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William Bradford Shockley Jr. (/ˈʃɑːkli/; February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. Shockley was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs
Bell Labs
that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. The three scientists were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
for "their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect." Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's "Silicon Valley" becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation. In his later life, Shockley was a professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University
Stanford University
and became a proponent of eugenics.[1][2]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career

2.1 Development of the transistor 2.2 Shockley Semiconductor

3 Political views 4 Personal life

4.1 Death

5 Honors 6 Patents 7 Bibliography

7.1 Prewar scientific articles by Shockley 7.2 Books by Shockley

8 Notes

8.1 Other notes

9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life and education[edit] Shockley was born in London, to American parents, and raised in his family's hometown of Palo Alto, California
Palo Alto, California
from the age of three.[3] His father, William Hillman Shockley, was a mining engineer who speculated in mines for a living and spoke eight languages. His mother, Mary (née Bradford), grew up in the American West, graduated from Stanford University
Stanford University
and became the first female US Deputy mining surveyor.[4] Shockley earned his Bachelor of Science degree from Caltech
Caltech
in 1932 and a PhD from MIT
MIT
in 1936. The title of his doctoral thesis was Electronic Bands in Sodium Chloride, a topic suggested by his thesis advisor, John C. Slater.[5] After receiving his doctorate, Shockley joined a research group headed by Clinton Davisson
Clinton Davisson
at Bell Labs
Bell Labs
in New Jersey. The next few years were productive for Shockley. He published a number of fundamental papers on solid state physics in Physical Review. In 1938, he got his first patent, "Electron Discharge Device", on electron multipliers.[6] Career[edit] When World War II
World War II
broke out, Shockley became involved in radar research at Bell Labs
Bell Labs
in Manhattan
Manhattan
(New York City). In May 1942, he took leave from Bell Labs
Bell Labs
to become a research director at Columbia University's Anti-Submarine Warfare Operations Group.[7] This involved devising methods for countering the tactics of submarines with improved convoying techniques, optimizing depth charge patterns, and so on. This project required frequent trips to the Pentagon and Washington, where Shockley met many high-ranking officers and government officials. In 1944, he organized a training program for B-29
B-29
bomber pilots to use new radar bomb sights. In late 1944 he took a three-month tour to bases around the world to assess the results. For this project, Secretary of War Robert Patterson awarded Shockley the Medal for Merit
Medal for Merit
on October 17, 1946.[8] In July 1945, the War Department asked Shockley to prepare a report on the question of probable casualties from an invasion of the Japanese mainland. Shockley concluded:

If the study shows that the behavior of nations in all historical cases comparable to Japan's has in fact been invariably consistent with the behavior of the troops in battle, then it means that the Japanese dead and ineffectives at the time of the defeat will exceed the corresponding number for the Germans. In other words, we shall probably have to kill at least 5 to 10 million Japanese. This might cost us between 1.7 and 4 million casualties including 400,000 to 800,000 killed.[9]

This report influenced the decision of the United States
United States
to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which precipitated the unconditional surrender of Japan.[10] Shockley was the first physicist to propose a lognormal distribution to model the creation process for scientific research papers.[11] Development of the transistor[edit] Shortly after the war ended in 1945, Bell Labs
Bell Labs
formed a solid-state physics group, led by Shockley and chemist Stanley Morgan, which included John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, physicist Gerald Pearson, chemist Robert Gibney, electronics expert Hilbert Moore, and several technicians. Their assignment was to seek a solid-state alternative to fragile glass vacuum tube amplifiers. Its first attempts were based on Shockley's ideas about using an external electrical field on a semiconductor to affect its conductivity. These experiments failed every time in all sorts of configurations and materials. The group was at a standstill until Bardeen suggested a theory that invoked surface states that prevented the field from penetrating the semiconductor. The group changed its focus to study these surface states and they met almost daily to discuss the work. The rapport of the group was excellent, and ideas were freely exchanged.[12] By the winter of 1946 they had enough results that Bardeen submitted a paper on the surface states to Physical Review. Brattain started experiments to study the surface states through observations made while shining a bright light on the semiconductor's surface. This led to several more papers (one of them co-authored with Shockley), which estimated the density of the surface states to be more than enough to account for their failed experiments. The pace of the work picked up significantly when they started to surround point contacts between the semiconductor and the conducting wires with electrolytes. Moore built a circuit that allowed them to vary the frequency of the input signal easily. Finally they began to get some evidence of power amplification when Pearson, acting on a suggestion by Shockley, put a voltage on a droplet of glycol borate (a viscous chemical that did not evaporate, commonly used in electrolytic capacitors, and obtained by puncturing an example capacitor with a nail, using a hammer) placed across a P-N junction.[13]

