WOOD BUFFALO NATIONAL PARK is the largest National Park of
The park ranges in elevation from 183 m (600 ft) at the Little
Buffalo River to 945 m (3,100 ft) in the Caribou Mountains . The park
headquarters is located in Fort Smith , with a smaller satellite
Fort Chipewyan ,
This area was designated a
On June 28, 2013, the Royal Astronomical Society of
* 1 History
* 1.1 Before the park * 1.2 As a national park
* 2 Climate * 3 Wildlife * 4 Transportation * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links
BEFORE THE PARK
This region has been inhabited by human cultures since the end of the last ice age. Aboriginal peoples in this region have followed variations on the subarctic lifeway , based around hunting, fishing, and gathering . Situated at the junction of three major rivers used as canoe routes for trade — the Athabasca , Peace and the Slave Rivers — the region that later became the national park was well travelled for millennia.
In recorded times, the Dane-zaa (historically called the "Beaver tribe"), the Chipewyan people , the South Slavey ( Dene Tha'), and Woods Cree people are known to have inhabited, and sometimes quarrelled over, the region. The Dane-zaa, Chipewyan, and South Slavey speak (or spoke) languages from the Northern Athabaskan family which is also common in the regions to the north and west of the park, and call themselves the " Dene " collectively. The Cree, by contrast, are an Algonquian people and are thought to have migrated here from the east within the timeframe of recorded history.
Sometime after 1781 when a smallpox epidemic decimated the region, the two groups made a peace treaty at Peace Point through a ceremonial pipe ceremony. This is the origin of the name of the Peace River which flows through the region: the river became the boundary with the Dane-zaa to the North and the Cree to the South.
Peter Pond is believed to have passed through the region in
1785, likely the first European to do so, followed by Alexander
Mackenzie three years later. In 1788 fur trading posts were
Fort Chipewyan just east of the current boundaries of
the park and Fort Vermilion just to the west. And the Peace River,
which had long been used by the First Nations as a trade route, also
now also added to the growing network of canoe routes used in the
North American fur trade
AS A NATIONAL PARK
See also: History of bison conservation in
Established in 1922, the park was created on Crown land acquired the
Treaty 8 between
Between 1925 and 1928, over 6,000 plains bison were introduced to the
park, where they hybridized with the local wood bison, as well as
introducing bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis diseases into the
herd. Parks officials have since that time attempted to undo this
damage with successive culls of diseased animals. In 1957, however, a
disease-free, wood bison herd of 200 was discovered near Nyarling
river in Wood Buffalo National Park. In 1965, 23 of these bison were
relocated to the south side of
Elk Island National Park
In 1983, a 21-year lease was granted to Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
to log a 50,000 hectare area of Wood Buffalo National Park. A lawsuit
was filed by the
Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society against Parks
In the park, summers are very short, but days are long. Temperatures range between 10 to 30 °C (50.0 to 86.0 °F) during this season. On average, summers are characterized by warm and dry days although in some years, it can have cool and wet days. The mean high in July is 22.5 °C (72.5 °F) while the mean low is 9.5 °C (49.1 °F). Fall tends to have cool, windy and dry days in which the first snowfall usually occurs in October. Winters are cold with temperatures that can drop below −40 °C (−40.0 °F) in January and February, the coldest months. The mean high in January is −21.7 °C (−7.1 °F) while the mean low is −31.8 °C (−25.2 °F). In spring, temperatures gradually warm up as the days become longer.
Wood Buffalo National Park contains a large variety of wildlife species, such as moose , bison , great grey owls , black bears , hawks , spotted owls , wolf packs, lynxes , beavers , snowy owls , marmots , bald eagles , martens , wolverines , peregrine falcons , whooping cranes , snowshoe hares , sandhill cranes , ruffed grouses , and the world's northernmost population of red-sided garter snakes , which form communal dens within the park.
Wood Buffalo Park contains the only natural nesting habitat for the endangered whooping crane . Known as Whooping Crane Summer Range , it is classified as a Ramsar site . It was identified through the International Biological Program . The range is a complex of contiguous water bodies, primarily lakes and various wetlands , such as marshes and bogs , but also includes streams and ponds.
In 2007, the world's largest beaver dam – about 850-metre (2,790 ft) in length – was discovered in the park using satellite imagery; The dam, located at 58°16.3′N 112°15.1′W / 58.2717°N 112.2517°W / 58.2717; -112.2517 , about 200 kilometres (120 mi) from Fort Chipewyan , had only been sighted by satellite and fixed-wing aircraft until July 2014.
Year-round access is available to Fort Smith by road on the Mackenzie
Highway , which connects to Highway 5 near Hay River, Northwest
Territories . Commercial flights are available to Fort Smith and Fort
Location and extent *
American white pelicans at Rapids of the Drowned ( Slave River ) *
Beaver lodge *
* Geography of
* List of mountains in
* ^ "World\'s largest beaver dam". Parks Canada–Wood Buffalo
National Park. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
* ^ Johnston, Karl. "Heaven Below Me – Exploring Wood Buffalo
National Park from the Air". Let's Be Wild. Retrieved 16 November
* ^ Rollins, John (2004). Caves Of The Canadian Rockies And
Columbia Mountains. Surrey, Canada: Rocky Mountain Books. ISBN
978-0-92110-294-6 . Retrieved 25 May 2015.
* ^ "Wood Buffalo National Park: Statement of Significance". UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
* ^ Thompson, Deborah (2 August 2013). "RASC Designates Wood
Buffalo National Park as a New Dark Sky Preserve" (Press release).
Toronto, Canada. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
* ^ Sandlos, John (2013). "Northern bison sanctuary or big ranch?
Wood Buffalo National Park". Arcadia Project. Environment & Society
Portal. ISSN 2199-3408 . Retrieved 25 May 2015.
* ^ Boyd, David R. (2004). Unnatural Law: Rethinking Canadian
Environmental Law and Policy. Vancouver: UBC Press, University of
British Columbia. ISBN 0-7748-1048-3 .
* ^ A B C D E F G H "Wood
Buffalo National Park Weather". Parks
Canada. Retrieved August 22, 2015.
* ^ Kleiss, Karen (6 May 2010). "Giant beaver pond visible from
The Vancouver Sun
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