Jay Vivian Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961), known as
Whittaker Chambers, was an American editor who denounced his Communist
spying and became respected by the American Conservative movement
during the 1950s.
After early years as a Communist Party member (1925) and Soviet spy
(1932–1938), he defected from communism (underground and open party)
and worked at
Time magazine (1939–1948). Under subpoena in 1948, he
testified in what became Alger Hiss's perjury (espionage) trials
(1949–1950) and he became an outspoken anti-communist (all described
in his 1952 memoir Witness). Afterwards, he worked briefly as a
senior editor at
National Review (1957–1959). President Ronald
Reagan awarded him the Medal of Freedom posthumously in 1984.
1 Youth and education
2 Communism and espionage
2.1 Harold Ware
2.2 Other covert sources
3 Break with Communism
3.1 Berle meeting
3.2 Time Magazine
4 The Hiss case
4.1 "Red Herring"
4.2 "Pumpkin Papers"
5 After the Hiss case
5.2 National Review
6 Personal life and death
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Youth and education
Hartley Hall at Columbia University, where Chambers boarded in the
Chambers was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and spent his
infancy in Brooklyn. His family moved to Lynbrook, Long Island, New
York, in 1904, where he grew up and attended school. His parents were
Jay Chambers and Laha (Whittaker). Chambers described his childhood as
troubled because of his parents' separation and their need to care for
their mentally ill grandmother. His father was a half-closeted
homosexual and treated Whittaker cruelly, while his mother was
neurotic. Chambers' brother committed suicide shortly after
withdrawing from his first year of college. Chambers would cite his
brother's fate as one of many reasons that he was drawn to communism
at that time. As he wrote, communism "offered me what nothing else in
the dying world had power to offer at the same intensity, faith and a
vision, something for which to live and something for which to
After graduating from South Side High School in neighboring Rockville
Centre in 1919, Chambers worked itinerantly in Washington and New
Orleans, briefly attended Williams College, and then enrolled as a day
student at Columbia College of Columbia University. At Columbia his
fellow undergraduates included Meyer Schapiro, Frank S. Hogan, Herbert
Solow, Louis Zukofsky, Arthur F. Burns, Clifton Fadiman, Elliott V.
Bell, John Gassner,
Lionel Trilling (who later fictionalized him as a
main character in his novel The Middle of the Journey), and Guy
Endore. In the intellectual environment of Columbia he gained friends
and respect. His professors and fellow students found him a talented
writer and believed he might become a major poet or novelist.
In his sophomore year, Chambers joined the Boar's Head Society and
wrote a play called A Play for Puppets for Columbia's literary
magazine The Morningside, which he edited. The work was deemed
blasphemous by many students and administrators, and the controversy
New York City
New York City newspapers. Later, the play would be used
against Chambers during his testimony against Alger Hiss. Disheartened
over the controversy, Chambers left Columbia in 1925. From
Columbia, Chambers also knew Isaiah Oggins, who went into the Soviet
underground a few years earlier; Chambers' wife, Esther Shemitz
Chambers, knew Oggins' wife, Nerma Berman Oggins, from the Rand School
of Social Science, the ILGWU, and The World Tomorrow.
Communism and espionage
In 1924, Chambers read Vladimir Lenin's Soviets at Work and was
deeply affected by it. He now saw the dysfunctional nature of his
family, he would write, as "in miniature the whole crisis of the
middle class"; a malaise from which Communism promised liberation.
Sam Tanenhaus wrote that Lenin's
authoritarianism was "precisely what attracts Chambers... He had at
last found his church"; that is, he became a Marxist. In 1925,
Chambers joined the Communist Party of the
United States (CPUSA) (then
known as the Workers Party of America). Chambers wrote and edited for
Communist publications, including The
Daily Worker newspaper and The
New Masses magazine.
Combining his literary talents with his devotion to Communism,
Chambers wrote four short stories in 1931 about proletarian hardship
and revolt, including Can You Make Out Their Voices?, considered by
critics as one of the best pieces of fiction from the American
Hallie Flanagan co-adapted and produced it as a
Can You Hear Their Voices? (q.v. Bibliography of
Whittaker Chambers), staged across America and in many other
countries. Chambers also worked as a translator during this period;
among his works was the English version of Felix Salten's 1923 novel
Bambi, A Life in the Woods.