John Bardeen, William Shockley
William Shockley
and Walter Brattain
Walter Brattain
at Bell Labs, 1948.

Bell Labs' attorneys soon discovered Shockley's field effect principle had been anticipated and devices based on it patented in 1930 by Julius Lilienfeld, who filed his MESFET-like patent in Canada on October 22, 1925.[14][15] Although the patent appeared "breakable" (it could not work) the patent attorneys based one of its four patent applications only on the Bardeen-Brattain point contact design. Three others (submitted first) covered the electrolyte-based transistors with Bardeen, Gibney and Brattain as the inventors. Shockley's name was not on any of these patent applications. This angered Shockley, who thought his name should also be on the patents because the work was based on his field effect idea. He even made efforts to have the patent written only in his name, and told Bardeen and Brattain of his intentions.[16] Shockley, angered by not being included on the patent applications, secretly continued his own work to build a different sort of transistor based on junctions instead of point contacts; he expected this kind of design would be more likely to be commercially viable. The point contact transistor, he believed, would prove to be fragile and difficult to manufacture. Shockley was also dissatisfied with certain parts of the explanation for how the point contact transistor worked and conceived of the possibility of minority carrier injection. On February 13, 1948 another team member, John N. Shive, built a point contact transistor with bronze contacts on the front and back of thin wedge of germanium, proving that holes could diffuse through bulk germanium and not just along the surface as previously thought.[17]:153[18]:145 Shive's invention sparked[19] Shockley's invention of the junction transistor.[17]:143 A few months later he invented an entirely new, considerably more robust, type of transistor with a layer or 'sandwich' structure. This structure went on to be used for the vast majority of all transistors into the 1960s, and evolved into the bipolar junction transistor. Shockley later admitted that the workings of the team were "mixture of cooperation and competition." He also admitted that he kept some of his own work secret until his "hand was forced" by Shive's 1948 advance.[20] Shockley worked out a rather complete description of what he called the "sandwich" transistor, and a first proof of principle was obtained on April 7, 1949. Meanwhile, Shockley worked on his magnum opus, Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors which was published as a 558-page treatise in 1950. The tome included Shockley's critical ideas of drift and diffusion and the differential equations that govern the flow of electrons in solid state crystals. Shockley's diode equation is also described. This seminal work became the reference text for other scientists working to develop and improve new variants of the transistor and other devices based on semiconductors.[21] This resulted in his invention of the bipolar "junction transistor", which was announced at a press conference on July 4, 1951.[22] In 1951, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He was forty-one years old; this was rather young for such an election. Two years later, he was chosen as the recipient of the prestigious Comstock Prize[23] for Physics by the NAS, and was the recipient of many other awards and honors. The ensuing publicity generated by the "invention of the transistor" often thrust Shockley to the fore, much to the chagrin of Bardeen and Brattain. Bell Labs
Bell Labs
management, however, consistently presented all three inventors as a team. Though Shockley would correct the record where reporters gave him sole credit for the invention,[24] he eventually infuriated and alienated Bardeen and Brattain, and he essentially blocked the two from working on the junction transistor. Bardeen began pursuing a theory for superconductivity and left Bell Labs in 1951. Brattain refused to work with Shockley further and was assigned to another group. Neither Bardeen nor Brattain had much to do with the development of the transistor beyond the first year after its invention.[25] Shockley Semiconductor[edit] Main article: Shockley Semiconductor
Shockley Semiconductor
Laboratory In 1956 Shockley moved from New Jersey to Mountain View, California
Mountain View, California
to start Shockley Semiconductor
Shockley Semiconductor
Laboratory to live closer to his ailing mother in Palo Alto, California.[26][27] The company, a division of Beckman Instruments, Inc., was the first establishment working on silicon semiconductor devices in what came to be known as Silicon Valley. "His way" could generally be summed up as domineering and increasingly paranoid. In one well-known incident, he claimed that a secretary's cut thumb was the result of a malicious act and he demanded lie detector tests to find the culprit, when in reality, the secretary had simply grabbed at a door handle that happened to have an exposed tack on it for the purpose of hanging paper notes on.[28] After he received the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in 1956 his demeanor changed, as evidenced in his increasingly autocratic, erratic and hard-to-please management style.[29] In late 1957, eight of Shockley's researchers, who would come to be known as the "traitorous eight", resigned after Shockley decided not to continue research into silicon-based semiconductors.[30] They went on to form Fairchild Semiconductor, a loss from which Shockley Semiconductor
Shockley Semiconductor
never recovered. Over the course of the next 20 years, more than 65 new enterprises would end up having employee connections back to Fairchild.[31] A group of about thirty colleagues who had met on and off since 1956 met again at Stanford in 2002 to reminisce about their time with Shockley and his central role in sparking the information technology revolution. The group's organizer said, "Shockley is the man who brought silicon to Silicon Valley."[32] Political views[edit] See also: Flynn effect
Flynn effect
and History of the race and intelligence controversy Late in his life, Shockley became intensely interested in questions of race, human intelligence, and eugenics. He thought this work was important to the genetic future of the human species and he came to describe it as the most important work of his career, even though expressing his views damaged his reputation. Shockley argued that a higher rate of reproduction among the less intelligent was having a dysgenic effect, and that a drop in average intelligence would ultimately lead to a decline in civilization. With regard to racial differences he used the following standard phrase, e.g., on a debate with Afro-centrist Frances Welsing
Frances Welsing
and on Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr.:

