arrogance in his own Apology. Xenophon
Xenophon
framed Socrates’ defense, which both men admit was not prepared at all, not as failure to effectively argue his side, but as striving for death even in the light of unconvincing charges. As Danzig interprets it, convincing the jury to condemn him even on unconvincing charges would be a rhetorical challenge worthy of the great persuader.[24] Xenophon
Xenophon
uses this interpretation as justification for Socrates’ arrogant stance and conventional failure. By contrast, Plato
Plato
does not go so far as to claim that Socrates
Socrates
actually desired death, but seems to argue that Socrates
Socrates
was attempting to demonstrate a higher moral standard and teach a lesson, although his defence failed by conventional standards. This places Socrates
Socrates
in a higher moral position than his prosecutors, a typical Platonic example of absolving " Socrates
Socrates
from blame in every conceivable way."[25] Historical reality[edit] Although Xenophon
Xenophon
claims to have been present at the Symposium, this is impossible as he was only a young boy at the date which he proposes it occurred. And again, Xenophon
Xenophon
was not present at the trial of Socrates, having been on campaign in Anatolia
Anatolia
and Mesopotamia. Thus he puts into the latter’s mouth what he would have thought him to say. It seems that Xenophon
Xenophon
wrote his Apology and Memorabilia as defences of his former teacher, not to explain Socrates' relationship to the actual charges incurred.[26] Modern reception[edit] Xenophon's standing as a political philosopher has been defended in recent times by Leo Strauss, who devoted a considerable part of his philosophic analysis to the works of Xenophon, returning to the high judgment of Xenophon
Xenophon
as a thinker expressed by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, Michel de Montaigne, Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Niccolò Machiavelli, Francis Bacon, John Milton, Jonathan Swift, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams. Xenophon’s lessons on leadership have been reconsidered for their modern-day value. Jennifer O’Flannery holds that "discussions of leadership and civic virtue should include the work of Xenophon....on public education for public service."[27] The Cyropaedia, in outlining Cyrus as an ideal leader having mastered the qualities of "education, equality, consensus, justice and service to state," is the work that she suggests be used as a guide or example for those striving to be leaders (see mirrors for princes). The linking of moral code and education is an especially pertinent quality subscribed to Cyrus that O’Flannery believes is in line with modern perceptions of leadership.[28] List of works[edit] Xenophon’s entire classical corpus is extant.[29] The following list of his works exhibits the extensive breadth of genres in which Xenophon
Xenophon
wrote. Historical and biographical works[edit]

Anabasis (also: The Persian Expedition or The March Up Country or The Expedition of Cyrus): Provides an early life biography of Xenophon. Anabasis was used as a field guide by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
during the early phases of his expedition into Persia. Cyropaedia (also: The Education of Cyrus) Hellenica: His Hellenica
Hellenica
is a major primary source for events in Greece
Greece
from 411 to 362 BC, and is considered to be the continuation of the History of the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
by Thucydides, going so far as to begin with the phrase "Following these events...". The Hellenica recounts the last seven years of the Peloponnesian war, as well as its aftermath. Agesilaus: The biography of Agesilaus II, king of Sparta
Sparta
and companion of Xenophon. Polity of the Lacedaemonians: Xenophon’s history and description of the Spartan government and institutions.

Socratic works and dialogues[edit] Defences of Socrates[edit]

Memorabilia: Collection of Socratic dialogues serving as a defense of Socrates
Socrates
outside of court. Apology: Xenophon's defence of Socrates
Socrates
in court.

Other Socratic dialogues[edit]

Oeconomicus: Socratic dialogue
Socratic dialogue
of a different sort, pertaining to household management. Symposium: Symposic literature in which Socrates
Socrates
and his companions discuss what they take pride in with respect to themselves.

Tyrants[edit]

Hiero: Dialogue about happiness between Hiero, the tyrant of Syracuse, and the lyric poet Simonides of Ceos.

Short treatises[edit] These works were probably written by Xenophon
Xenophon
when he was living in Scillus. His days were likely spent in relative leisure here, and he wrote these treatises about the sorts of activities he spent time on.

