Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on
Earth that has not
been significantly modified by human activity. It may also be defined
as: "The most intact, undisturbed wild natural areas left on our
planet—those last truly wild places that humans do not control and
have not developed with roads, pipelines or other industrial
infrastructure." The term is usually limited to terrestrial
environments, though the seas and outer space also are little
developed by people. Recent maps of wilderness suggest it covers
roughly one quarter of Earth's terrestrial surface, but is being
rapidly degraded by human activity.
Some governments establish them by law or administrative acts, usually
in land tracts that have not been modified by human action in great
measure. The main feature of them is that human motorized activity is
significantly restricted. These actions seek not only to preserve what
already exists, but also to promote and advance a natural expression
Wilderness areas can be found in preserves,
conservation preserves, National Forests,
National Parks and even in
urban areas along rivers, gulches or otherwise undeveloped areas.
These areas are considered important for the survival of certain
species, biodiversity, ecological studies, conservation, solitude, and
Wilderness is deeply valued for cultural, spiritual,
moral, and aesthetic reasons. Some nature writers believe wilderness
areas are vital for the human spirit and creativity. They may also
preserve historic genetic traits and provide habitat for wild flora
and fauna that may be difficult to recreate in zoos, arboretums or
The word wilderness derives from the notion of "wildness"—in other
words, that which is not controlled by humans. The mere presence or
activity of people does not disqualify an area from being
"wilderness." Many ecosystems that are, or have been, inhabited or
influenced by activities of people may still be considered "wild."
This way of looking at wilderness includes areas within which natural
processes operate without human interference.
WILD Foundation states that wilderness areas have two dimensions:
they must be biologically intact and legally protected. The
World Conservation Union
World Conservation Union (IUCN) classifies wilderness at two levels,
Nature Reserves) and Ib (
Wilderness Areas). Most scientists
and conservationists[by whom?] agree that no place on earth is
completely untouched by humanity, either due to past occupation by
indigenous people, or through global processes such as climate change.
Activities on the margins of specific wilderness areas, such as fire
suppression and the interruption of animal migration also affect the
interior of wildernesses.
Especially in wealthier, industrialized nations, it has a specific
legal meaning as well: as land where development is prohibited by law.
Many nations have designated wilderness, including the United States,
Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa. Many new parks are
currently being planned and legally passed by various
Legislatures at the urging of dedicated individuals around the globe
who believe that "in the end, dedicated, inspired people empowered by
effective legislation will ensure that the spirit and services of
wilderness will thrive and permeate our society, preserving a world
that we are proud to hand over to those who come after us."
Perkuć Reserve in Puszcza Augustowska, Poland
1.1 Ancient times and Middle Ages
1.2 19th century to present
2 National parks
3 Conservation and preservation in 20th century United States
4.4 New Zealand
4.5 United States
4.6 Western Australia
5 International Movement
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
United States in the summer.
Ancient times and Middle Ages
Looked at through the lens of the visual arts, nature and wildness
have been important subjects in various epochs of world history. An
early tradition of landscape art occurred in the Tang Dynasty
(618-907). The tradition of representing nature as it is became one of
the aims of
Chinese painting and was a significant influence in Asian
art. Artists in the tradition of
Shan shui (lit.
mountain-water-picture), learned to depict mountains and rivers "from
the perspective of nature as a whole and on the basis of their
understanding of the laws of nature… as if seen through the eyes of
a bird." In the 13th century, Shih Erh Chi recommended avoiding
painting "scenes lacking any places made inaccessible by nature."
For most of human history, the greater part of the Earth's terrain was
wilderness, and human attention was concentrated in settled areas. The
first known laws to protect parts of nature date back to the
Babylonian Empire and Chinese Empire. Ashoka, the Great
defined the first laws in the world to protect flora and fauna in
Ashoka around 3rd Century B.C. In the Middle Ages, the Kings
of England initiated one of the world’s first conscious efforts to
protect natural areas. They were motivated by a desire to be able to
hunt wild animals in private hunting preserves rather than a desire to
protect wilderness. Nevertheless, in order to have animals to hunt
they would have to protect wildlife from subsistence hunting and the
land from villagers gathering firewood. Similar measures were
introduced in other European countries.
19th century to present
The idea of wilderness having intrinsic value emerged in the Western
world in the 19th century. British artists
John Constable and J. M. W.
Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of the natural
world in their paintings. Prior to that, paintings had been primarily
of religious scenes or of human beings. William Wordsworth’s poetry
described the wonder of the natural world, which had formerly been
viewed as a threatening place. Increasingly the valuing of nature
became an aspect of Western culture.
By the mid-19th century, in Germany, "Scientific Conservation," as it
was called, advocated "the efficient utilization of natural resources
through the application of science and technology." Concepts of forest
management based on the German approach were applied in other parts of
the world, but with varying degrees of success. Over the course of
the 19th century wilderness became viewed not as a place to fear but a
place to enjoy and protect, hence came the conservation movement in
the latter half of the 19th century. Rivers were rafted and mountains
were climbed solely for the sake of recreation, not to determine their
In 1861, following an intense lobbying by artists (painters), the
French Waters and Forests Military Agency set an « artistic
reserve » in Fontainebleau State Forest. With a total of 1 097
hectares, it is known to be the first
World nature reserve.
Global conservation became an issue at the time of the dissolution of
British Empire in
Africa in the late 1940s. The British
established great wildlife preserves there. As before, this interest
in conservation had an economic motive: in this case, big game
hunting. Nevertheless, this led to growing recognition in the 1950s
and the early 1960s of the need to protect large spaces for wildlife
conservation worldwide. The
World Wildlife Fund
World Wildlife Fund (WWF), founded in
1961, grew to be one of the largest conservation organizations in the
Early conservationists advocated the creation of a legal mechanism by
which boundaries could be set on human activities in order to preserve
natural and unique lands for the enjoyment and use of future
generations. This profound shift in wilderness thought reached a
pinnacle in the US with the passage of the
Wilderness Act of 1964,
which allowed for parts of U.S. National Forests to be designated as
"wilderness preserves". Similar acts, such as the 1975 Eastern
Wilderness Act, followed.
Nevertheless, initiatives for wilderness conservation continue to
increase. There are a growing number of projects to protect tropical
rainforests through conservation initiatives. There are also
large-scale projects to conserve wilderness regions, such as Canada's
Forest Conservation Framework. The Framework calls for
conservation of 50 percent of the 6,000,000 square kilometres of
boreal forest in Canada's north. In addition to the
Fund, organizations such as the
Wildlife Conservation Society, the
WILD Foundation, The
Nature Conservancy, Conservation International,
The Wilderness Society (United States)
The Wilderness Society (United States) and many others are active in
such conservation efforts.
The 21st century has seen another slight shift in wilderness thought
and theory. It is now understood that simply drawing lines around a
piece of land and declaring it a wilderness does not necessarily make
it a wilderness. All landscapes are intricately connected and what
happens outside a wilderness certainly affects what happens inside it.
For example, air pollution from
Los Angeles and the California Central
Valley affects Kern Canyon and Sequoia National Park. The national
park has miles of "wilderness" but the air is filled with pollution
from the valley. This gives rise to the paradox of what a wilderness
really is; a key issue in 21st century wilderness thought.
A view of wilderness in Estonia
El Toro Wilderness
El Toro Wilderness within the
Caribbean National Forest
Caribbean National Forest in Puerto Rico
The creation of National Parks, beginning in the 19th century,
preserved some especially attractive and notable areas, but the
pursuits of commerce, lifestyle, and recreation combined with
increases in human population have continued to result in human
modification of relatively untouched areas. Such human activity often
negatively impacts native flora and fauna. As such, to better protect
critical habitats and preserve low-impact recreational opportunities,
legal concepts of "wilderness" were established in many countries,
beginning with the
United States (see below).
National Park was Yellowstone, which was signed into law by
U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant on 1 March 1872. The Act of
Yellowstone a land "hereby reserved and withdrawn
from settlement, occupancy, or sale under the laws of the United
States, and dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasuring
ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people."
The world's second national park, the Royal National Park, located
just 32 km to the south of Sydney, Australia, was established in
The U.S. concept of national parks soon caught on in Canada, which
National Park in 1885, at the same time as the
Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway was being built. The
creation of this and other parks showed a growing appreciation of wild
nature, but also an economic reality. The railways wanted to entice
people to travel west. Parks such as Banff and
favor as the railroads advertised travel to "the great wild spaces" of
North America. When outdoorsman Teddy Roosevelt became president of
the United States, he began to enlarge the U.S.