My research leads me inescapably to the opinion that the major cause of the American Negro's intellectual and social deficits is hereditary and racially genetic in origin and, thus, not remediable to a major degree by practical improvements in the environment.[33]

Shockley's published writings and lectures to scientific organizations on this topic were partly based on the writings of psychologist Cyril Burt and were funded by the Pioneer Fund. Shockley also proposed that individuals with IQs below 100 be paid to undergo voluntary sterilization.[34] Anthropologist Roger Pearson, whose writings are based on an evolutionary and racialist[35] approach, has defended Shockley in a self-published book co-authored with Shockley.[36] University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee professor Edgar G. Epps[37] argued that "William Shockley's position lends itself to racist interpretations".[38] In 1981 he filed a libel suit against the Atlanta Constitution
Atlanta Constitution
after a science writer, Roger Witherspoon, compared Shockley's advocacy of a voluntary sterilization program to Nazi experiments on Jews. The suit took three years to go to trial. Shockley won the suit but received only one dollar in actual damages[39] and no punitive damages. Shockley's biographer Joel Shurkin, a science writer on the staff of Stanford University
Stanford University
during those years, sums this up as saying that the statement was defamatory, but Shockley's reputation was not worth much by the time the trial reached a verdict.[40] Shockley taped his telephone conversations with reporters, and then sent the transcript to them by registered mail. At one point he toyed with the idea of making them take a simple quiz on his work before discussing the subject with them. His habit of saving all his papers (including laundry lists) provides abundant documentation for researchers on his life.[41] Personal life[edit] While still a student, Shockley married Jean Bailey at age 23 in August 1933. In March 1934, the couple had a daughter, Alison. Shockley became an accomplished rock climber, going often to the Shawangunks
Shawangunks
in the Hudson River Valley, where he pioneered a route across an overhang, known to this day as "Shockley's Ceiling."[13] Shockley was popular as a speaker, lecturer, and an amateur magician. He once "magically" produced a bouquet of roses at the end of his address before the American Physical Society. He was also known in his early years for his elaborate practical jokes.[42] Shockley donated sperm to the Repository for Germinal Choice, a sperm bank founded by Robert Klark Graham in hopes of spreading humanity's best genes. The bank, called by the media the " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
sperm bank," claimed to have three Nobel Prize-winning donors, though Shockley was the only one to publicly acknowledge his donation to the sperm bank. However, Shockley's controversial views brought the Repository for Germinal Choice a degree of notoriety and may have discouraged other Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners from donating sperm.[43] When Shockley was eased out of the directorship of Shockley Semiconductor, he joined Stanford University, where in 1963 he was appointed the Alexander M. Poniatoff Professor of Engineering and Applied Science, in which position he remained until his retirement as professor emeritus in 1975.[44] Death[edit] Shockley died of prostate cancer in 1989 at the age of 79.[45] At the time of his death, he was almost completely estranged from most of his friends and family, except his second wife, the former Emmy Lanning (1913–2007). His children reportedly learned of his death by reading newspapers.[46] Shockley is interred at Alta Mesa Memorial Park
Alta Mesa Memorial Park
in Palo Alto, California. Honors[edit]