Chambers was recruited to join the "Communist underground" and began
his career as a spy, working for a
GRU apparatus headed by Alexander
Ulanovsky (aka Ulrich). Later, his main controller in the underground
was Josef Peters (whom CPUSA General Secretary
Earl Browder later
replaced with Rudy Baker). Chambers claimed Peters introduced him to
Harold Ware (although he later denied he had ever been introduced to
Ware), and that he was head of a Communist underground cell in
Washington that reportedly included:
Assistant general counsel of AAA
Chief of Litigation for AAA (1933-1935), assistant general counsel of
the WPA 1935, chief counsel on Senator Robert La Follette Jr.'s La
Follette Committee (1936-1937) and special assistant to U.S. Attorney
Sister of John Abt; office manager to Representative John Bernard of
the Minnesota Farmer-Labor Party
Attorney for AAA and Nye Committee; moved to Department of State in
1936, where he became an increasingly prominent figure
Brother of Alger Hiss; employed at Department of State
Employed at AAA; later moved to NLRB
Chief of Aviation Section of War Production Board; later, joined
Office of Price Administration at Commerce and Division of Monetary
Research at Treasury
Employed at Department of Labor's NLRB
Employed at RRB; later worked with Federal Coordinator of Transport,
U.S. Tariff Commission and Labor Advisory Board of National Recovery
National Recovery Administration
National Recovery Administration and later Agricultural
Adjustment Administration (AAA)
Economist at AAA; later, defected from Communism himself and give
evidence against party members
Author; assistant to Harold Ware; employed at AAA; courier and
document photographer for Ware group; introduced Chambers to Hiss
Apart from Marion Bachrach, these people were all members of Franklin
New Deal administration. Chambers worked in Washington
as an organizer among Communists in the city and as a courier between
New York and Washington for stolen documents which were delivered to
Boris Bykov, the
GRU station chief.
Other covert sources
Using the codename "Karl" or "Carl", Chambers served during the
mid-1930s as a courier between various covert sources and Soviet
intelligence. In addition to the Ware group mentioned above, other
sources that Chambers dealt with allegedly included:
Harry Dexter White
Director of Division of Monetary Research at Treasury
Assistant Director, Division of Monetary Research, Treasury
Employed at Department of State
Economist with Agriculture; later, Trade Agreements section of
Department of State
Mathematician at U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground
Employed at National Bureau of Standards, then Labor and Public
Break with Communism
Juliet Stuart Poyntz
Juliet Stuart Poyntz (circa 1918), whose disappearance spurred
Chambers to defect
Chambers carried on his espionage activities from 1932 until 1937 or
1938 even while his faith in Communism was waning. He became
increasingly disturbed by Joseph Stalin's Great Purge, which began in
1936. He was also fearful for his own life, having noted the murder in
Switzerland of Ignace Reiss, a high-ranking Soviet spy who had broken
with Stalin, and the disappearance of Chambers' friend and fellow spy
Juliet Stuart Poyntz
Juliet Stuart Poyntz in the United States. Poyntz had vanished in
1937, shortly after she had visited Moscow and returned disillusioned
with the Communist cause due to the Stalinist Purges.
Chambers ignored several orders that he travel to Moscow, worried that
he might be "purged." He also started concealing some of the documents
he collected from his sources. He planned to use these, along with
several rolls of microfilm photographs of documents, as a "life
preserver" to prevent the Soviets from killing him and his family.
In 1938, Chambers broke with Communism and took his family into
hiding, storing the "life preserver" at the home of his nephew and his
parents. Initially he had no plans to give information on his
espionage activities to the U.S. government. His espionage contacts
were his friends, and he had no desire to inform on them.
In his examination of Chambers' conversion from the political left to
the right, author Daniel Oppenheimer noted that Chambers substituted
his passion for communism for a passion for God. Chambers saw the
world in black and white terms both before his defection and after. In
his autobiography, he presented his devotion to communism as a reason
for living, but after defecting saw his actions as being part of an
"absolute evil." 