On Horsemanship: Treatise on how to break, train, and care for horses. Hipparchikos: Outlines the duties of a cavalry officer. Hunting with Dogs: Treatise on the proper methods of hunting with dogs and the advantages of hunting. Ways and Means: Describes how Athens should deal with financial and economic crisis.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Mercenary#Classic era ^ "Xenophon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 21 September 2009.  ^ ἀνάβασις, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ Lee, John (2005). Vernon, Alex, ed. "Xenophon's Anabasis and the Origins of Military Autobiography". Arms and the Self: War, the Military, and Autobiographical Discourse. Kent, OH: Kent State U Press. pp. 41–60.  ^ Lee, John (2005). Vernon, Alex, ed. "Xenophon's Anabasis and the Origins of Military Autobiography". Arms and the Self: War, the Military, and Autobiographical Discourse. Kent, OH: Kent State U Press. pp. 41–60.  ^ Lee, John (2005). Vernon, Alex, ed. "Xenophon's Anabasis and the Origins of Military Autobiography". Arms and the Self: War, the Military, and Autobiographical Discourse. Kent, OH: Kent State U Press. pp. 41–60.  ^ Lee, John (2005). Vernon, Alex, ed. "Xenophon's Anabasis and the Origins of Military Autobiography". Arms and the Self: War, the Military, and Autobiographical Discourse. Kent, OH: Kent State U Press. pp. 41–60.  ^ Gray, Xenophon, page 19 (preface): " Xenophon
Xenophon
has been called undemocratic in more contexts than can be mentioned." ISBN 9780199216185 ^ Farrell, Christopher A. 2012. "Laconism and Democracy: Re-reading the Lakedaimoniōn Politeia and Re-thinking Xenophon" in Joanne Paul ed., Governing Diversities, pp. 10–35, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ^ Steven W. Hirsch, "1001 Iranian Nights: History and Fiction in Xenophon’s Cyropaedia", in The Greek Historians: Literature and History: Papers Presented to A. E. Raubitschek. Saratoga CA: ANMA Libr, 1985, p. 80. ^ Pritchard, James B., ed. (1969). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (3rd ed.). Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. pp. 562–63.  ^ Olmsted, A. T. (1948). History of the Persian Empire. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. p. 37.  ^ Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p. 306b. ^ Johnson, D. M. 2005. "Persians as Centaurs in Xenophon’s ‘Cyropaedia’", Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol 135, No. 1, pp. 177–207. ^ Johnson, D. M. 2005. "Persians as Centaurs in Xenophon’s ‘Cyropaedia’", Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol 135, No. 1, pp. 177–207. ^ Johnson, D. M. 2005. "Persians as Centaurs in Xenophon’s ‘Cyropaedia’", Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol 135, No. 1, pp. 177–207. ^ Johnson, D. M. 2005. "Persians as Centaurs in Xenophon’s ‘Cyropaedia’", Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol 135, No. 1, pp. 177–207. ^ Johnson, D. M. 2005. "Persians as Centaurs in Xenophon’s ‘Cyropaedia’", Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol 135, No. 1, pp. 177–207 ^ Johnson, D. M. 2005. "Persians as Centaurs in Xenophon’s ‘Cyropaedia’", Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol 135, No. 1, pp. 177–207. ^ Johnson, D. M. 2005. "Persians as Centaurs in Xenophon’s ‘Cyropaedia’", Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol 135, No. 1, pp. 177–207. ^ "Xenophon, Constitution of the Lacedaimonians, chapter 1, section 1". www.perseus.tufts.edu.  ^ Laertius, Diogenes. "thegreatthinkers.org". Great Thinkers. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ Laertius, Diogenes. "Socrates". Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.  ^ Danzig, Gabriel. 2003. "Apologizing for Socrates: Plato
Plato
and Xenophon on Socrates’ Behavior in Court." Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 133, No. 2, pp. 281–321. ^ Danzig, Gabriel. 2003. "Apologizing for Socrates: Plato
Plato
and Xenophon on Socrates’ Behavior in Court." Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 133, No. 2, pp. 281–321. ^ Danzig, Gabriel. 2003. "Apologizing for Socrates: Plato
Plato
and Xenophon on Socrates’ Behavior in Court." Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 133, No. 2, pp. 281–321. ^ O’Flannery, Jennifer. 2003. "Xenophon’s (The Education of Cyrus) and Ideal Leadership Lessons for Modern Public Administration." Public Administration Quarterly. Vol. 27, No. 1/2, pp. 41–64. ^ O’Flannery, Jennifer. 2003. "Xenophon’s (The Education of Cyrus) and Ideal Leadership Lessons for Modern Public Administration." Public Administration Quarterly. Vol. 27, No. 1/2, pp. 41–64. ^ See for example the Landmark edition of Xenophon's Hellenika. In the preface Strassler writes (xxi), "Fifteen works were transmitted through antiquity under Xenophon's name, and fortunately all fifteen have come down to us".

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Bibliography[edit]