National Medal of Merit, for his war work in 1946.[8] Comstock Prize in Physics of the National Academy of Sciences in 1953.[47] First recipient of the Oliver E. Buckley Solid State Physics Prize of the American Physical Society
American Physical Society
in 1953. Co-recipient of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in physics in 1956, along with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. In his Nobel lecture, he gave full credit to Brattain and Bardeen as the inventors of the point-contact transistor. The three of them, together with wives and guests, had a rather raucous late-night champagne-fueled party to celebrate together. Holley Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
in 1963. Wilhelm Exner Medal
Wilhelm Exner Medal
in 1963.[48] Honorary science doctorates from the University of Pennsylvania, Rutgers University in New Jersey, and Gustavus Adolphus Colleges in Minnesota. IEEE Medal of Honor from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 1980. Named by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Listed at #3 on the Boston Globe's 2011 MIT150 list of the top 150 innovators and ideas in the 150-year history of MIT.

Patents[edit] Shockley was granted over ninety US patents. Some notable ones are:

US 2502488  Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Amplifier. Apr. 4, 1950; his first granted patent involving transistors. US 2569347  Circuit element utilizing semiconductive material. Sept. 25, 1951; His earliest applied for (June 26, 1948) patent involving transistors. US 2655609  Bistable Circuits. Oct. 13, 1953; Used in computers. US 2787564  Forming Semiconductive Devices by Ionic Bombardment. Apr. 2, 1957; The diffusion process for implantation of impurities. US 3031275  Process for Growing Single Crystals. Apr. 24, 1962; Improvements on process for production of basic materials. US 3053635  Method of Growing Silicon Carbide Crystals. Sept. 11, 1962; Exploring other semiconductors.

Bibliography[edit] Prewar scientific articles by Shockley[edit]

An Electron Microscope for Filaments: Emission and Adsorption by Tungsten Single Crystals, R. P. Johnson and W. Shockley, Phys. Rev. 49, 436 - 440 (1936) doi:10.1103/PhysRev.49.436 Optical Absorption by the Alkali Halides, J. C. Slater and W. Shockley, Phys. Rev. 50, 705 - 719 (1936) doi:10.1103/PhysRev.50.705 Electronic Energy Bands in Sodium Chloride, William Shockley, Phys. Rev. 50, 754 - 759 (1936) doi:10.1103/PhysRev.50.754 The Empty Lattice Test of the Cellular Method in Solids, W. Shockley, Phys. Rev. 52, 866 - 872 (1937) doi:10.1103/PhysRev.52.866 On the Surface States Associated with a Periodic Potential, William Shockley, Phys. Rev. 56, 317 - 323 (1939) doi:10.1103/PhysRev.56.317 The Self-Diffusion of Copper, J. Steigman, W. Shockley and F. C. Nix, Phys. Rev. 56, 13 - 21 (1939) doi:10.1103/PhysRev.56.13

Books by Shockley[edit]

Shockley, William – Electrons and holes in semiconductors, with applications to transistor electronics, Krieger (1956) ISBN 0-88275-382-7. Shockley, William and Gong, Walter A – Mechanics Charles E. Merrill, Inc. (1966). Shockley, William and Pearson, Roger – Shockley on Eugenics
Eugenics
and Race: The Application of Science to the Solution of Human
Human
Problems Scott-Townsend (1992) ISBN 1-878465-03-1.