National Parks system,
and established the National
By the 1920s, travel across
North America by train to experience the
"wilderness" (often viewing it only through windows) had become very
popular. This led to the commercialization of some of Canada's
National Parks with the building of great hotels such as the Banff
Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise.
Despite their similar name, national parks in
England and Wales
England and Wales are
quite different from national parks in many other countries. Unlike
most other countries, in England and Wales, designation as a national
park may include substantial settlements and human land uses which are
often integral parts of the landscape, and land within a national park
remains largely in private ownership. Each park is operated by its own
national park authority.
Conservation and preservation in 20th century United States
By the later 19th century it had become clear that in many countries
wild areas had either disappeared or were in danger of disappearing.
This realization gave rise to the conservation movement in the United
States, partly through the efforts of writers and activists such as
John Burroughs, Aldo Leopold, and John Muir, and politicians such as
U.S. President Teddy Roosevelt.
Cook Lake in the Bridger Wilderness, Bridger-Teton National Forest,
The idea of protecting nature for nature's sake began to gain more
recognition in the 1930s with American writers like Aldo Leopold,
calling for a "land ethic" and urging wilderness protection. It had
become increasingly clear that wild spaces were disappearing rapidly
and that decisive action was needed to save them. Wilderness
preservation is central to deep ecology; a philosophy that believes in
an inherent worth of all living beings, regardless of their
instrumental utility to human needs.
Two different groups had emerged within the US environmental movement
by the early 20th century: the conservationists and the
preservationists. The initial consensus among conservationists was
split into "utilitarian conservationists" later to be referred to as
conservationists, and "aesthetic conservationists" or
preservationists. The main representative for the former was Gifford
Pinchot, first Chief of the
Forest Service, and they
focused on the proper use of nature, whereas the preservationists
sought the protection of nature from use. Put another way,
conservation sought to regulate human use while preservation sought to
eliminate human impact altogether. The management of US public lands
during the years 1960s and 70s reflected these dual visions, with
conservationists dominating the
Forest Service, and preservationists
the Park Service
World Conservation Union
World Conservation Union (IUCN) classifies wilderness at two
levels, Ia (Strict
Nature Preserves) and Ib (
Wilderness areas). For
the global standard of wilderness (1b) protection, governance and
Wilderness Protected Areas: Management Guidelines for
Category 1b Protected Areas.
There have been recent calls for the
World Heritage Convention to
better protect wilderness and to include the word wilderness in their
selection criteria for Natural Heritage Sites
Forty-eight countries have wilderness areas established via
legislative designation as
IUCN protected area management
sites that do not overlap with any other
IUCN designation. They are:
Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Botswana, Canada, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Croatia,
Cuba, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Finland, French Guyana,
Greenland, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein,
Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mexico, Mongolia, Nepal, New
Zealand, Norway, Northern Mariana Islands, Portugal, Seychelles,
Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden,
United States of America, and Zimbabwe. At publication,
there are 2,992 marine and terrestrial wilderness areas registered
IUCN as solely
Category 1b sites.
Twenty-two other countries have wilderness areas. These wilderness
areas are established via administrative designation or wilderness
zones within protected areas. Whereas the above listing contains
countries with wilderness exclusively designated as
Category 1b sites,
some of the below-listed countries contain protected areas with
multiple management categories including
Category 1b. They are:
Argentina, Bhutan, Brazil, Chile, Honduras, Germany, Italy, Kenya,
Malaysia, Namibia, Nepal, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, the
Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Uganda, Ukraine, the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Venezuela, and
Since 1861, the French Waters and Forests Military Agency
(Administration des Eaux et Forêts) put a strong protection on what
was called the « artistic reserve » in Fontainebleau State
Forest. With a total of 1 097 hectares, it is known to be the first
World nature reserve.
Then in the 1950s, Integral Biological Reserves (Réserves
Biologiques Intégrales, RBI) are dedicated to man free ecosystem
evolution, on the contrary of Managed Biological reserves (Réserves
Biologiques Dirigées, RBD) where a specific management is applied to
conserve vulnerable species or threatened habitats.