Adolf A. Berle
Adolf A. Berle (circa 1965), who ignored Chambers' report in 1939
The August 1939 Hitler-Stalin non-aggression pact drove Chambers to
take action against the Soviet Union. In September 1939, at the
urging of anti-Communist, Russian-born journalist Isaac Don Levine,
Chambers and Levine met with Assistant Secretary of State Adolf A.
Berle. Levine had introduced Chambers to Walter Krivitsky, who was
already informing American and British authorities about Soviet agents
who held posts in both governments. Krivitsky told Chambers it was
their duty to inform. Chambers agreed to reveal what he knew on the
condition of immunity from prosecution. During the meeting, which
took place at Berle's home,
Woodley Mansion in Washington, Chambers
named 18 current and former government employees as spies or Communist
sympathizers. Many names mentioned held relatively minor posts or were
already under suspicion. Some names, however, were more significant
and surprising: Alger Hiss, his brother Donald Hiss, and Laurence
Duggan—who were all respected, mid-level officials in the State
Department—and Lauchlin Currie, a special assistant to Franklin
Roosevelt. Another person named had worked on a top secret bombsight
project at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds.
Berle found Chambers' information tentative, unclear, and
uncorroborated. He took the information to the White House, but the
President dismissed it, to which Berle made little if any objection.
Berle kept his notes, however (later, evidence during Hiss' perjury
Berle notified the
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of Chambers's
information in March 1940. In February 1941, Krivitsky was found dead
in his hotel room. While police ruled the death a suicide, it was
widely speculated that Krivitsky had been killed by Soviet
intelligence. Worried that the Soviets might try to kill Chambers too,
Berle again told the FBI about his interview with Chambers.
Nevertheless, the FBI took no immediate action, in line with the
political orientation of the United States, which viewed the potential
threat from the
USSR as minor, when compared to that of Nazi
(The FBI did interview Chambers in May 1942 and June 1945, without
further action. Only in November 1945, when
Elizabeth Bentley defected
and corroborated much of Chambers's story, did the FBI begin to take
Henry Luce with wife
Clare Boothe Luce
Clare Boothe Luce (circa 1954), both of whom
valued Chambers' writings
By the time of the Berle meeting, Chambers had come out of hiding
after a year and joined the staff of
Time Magazine (April 1939). He
landed a cover story within a month on James Joyce's latest book,
Finnegans Wake. He started at the back of the magazine, reviewing
books and film with
James Agee and then Calvin Fixx. When Fixx
suffered a heart attack in October 1942,
Wilder Hobson succeeded him
as Chambers' assistant editor in Arts & Entertainment. Other
writers working for Chambers in that section included: novelist Nigel
Dennis, future New York Times Book Review editor Harvey Breit, and
Howard Moss and Weldon Kees.
During this time, a struggle arose between those, like Theodore H.
White and Richard Lauterbach, who raised criticism of what they saw as
the elitism, corruption and ineptitude of Chiang Kai-shek's regime in
China and advocated greater cooperation with Mao's Red Army in the
struggle against Japanese imperialism, and Chambers and others like
Willi Schlamm who adhered to a staunchly pro-Chiang, anti-communist
perspective (and who both later joined the founding editorial board of
William F. Buckley, Jr.'s National Review). Time founder Henry Luce,
who grew up in China and was a personal friend of Chiang and his wife,
came down squarely on the side of Chambers to the point that White
complained that his stories were being censored, and even suppressed
in their entirety, and left Time shortly after the war as a
William Saroyan lists Fixx among "contributing editors" at
Time in Saroyan's play, Love's Old Sweet Song. Luce promoted him
senior editor in either Summer 1942 (Weinstein) or September 1943
(Tanenhaus) and became a member of Time's "Senior Group" (which
determined editorial policy) in December 1943.