Notes[edit]

^ Saxon 1989 ^ Sparks, Hogan & Linville 1991, pp. 130–132 ^ "IEEE Xplore Full-Text PDF:". ieeexplore.ieee.org.  ^ Shurkin 2006, p. 5 ^ Shurkin 2006, pp. 38–39 ^ Shurkin 2006, p. 48 ^ Broken Genius p. 65–67 ^ a b Shurkin 2006, p. 85 ^ Giangreco 1997, p. 568 ^ Newman, Robert P. (1998). "Hiroshima and the Trashing of Henry Stimson". The New England
England
Quarterly. 71 (1): 27. doi:10.2307/366722.  ^ The Artful Universe by John D. Barrow, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995, p. 239 ^ Brattain quoted in Crystal Fire p. 127 ^ a b Crystal Fire p.132 ^ CA 272437  "Electric current control mechanism", first filed in Canada on 22 October 1925 ^ Lilienfeld Archived October 2, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "William Shockley". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 18 July 2011.  ^ a b Michael Riordan & Lillian Hoddeson. Crystal fire: the invention of the transistor and the birth of the information age. ISBN 978-0-393-31851-7.  ^ Hoddeson, Lillian; Daitch, Vicki (2002). True genius: the life and science of John Bardeen : the only winner of two Nobel prizes in physics. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 0-309-08408-3. Retrieved 30 December 2014. Lay summary – American Scientist (30 December 2014).  ^ Brittain 1984, p. 1695 "an observation that William Shockley interpreted as confirmation of his concept of that junction transistor" ^ "Inventors of the transistor followed diverse paths after 1947 discovery". Associated press - Bangor Daily news. December 25, 1987. Retrieved May 6, 2012. 'mixture of cooperation and competition' and 'Shockley, eager to make his own contribution, said he kept some of his own work secret until "my hand was forced" in early 1948 by an advance reported by John Shive, another Bell Laboratories researcher'  ^ Broken Genius, p 121-122 ^ "1951 - First grown-junction transistors fabricated". Computer History Museum. 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ "Comstock Prize".  ^ ScienCentral, ScienCentral. "Bill Shockley, Part 3 of 3". www.pbs.org.  ^ Crystal Fire p. 278 ^ "Holding On". New York Times. April 6, 2008. Retrieved 2014-12-07. In 1955, the physicist William Shockley
William Shockley
set up a semiconductor laboratory in Mountain View, partly to be near his mother in Palo Alto. ...  ^ "Two Views of Innovation, Colliding in Washington". New York Times. January 13, 2008. Retrieved 2014-12-07. The co-inventor of the transistor and the founder of the valley's first chip company, William Shockley, moved to Palo Alto, Calif., because his mother lived there. ...  ^ Crystal Fire p. 247 ^ PBS program - American Experience (2012) 'Silicon Valley' ^ Goodheart, 2006 & "Fed up with their boss, eight lab workers walked off the job on this day in Mountain View, Calif. Their employer, William Shockley, had decided not to continue research into silicon-based semiconductors; frustrated, they decided to undertake the work on their own. The researchers — who would become known as 'the traitorous eight' — went on to invent the microprocessor (and to found Intel, among other companies). ^ Gregory Gromov. "A legal bridge spanning 100 years: from the gold mines of El Dorado to the "golden" startups of Silicon Valley".  ^ Dawn Levy (22 October 2002). "William Shockley: still controversial, after all these years" (Press release). Stanford University.  ^ "Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr.: Shockley's Thesis (Episode S0145, Recorded on June 10, 1974)". Retrieved 17 September 2017.  ^ BOYER, EDWARD J. (14 August 1989). "Controversial Nobel Laureate Shockley Dies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 May 2015.  ^ "Evolution cannot occur unless 'favorable' genes are segregated out from amongst 'unfavorable" genetic formulae' [...] any population that adopts a perverted or dysgenic form of altruism – one which encourages a breeding community to breed disproportionately those of its members who are genetically handicapped rather than from those who are genetically favored, or which aids rival breeding populations to expand while restricting its own birthrate – is unlikely to survive into the definite future." – Pearson, Roger (1995b). "The Concept of Heredity in Western Thought: Part Three, the Revival of Interest in Genetics," The Mankind Quarterly, 36, pp. 96, 98." ^ Pearson, Roger (1992). Shockley on Eugenics
Eugenics
and Race, pg. 15–49. Scott-Townsend Publishers. ISBN 1-878465-03-1 ^ "Bio of Edgar Epps". education.illinois.edu. University of Illinois. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ Epps, Edgar G (February 1973). "Racism, Science, and the I.Q." Integrated Education. 11 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1080/0020486730110105.  ^ Kessler, Ronald. "Absent at the Creation; How one scientist made off with the biggest invention since the light bulb". Archived from the original on 2015-02-24.  ^ Shurkin 2006, pp. 259–260 "Essentially, the jury agreed that Witherspoon's column met the standards of defamation, but that by then, Shockley's reputation wasn't worth very much." ^ Shurkin 2006, p. 286 ^ Crystal Fire p. 45 ^ Polly Morrice (2005-07-03). "The Genius Factory: Test-Tube Superbabies". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-12.  ^ Crystal Fire p.277 ^ "William B. Shockley, 79, Creator of Transistor
Transistor
and Theory on Race". New York Times. 14 August 1989. Retrieved 2007-07-21. He drew further scorn when he proposed financial rewards for the genetically disadvantaged if they volunteered for sterilization.  ^ ScienCentral, Inc., and The American Institute of Physics (1999). " William Shockley
William Shockley
(Part 3 of 3): Confusion over Credit". Retrieved 1 January 2015. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Comstock Prize in Physics". National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2011.  ^ Editor, ÖGV. (2015). Wilhelm Exner Medal. Austrian Trade Association. ÖGV. Austria.