Integral Biological Reserves occurs in French State Forests or City
Forests and are therefore managed by the National Forests Office. In
such reserves, all harvests coupe are forbidden excepted exotic
species elimination or track safety works to avoid fallen tree risk to
visitors (already existing tracks in or on the edge of the reserve).
At the end of 2014, there were 60 Integral Biological Reserves in
French State Forests for a total area of 111 082 hectares and 10 in
City Forests for a total of 2 835 hectares.
Main article: National parks of Greece
In Greece there are some parks called "ethniki drimoi" (εθνικοί
δρυμοί, national forests) that are under protection of the Greek
government. Such parks include: Olympus, Parnassos and Parnitha
There are seven wilderness areas in
New Zealand as defined by the
National Parks Act 1980 and the
Conservation Act 1987
Conservation Act 1987 that fall well
Wilderness areas cannot have any human
intervention and can only have indigenous species re-introduced into
the area if it is compatible with conservation management strategies.
New Zealand wilderness areas are remote blocks of land that have
high natural character. The
Conservation Act 1987
Conservation Act 1987 prevents any access
by vehicles and livestock, the construction of tracks and buildings,
and all indigenous natural resources are protected. They are
generally over 40,000 ha in size.
Main article: National
Wilderness Preservation System
The Great Swamp of New Jersey, donated for federal protection by
concerned residents, was designated as the first wilderness refuge in
United States - winter scene photographed in March, 2008
In the United States, a
Wilderness Area is an area of federal land set
aside by an act of Congress.
Human activities in wilderness areas are
restricted to scientific study and non-mechanized recreation; horses
are permitted but mechanized vehicles and equipment, such as cars and
bicycles, are not.
United States was the first country to officially designate land
as "wilderness" through the
Wilderness Act of 1964. The
was—and is still—an important part of wilderness designation
because it created the legal definition of wilderness and founded the
Wilderness Preservation System. The
Wilderness Act defines
wilderness as "an area where the earth and its community of life are
untrammelled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not
Wilderness designation helps preserve the natural state of the land
and protects flora and fauna by prohibiting development and providing
for non-mechanized recreation only.
The first administratively protected wilderness area in the United
States was the Gila National Forest. In 1922, Aldo Leopold, then a
ranking member of the U.S.
Forest Service, proposed a new management
strategy for the Gila National Forest. His proposal was adopted in
1924, and 750 thousand acres of the Gila National
Forest became the
'The Great Swamp in New Jersey was the first formally designated
wilderness refuge in the United States. It was declared a wildlife
refuge on 3 November 1960. In 1966 it was declared a National Natural
Landmark and, in 1968, it was given wilderness status. Properties in
the swamp had been acquired by a small group of residents of the area,
who donated the assembled properties to the federal government as a
park for perpetual protection. Today the refuge amounts to 7,600 acres
(31 km2) that are within thirty miles of Manhattan.
Latir Peak Wilderness, taken from milepost 394 along US-285, ten miles
north of Tres Piedras and 14 miles south of the
New Mexico and
While wilderness designations were originally granted by an Act of
Congress for Federal land that retained a "primeval character",
meaning that it had not suffered from human habitation or development,
Wilderness Act of 1975 extended the protection of the NWPS
to areas in the eastern States that were not initially considered for
inclusion in the
Wilderness Act. This act allowed lands that did not
meet the constraints of size, roadlessness, or human impact to be
designated as wilderness areas under the belief that they could be
returned to a "primeval" state through preservation.
Approximately 107,500,000 acres (435,000 km2) are designated as
wilderness in the United States. This accounts for 4.82% of the
country's total land area; however, 54% of that amount is found in
Alaska (recreation and development in Alaskan wilderness is often less
restrictive), while only 2.58% of the lower continental United States
is designated as wilderness. Following the Omnibus Public Land
Management Act of 2009 there are 756 separate wilderness designations
United States ranging in size from Florida's Pelican Island at
5 acres (20,000 m2) to Alaska's Wrangell-Saint Elias at 9,078,675
acres (36,740.09 km2).
In Western Australia, a
Wilderness Area is an area that has a
wilderness quality rating of 12 or greater and meets a minimum size
threshold of 8,000 hectares in temperate areas or 20,000 hectares in
arid and tropical areas. A wilderness area is gazetted under section
62(1)(a) of the Conservation and
Land Management Act 1984 by the
Minister on any land that is vested in the Conservation Commission of
Monument Valley in Utah, United States.