Chambers, close colleagues, and many staff members as of the 1930s
helped elevate TIME–"interstitial intellectuals," as historian
Robert Vanderlan has called them. Colleague
John Hersey described
them as follows:
Time was in an interesting phase; an editor named Tom Matthews had
gathered a brilliant group of writers, including James Agee, Robert
Fitzgerald, Whittaker Chambers, Robert Cantwell, Louis Kronenberger,
and Calvin Fixx... They were dazzling. Time’s style was still very
hokey—“backward ran sentences till reeled the mind”—but I
could tell, even as a neophyte, who had written each of the pieces in
the magazine, because each of these writers had such a distinctive
By early 1948, Chambers had become one of the best known
writer-editors at Time. First had come his scathing commentary "The
Ghosts on the Roof" (March 5, 1945) on the
Yalta Conference (in which
Hiss partook). Subsequent cover-story essays profiled Marian Anderson,
Arnold J. Toynbee,
Rebecca West and Reinhold Niebuhr. The cover story
Marian Anderson ("Religion: In Egypt Land", December 30, 1946)
proved so popular that the magazine broke its rule of non-attribution
in response to readers' letters:
Most Time cover stories are written and edited by the regular staffs
of the section in which they appear. Certain cover stories, that
present special difficulties or call for a special literary skill, are
written by Senior Editor Whittaker Chambers."
In a 1945 letter to Time colleague Charles Wertenbaker, Time-Life
deputy editorial director John Shaw Billings said of Chambers, "Whit
puts on the best show in words of any writer we've ever had... a
superb technician, particularly skilled in the mosaic art of putting a
Time section together." Chambers was at the height of his career
when the Hiss case broke later that year.
During this period, Chambers and his family became Quakers, attending
Pipe Creek Friends Meetinghouse
Pipe Creek Friends Meetinghouse near his Maryland farm.
The Hiss case
Alger Hiss (1948), who fiercely denied Chambers' allegations and was
convicted of perjury
On August 3, 1948, Chambers was called to testify before the House
Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). Here he gave the names of
individuals he said were part of the underground "Ware group" in the
late 1930s, including Alger Hiss. He thus once again named Hiss as a
member of the Communist Party, but did not yet make any accusations of
espionage. In subsequent HUAC sessions, Hiss testified and initially
denied that he knew anyone by the name of Chambers, but on seeing him
in person (and after it became clear that Chambers knew details about
Hiss's life), said that he had known Chambers under the name "George
Crosley". Hiss denied that he had ever been a Communist, however.
Since Chambers still presented no evidence, the committee had
initially been inclined to take the word of Hiss on the matter.
However, committee member
Richard Nixon received secret information
from the FBI which had led him to pursue the issue. When it issued its
report, HUAC described Hiss's testimony as "vague and evasive".
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman (center, with
Joseph Stalin left and Winston Churchill
right in 1945) called Chambers' allegations a "red herring"
The country quickly became divided over the Hiss–Chambers issue.
President Harry S Truman, not pleased with the allegation that the man
who had presided over the United Nations Charter Conference was a
Communist, dismissed the case as a "red herring". In the
atmosphere of increasing anti-communism that would later be termed
McCarthyism, many conservatives viewed the Hiss case as emblematic of
what they saw as Democrats' laxity towards the danger of communist
infiltration and influence in the State Department. Many liberals, in
turn, saw the Hiss case as part of the desperation of the Republican
party to regain the office of president, having been out of power for
16 years. Truman also issued Executive Order 9835, which initiated a
program of loyalty reviews for federal employees in 1947.
Foley Square in 2014 in NYC, site of grand jury and trials of Hiss
Hiss filed a $75,000 libel suit against Chambers on October 8, 1948.
Under pressure from Hiss's lawyers, Chambers finally retrieved his
envelope of evidence and presented it to the HUAC after they
subpoenaed them. It contained four notes in Alger Hiss's handwriting,
sixty-five typewritten copies of State Department documents and five
strips of microfilm, some of which contained photographs of State
Department documents. The press came to call these the "Pumpkin
Papers" referring to the fact that Chambers had briefly hidden the
microfilm in a hollowed-out pumpkin. These documents indicated that
Hiss knew Chambers long after mid-1936, when Hiss said he had last
seen "Crosley," and also that Hiss had engaged in espionage with
Chambers. Chambers explained his delay in producing this evidence as
an effort to spare an old friend from more trouble than necessary.
Until October 1948, Chambers had repeatedly stated that Hiss had not
engaged in espionage, even when Chambers testified under oath.
Chambers was forced to testify at the Hiss trials that he had
committed perjury several times, which reduced his credibility in the
eyes of his critics.