Other notes[edit]

Park, Lubinski & Benbow 2010, "There were two young boys, Luis Alvarez and William Shockley, who were among the many who took Terman's tests but missed the cutoff score. Despite their exclusion from a study of young 'geniuses,' both went on to study physics, earn PhDs, and win the Nobel prize." Leslie 2000, "We also know that two children who were tested but didn't make the cut -- William Shockley
William Shockley
and Luis Alvarez -- went on to win the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics. According to Hastorf, none of the Terman kids ever won a Nobel or Pulitzer." Shurkin 2006, p. 13 (See also "The Truth About the 'Termites'" Kaufman, S. B. 2009) Simonton 1999, p. 4 "When Terman first used the IQ test to select a sample of child geniuses, he unknowingly excluded a special child whose IQ did not make the grade. Yet a few decades later that talent received the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in physics: William Shockley, the cocreator of the transistor. Ironically, not one of the more than 1,500 children who qualified according to his IQ criterion received so high an honor as adults." Eysenck 1998, pp. 127–128 "Terman, who originated those 'Genetic Studies of Genius', as he called them, selected ... children on the basis of their high IQs; the mean was 151 for both sexes. Seventy-seven who were tested with the newly translated and standardized Binet test had IQs of 170 or higher—well at or above the level of Cox's geniuses. What happened to these potential geniuses—did they revolutionize society? ... The answer in brief is that they did very well in terms of achievement, but none reached the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
level, let alone that of genius. ... It seems clear that these data powerfully confirm the suspicion that intelligence is not a sufficient trait for truly creative achievement of the highest grade."

References[edit]