Bradley, Patrick J. "Irony and the Narrator in Xenophon's Anabasis", in Xenophon. Ed. Vivienne J. Gray. Oxford University Press, 2010 (ISBN 978-0-19-921618-5; ISBN 0-19-921618-5). Anderson, J.K. Xenophon. London: Duckworth, 2001 (paperback, ISBN 1-85399-619-X). Xénophon et Socrate: actes du colloque d'Aix-en-Provence (6–9 novembre 2003). Ed. par Narcy, Michel and Alonso Tordesillas. Paris: J. Vrin, 2008. 322 p. Bibliothèque d'histoire de la philosophie. Nouvelle série, ISBN 978-2-7116-1987-0. Dillery, John. Xenophon
Xenophon
and the History of His Times. London; New York: Routledge, 1995 (hardcover, ISBN 0-415-09139-X). Evans, R.L.S. "Xenophon" in The Dictionary of Literary Biography: Greek Writers. Ed.Ward Briggs. Vol. 176, 1997. Gray, V.J. "The Years 375 to 371 BC: A Case Study in the Reliability of Diodorus Siculus and Xenophon, The Classical Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 2. (1980), pp. 306–326. Gray, V. J., Xenophon
Xenophon
on Government. Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics. Cambridge University Press (2007). Higgins, William Edward. Xenophon
Xenophon
the Athenian: The Problem of the Individual and the Society of the "Polis". Albany: State University of New York Press, 1977 (hardcover, ISBN 0-87395-369-X). Hirsch, Steven W. The Friendship of the Barbarians: Xenophon
Xenophon
and the Persian Empire. Hanover; London: University Press of New England, 1985 (hardcover, ISBN 0-87451-322-7). Hutchinson, Godfrey. Xenophon
Xenophon
and the Art of Command. London: Greenhill Books, 2000 (hardcover, ISBN 1-85367-417-6). The Long March: Xenophon
Xenophon
and the Ten Thousand, edited by Robin Lane Fox. New Heaven, Connecticut; London: Yale University Press, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-10403-0). Kierkegaard, Søren A. The Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992 (ISBN 978-069-102072-3) Moles, J.L. " Xenophon
Xenophon
and Callicratidas", The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 114. (1994), pp. 70–84. Nadon, Christopher. Xenophon's Prince: Republic and Empire in the "Cyropaedia". Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: University of California Press, 2001 (hardcover, ISBN 0-520-22404-3). Nussbaum, G.B. The Ten Thousand: A Study in Social Organization and Action in Xenophon's "Anabasis". (Social and Economic Commentaries on Classical Texts; 4). Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967. Phillips, A.A & Willcock M.M. Xenophon
Xenophon
& Arrian On Hunting With Hounds, contains Cynegeticus original texts, translations & commentary. Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd., 1999 (paperback ISBN 0-85668-706-5). Pomeroy, Sarah, Xenophon, Oeconomicus: A social and historical commentary, with a new English translation. Clarendon Press, 1994. Rahn, Peter J. "Xenophon's Developing Historiography", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 102. (1971), pp. 497–508. Rood, Tim. The Sea! The Sea!: The Shout of the Ten Thousand in the Modern Imagination. London: Duckworth Publishing, 2004 (paperback, ISBN 0-7156-3308-2); Woodstock, New York; New York: The Overlook Press, (hardcover, ISBN 1-58567-664-0); 2006 (paperback, ISBN 1-58567-824-4). Strauss, Leo. Xenophon's Socrates. Ithaca, New York; London: Cornell University Press, 1972 (hardcover, ISBN 0-8014-0712-5); South Bend, Indiana: St. Augustines Press, 2004 (paperback, ISBN 1-58731-966-7). Stronk, J.P. The Ten Thousand in Thrace: An Archaeological and Historical Commentary on Xenophon's Anabasis, Books VI, iii–vi – VIII (Amsterdam Classical Monographs; 2). Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1995 (hardcover, ISBN 90-5063-396-X). Usher, S. "Xenophon, Critias and Theramenes", The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 88. (1968), pp. 128–135. Waterfield, Robin. Xenophon's Retreat: Greece, Persia and the End of the Golden Age. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-674-02356-0); London: Faber and Faber, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 978-0-571-22383-1). Xenophon, Cyropaedia, translated by Walter Miller. Harvard University Press, 1914, ISBN 978-0-674-99057-9, ISBN 0-674-99057-9 (Books 1–5) and ISBN 978-0-674-99058-6, ISBN 0-674-99058-7 (Books 5–8).

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Xenophon

Greek Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Ξενοφῶν

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Xenophon

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xenophon.

"Xenophon". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Graham Oliver's Xenophon
Xenophon
Homepage Xenophon's Education of Cyrus (Cyropaedia) Web directory Famous Quotes by Xenophon Sanders (1903) Ph D Thesis on The Cynegeticus Xenophon
Xenophon
at Somni

Online works

Works by Xenophon
Xenophon
at Perseus Digital Library  Laërtius, Diogenes (1925). "Socrates, with predecessors and followers: Xenophon". Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. 1:2. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew (Two volume ed.). Loeb Classical Library.  Links to English translations of Xenophon's works Leo Strauss' Seminar Transcripts on Xenophon
Xenophon
(1962, 1966); and an audio recording of the entire course on Xenophon's Oeconomicus
Oeconomicus
(1969) are available for reading, listening or download. Works by Xenophon
Xenophon
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Xenophon
Xenophon
at Internet Archive Works by Xenophon
Xenophon
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

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Anabasis Cyropaedia Hellenica Agesilaus Polity of the Lacedaemonians

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Constitution of the Athenians ('Old Oligarch')

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89597697 LCCN: n80036673 ISNI: 0000 0001 2321 2506 GND: 118635808 SELIBR: 233385 SUDOC: 027308367 BNF: cb11929460d (data) NDL: 00461553 NKC: jn19981002427 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV19634 BNE: XX1152

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