At the forefront of the international wilderness movement has been The
WILD Foundation, its founder
Ian Player and its network of sister and
partner organizations around the globe. The pioneer
Congress in 1977 introduced the wilderness concept as an issue of
international importance, and began the process of defining the term
in biological and social contexts. Today, this work is continued by
many international groups who still look to the
Congress as the international venue for wilderness and to The WILD
Foundation network for wilderness tools and action. The WILD
Foundation also publishes the standard references for wilderness
professionals and others involved in the issues: Wilderness
Management: Stewardship and Protection of Resources and Values, the
International Journal of Wilderness, A Handbook on International
Law and Policy and Protecting Wild
Nature on Native Lands
are the backbone of information and management tools for international
Wilderness Specialist Group within the
World Commission on
Protected Areas (WTF/WCPA) of the International Union for the
Nature (IUCN) plays a critical role in defining legal
and management guidelines for wilderness at the international level
and is also a clearing-house for information on wilderness issues.
IUCN Protected Areas Classification System defines wilderness as
"A large area of unmodified or slightly modified land, and/or sea
retaining its natural character and influence, without permanent or
significant habitation, which is protected and managed so as to
preserve its natural condition (
Category 1b)." The WILD Foundation
founded the WTF/WCPA in 2002 and remains co-chair.
Ahklun Mountains and the
Togiak Wilderness within the Togiak
Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. state of Alaska
The most recent efforts to map wilderness show that less than one
quarter (~23%) of the world's wilderness area now remains, and that
there have been catastrophic declines in wilderness extent over the
last two decades. Over 3 million square kilometers (10 percent) of
wilderness was converted to human land-uses. The Amazon and Congo rain
forests suffered the most loss.
Human pressure is starting to extend
into almost every corner of the planet. The loss of wilderness could
have serious implications for biodiversity conservation.
A previous study, Wilderness: Earth's Last Wild Places, carried out by
Conservation International, 46% of the world's land mass is
wilderness. For purposes of this report, "wilderness" was defined as
an area that "has 70% or more of its original vegetation intact,
covers at least 10,000 square kilometers (3,900 sq mi) and
must have fewer than five people per square kilometer." However,
UNEP report published in 2003, found that only 10.9% of the
world's land mass is currently a
Category 1 Protected Area, that is,
either a strict nature reserve (5.5%) or protected wilderness
(5.4%). Such areas remain relatively untouched by humans. Of
course, there are large tracts of lands in
National Parks and other
protected areas that would also qualify as wilderness. However, many
protected areas have some degree of human modification or activity, so
a definitive estimate of true wilderness is difficult.
Wildlife Conservation Society
Wildlife Conservation Society generated a human footprint using a
number of indicators, the absence of which indicate wildness: human
population density, human access via roads and rivers, human
infrastructure for agriculture and settlements and the presence of
industrial power (lights visible from space). The society estimates
that 26% of the Earth's land mass falls into the category of "Last of
the wild." The wildest regions of the world include the tundra, the
taiga, the Amazonian rain forest, the Tibetan Plateau, the Australian
outback and deserts such as the Sahara, and the Gobi. However,
from the 1970s, numerous geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested
land in the Amazon rainforest, leading to claims about Pre-Columbian
civilizations. The BBC's Unnatural Histories claimed that the
Amazon rainforest, rather than being a pristine wilderness, has been
shaped by man for at least 11,000 years through practices such as
forest gardening and terra preta.
It should be noted that the percentage of land area designated
"wilderness" does not necessarily reflect a measure of its
biodiversity. Of the last natural wilderness areas, the taiga—which
is mostly wilderness—represents 11% of the total land mass in the
Northern Hemisphere. Tropical rainforest represent a further 7% of
the world's land base. Estimates of the Earth's remaining
wilderness underscore the rate at which these lands are being
developed, with dramatic declines in biodiversity as a consequence.
Cedar Mountain Wilderness
Cedar Mountain Wilderness in northern Utah, United States.
The American concept of wilderness has been criticized by some nature
writers. For example,
William Cronon writes that what he calls a
wilderness ethic or cult may "teach us to be dismissive or even
contemptuous of such humble places and experiences", and that
"wilderness tends to privilege some parts of nature at the expense of
others", using as an example "the mighty canyon more inspiring than
the humble marsh." This is most clearly visible with the fact that
nearly all U.S.