The five rolls of 35 mm film known as the "pumpkin papers" were
thought until late 1974 to be locked in HUAC files. Independent
researcher Stephen W. Salant, an economist at the University of
Michigan, sued the U.S. Justice Department in 1975 when his request
for access to them under the Freedom of Information Act was denied. On
July 31, 1975, as a result of this lawsuit and follow-on suits filed
by Peter Irons and by
Alger Hiss and William Reuben, the Justice
Department released copies of the "pumpkin papers" that had been used
to implicate Hiss. One roll of film turned out to be totally blank due
to overexposure, two others are faintly legible copies of
nonclassified Navy Department documents relating to such subjects as
life rafts and fire extinguishers, and the remaining two are
photographs of the State Department documents introduced by the
prosecution at the two Hiss trials, relating to U.S./German relations
in the late 1930s.
This story, however, as reported by the New York Times in the 1970s,
contains only a partial truth. The blank roll had been mentioned by
Chambers in his autobiography Witness. But in addition to innocuous
farm reports, etc., the documents on the other pumpkin patch
microfilms also included "confidential memos sent from overseas
embassies to diplomatic staff in Washington, D.C."; worse, those
memos had originally been transmitted in code, which, thanks to their
(presumably) having both coded originals and the translations
forwarded by Hiss, the Soviets now could easily understand.
Hiss could not be tried for espionage at this time, because the
evidence indicated the offense had occurred more than ten years prior
to that time, and the statute of limitations for espionage was five
years. Instead, Hiss was indicted for two counts of perjury relating
to testimony he had given before a federal grand jury the previous
December. There he had denied giving any documents to Whittaker
Chambers, and testified he had not seen Chambers after mid-1936.
Hiss was tried twice for perjury. The first trial, in June 1949, ended
with the jury deadlocked eight to four for conviction. In addition to
Chambers's testimony, a government expert testified that other papers
typed on a typewriter belonging to the Hiss family matched the secret
papers produced by Chambers. An impressive array of character
witnesses appeared on behalf of Hiss: two U.S. Supreme Court justices,
Felix Frankfurter and Stanley Reed, former Democratic presidential
John W. Davis
John W. Davis and future Democratic presidential nominee Adlai
Stevenson. Chambers, on the other hand, was attacked by Hiss's
attorneys as "an enemy of the Republic, a blasphemer of Christ, a
disbeliever in God, with no respect for matrimony or motherhood".
In the second trial, Hiss's defense produced a psychiatrist who
characterized Chambers as a "psychopathic personality" and "a
The second trial ended in January 1950 with Hiss found guilty on both
counts of perjury. He was sentenced to five years in prison.
After the Hiss case
Chambers had resigned from Time in December 1948. After the Hiss Case,
he wrote a few articles for Fortune, Life, and Look magazines.
In 1952, Chambers's book Witness was published to widespread
acclaim. The book was a combination of autobiography
and a warning about the dangers of Communism. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.
called it "a powerful book".
Ronald Reagan credited the book as
the inspiration behind his conversion from a
New Deal Democrat to a
conservative Republican. Witness was a bestseller for more than a
year and helped pay off Chambers' legal debts, though bills
lingered ("as Odysseus was beset by a ghost").
According to conservative commentator
George Will in 2017:
Witness became a canonical text of conservatism. Unfortunately, it
injected conservatism with a sour, whiney, complaining, crybaby
populism. It is the screechy and dominant tone of the loutish faux
conservatism that today is erasing [William F.] Buckley’s legacy of
infectious cheerfulness and unapologetic embrace of high culture.
Chambers wallowed in cloying sentimentality and curdled resentment
about “the plain men and women” — “my people, humble people,
strong in common sense, in common goodness” — enduring the “musk
of snobbism” emanating from the “socially formidable circles” of
the “nicest people” produced by “certain collegiate
William F. Buckley Jr.
William F. Buckley Jr. (right,
L. Brent Bozell Jr.
L. Brent Bozell Jr. left in 1954),
first asked Chambers to endorse their book on McCarthy.
William F. Buckley Jr.
William F. Buckley Jr. started the magazine National Review,
and Chambers worked there as senior editor, publishing articles there
for a little over a year and a half (October 1957–June 1959).