Brittain, J.E. (1984). "Becker and Shive on the transistor". Proceedings of the IEEE. 72 (12): 1695. doi:10.1109/PROC.1984.13075. ISSN 0018-9219. Retrieved 2 January 2015. an observation that William Shockley
William Shockley
interpreted as confirmation of his concept of that junction transistor  Eysenck, Hans (1998). Intelligence: A New Look. New Brunswick (NJ): Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7658-0707-6.  Giangreco, D. M. (1997). "Casualty Projections for the U.S. Invasions of Japan, 1945-1946: Planning and Policy Implications". Journal of Military History. 61 (3): 521. doi:10.2307/2954035. ISSN 0899-3718.  Goodheart, Adam (2 July 2006). "10 Days That Changed History". New York Times. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  Leslie, Mitchell (July–August 2000). "The Vexing Legacy of Lewis Terman". Stanford Magazine. Retrieved 5 June 2013.  Park, Gregory; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P. (2 November 2010). "Recognizing Spatial Intelligence". Scientific American. Retrieved 5 June 2013.  Shurkin, Joel (2006). Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-8815-7. Lay summary (2 June 2013).  Simonton, Dean Keith (1999). Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512879-6. Lay summary (14 August 2010).  Riordan, Michael; Hoddeson, Lillian (1997). Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor
Transistor
and the Birth of the Information Age. Sloan Technology Series. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04124-8. Lay summary – Technology and Culture review by Arthur P. Molella (10 December 2014).  Saxon, Wolfgang (14 August 1989). "William B. Shockley, 79, Creator of Transistor
Transistor
and Theory on Race". New York Times. Retrieved 2 January 2015. He drew further scorn when he proposed financial rewards for the genetically disadvantaged if they volunteered for sterilization.  Shockley, William (1952). "Contributors to Proceedings of the I.R.E.". Proceedings of the I.R.E.: 1611.  http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=04050875 Sparks, Morgan; Hogan, Lester; Linville, John (1991). "[Obituary:] William Shockley". Physics Today. 44 (6): 130–132. Bibcode:1991PhT....44f.130S. doi:10.1063/1.2810155. ISSN 0031-9228.  Tucker, William H. (2007) [first published 2002]. The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9. Lay summary (10 December 2014). 

Further reading[edit]

Riordan, Michael; Hoddeson, Lillian (1997). Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor
Transistor
and the Birth of the Information Age. Sloan Technology Series. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04124-8. Lay summary – Technology and Culture review by Arthur P. Molella (10 December 2014).  Shurkin, Joel (2006). Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-8815-7. Lay summary (10 December 2014). 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Shockley.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: William Shockley

National Academy of Sciences biography Nobel biography Nobel Lecture PBS biography Gordon Moore. Biography of William Shockley
William Shockley
Time Magazine Interview with Shockley biographer Joel Shurkin History of the transistor William Shockley
William Shockley
(IEEE Global History Network) Shockley and Bardeen-Brattain patent disputes William Shockley
William Shockley
vs. Francis Cress-Welsing (Tony Brown Show, 1974) Works by or about William Shockley
William Shockley
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog)

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics

1901–1925

1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz

1926–1950

1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell

1951–1975

1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater

1976–2000

1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby

2001– present

2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne

v t e

IEEE Medal of Honor

1976–2000

H. Earle Vaughan (1977) Robert Noyce
Robert Noyce
(1978) Richard Bellman (1979) William Shockley
William Shockley
(1980) Sidney Darlington
Sidney Darlington
(1981) John Tukey
John Tukey
(1982) Nicolaas Bloembergen
Nicolaas Bloembergen
(1983) Norman Ramsey (1984) John Roy Whinnery (1985) Jack Kilby
Jack Kilby
(1986) Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
(1987) Calvin Quate (1988) C. Kumar Patel (1989) Robert G. Gallager
Robert G. Gallager
(1990) Leo Esaki
Leo Esaki
(1991) Amos E. Joel, Jr. (1992) Karl Johan Åström (1993) Alfred Y. Cho (1994) Lotfi A. Zadeh
Lotfi A. Zadeh
(1995) Robert Metcalfe
Robert Metcalfe
(1996) George H. Heilmeier
George H. Heilmeier
(1997) Donald Pederson (1998) Charles Concordia (1999) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(2000)

Complete roster 1917–1925 1926–1950 1951–1975 1976–2000 2001–present

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Beckman Coulter

People

Arnold O. Beckman Wallace H. Coulter William Shockley

Products

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Facilities

Shockley Semiconductor
Shockley Semiconductor
Laboratory

Related companies

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Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 84393841 LCCN: n91026074 ISNI: 0000 0001 0920 3822 GND: 120275147 SUDOC: 111534720 BNF: cb151125332 (data) NDL: 00526

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