National Parks preserve spectacular canyons and
mountains, and it was not until the 1940s that a swamp became a
national park—the Everglades. In the mid-20th century national parks
started to protect biodiversity, not simply attractive scenery.
Cronon also believes the passion to save wilderness "poses a serious
threat to responsible environmentalism" and writes that it allows
people to "give ourselves permission to evade responsibility for the
lives we actually lead....to the extent that we live in an
urban-industrial civilization but at the same time pretend to
ourselves that our real home is in the wilderness".
Michael Pollan has argued that the wilderness ethic leads people to
dismiss areas whose wildness is less than absolute. In his book Second
Nature, Pollan writes that "once a landscape is no longer 'virgin' it
is typically written off as fallen, lost to nature, irredeemable."
Another challenge to the conventional notion of wilderness comes from
Robert Winkler in his book, Going Wild: Adventures with Birds in the
Suburban Wilderness. "On walks in the unpeopled parts of the suburbs,"
Winkler writes, "I’ve witnessed the same wild creatures, struggles
for survival, and natural beauty that we associate with true
wilderness." Attempts have been made, as in the Pennsylvania
Scenic Rivers Act, to distinguish "wild" from various levels of human
influence: in the Act, "wild rivers" are "not impounded", "usually not
accessible except by trail", and their watersheds and shorelines are
Another source of criticism is that the criteria for wilderness
designation is vague and open to interpretation. For example, the
Wilderness Act states that wilderness must be roadless. The definition
given for roadless is "the absences of roads which have been improved
and maintained by mechanical means to insure relatively regular and
continuous use." However, there have been added sub-definitions
that have, in essence, made this standard unclear and open to
Coming from a different direction, some criticism from the Deep
Ecology movement argues against conflating "wilderness" with
"wilderness reservations", viewing the latter term as an oxymoron
that, by allowing the law as a human construct to define nature,
unavoidably voids the very freedom and independence of human control
that defines wilderness. True wilderness requires the ability of
life to undergo speciation with as little interference from humanity
Anthropologist and scholar on wilderness Layla
AbdelRahim argues that it is necessary to understand the principles
that govern the economies of mutual aid and diversification in
wilderness from a non-anthropocentric perspective.
Earth sciences portal
Sustainable development portal
Intact forest landscape
John Muir Lifetime Achievement Award
Last of the Wild
Leave no trace
List of U.S.
List of conservationists
National Outdoor Leadership School
Wilderness Preservation System
Native American use of fire
Wilderness Act (1964)
Wilderness Area (
Protected Area Management Category)
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^ Rainforest Foundation US. 2006. Commonly asked questions. Retrieved:
^ a b The Trouble with
Wilderness University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Retrieved: 28 January 2007.
^ Pollan, Michael (2003). Second Nature: A Gardener's Education, p.
188. Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-4011-1.
^ Winkler, Robert. (2003). Going Wild: Adventures with Birds in the
Suburban Wilderness. National Geographic ISBN 978-0-7922-6168-1.
Pennsylvania Scenic Rivers Act (P.L. 1277, Act No. 283 as amended by
Act 110, May 7, 1982)
^ Durrant, Jeffrey O. (2007). Struggle over Utah's San Rafael Swell:
Wilderness, National Conservation Areas, and National Monuments.
University of Arizona Press. p. 43.
^ Thomas Birch (1995). George Sessions, ed.
Deep Ecology for the 21st
Century. Boston: Shambhala. pp. 345, 339–355.
^ George Sessions (1995).
Deep Ecology for the 21st Century. Boston:
Shambhala. pp. 323, 323–330. ISBN 1-57062-049-0.
Layla AbdelRahim (2015). Children’s Literature, Domestication, and
Social Foundation: Narratives of Civilization and Wilderness. New
York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-66110-2.
This spiny forest at Ifaty,
Madagascar features various Adansonia
Alluaudia procera (
Madagascar ocotillo) and other
Bryson, B. (1998). A Walk in the Woods. ISBN 0-7679-0251-3
Gutkind, L (Ed). (2002). On Nature: Great Writers on the Great
Outdoors. ISBN 1-58542-173-1
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