The most widely cited article to date is a
scathing review, "Big Sister is Watching You", of Ayn Rand's Atlas
In 1959, after resigning from National Review, Chambers and his wife
visited Europe, the highlight of which was a meeting with Arthur
Margarete Buber-Neumann at Koestler's home in
Austria. That fall, he recommenced studies at Western Maryland
College (now McDaniel College) in Westminster, Maryland.
Personal life and death
A farm in Carroll County, Maryland, like the Pipe Creek Farm, where
Chambers took refuge in 1938 and lived until he died
In 1930 or 1931, Chambers married the artist Esther Shemitz
(1900–1986).  Shemitz, who had studied at the Art Students
League and integrated herself into New York City's intellectual
circles, met Chambers at the 1926 textile strike at Passaic, New
Jersey. They then underwent a stormy courtship that faced resistance
from their comrades, with Chambers having climbed through her window
at five o'clock in the morning to propose. Shemitz identified as "a
pacifist rather than a revolutionary." In the 1920s, she worked
for The World Tomorrow, a pacifist magazine.
The couple had two children, Ellen and John during the 1930s.
(Communist leadership expected couples to go childless, but like many
Chambers refused, a choice he cited as part of his gradual
disillusionment with communism.)
In 1978, Allen Weinstein's
Perjury revealed that the FBI has a copy of
a letter in which Chambers described homosexual liaisons during the
1930s. The letter copy states that Chambers gave up these
practices in 1938 when he left the underground, attributed to newfound
Christianity. The letter has remained controversial from many
Chambers died of a heart attack on July 9, 1961, at his 300-acre
(1.2 km2) farm in Westminster, Maryland. He had suffered
from angina since the age of 38 and had previously suffered several
Cold Friday, his second memoir, was published posthumously in 1964
with the help of Duncan Norton-Taylor. The book prophetically
predicted that the fall of Communism would start in the satellite
states surrounding the
Soviet Union in Eastern Europe. A collection of
his correspondence with William F. Buckley, Jr., Odyssey of a Friend,
was published in 1968; a collection of his journalism—including
several of his Time and
National Review writings, was published in
1989 as Ghosts on the Roof: Selected Journalism of Whittaker Chambers
(q.v. Bibliography of Whittaker Chambers.)
Order of the Red Star
Order of the Red Star .
Order of the Red Star
Order of the Red Star from Soviet Military Intelligence
1952 - Honorary Doctorate of Law from Mount Mary College
National Book Award finalist for nonfiction (Witness)
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom (posthumously) (for contribution
to "the century's epic struggle between freedom and totalitarianism")
Presidential Medal of Freedom.
Chambers's book Witness is on the reading lists of The Heritage
Foundation, The Weekly Standard, The Leadership Institute, and the
Russell Kirk Center for Cultural Renewal. He is regularly cited by
conservative writers such as Heritage's president Edwin
Feulner and George H. Nash.
In 1984, President
Ronald Reagan posthumously awarded Chambers the
Presidential Medal of Freedom, for his contribution to "the century's
epic struggle between freedom and totalitarianism". In 1988, Interior
Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel granted national landmark status to the Pipe
Creek Farm. In 2001, members of the
George W. Bush
George W. Bush Administration
held a private ceremony to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of
Chambers's birth. Speakers included William F. Buckley, Jr.
In 2007, John Chambers stated that a library with his father's papers
should open in 2008 on the Chambers farm in Maryland. He indicated
that the facility will be available to all scholars and that a
separate library, rather than one within an established university, is
needed to guarantee open access.
On January 6, 2010, the Medfield farmhouse at Pipe Creek Farm, in
Whittaker Chambers wrote Witness, was severely damaged by a fire
that began in an electrical panel at the front entrance of the
In 2011, author
Elena Maria Vidal interviewed David Chambers about his
grandfather's legacy. Versions of the interview were published in the
National Observer and The American Conservative.
In 2017, the
National Review Institute inaugurated a "Whittaker
Chambers Award" for its 2017 Ideas Summit, for presentation on March
16, 2017. The first recipient is Daniel Hannan, dubbed "the
man who brought you Brexit" by The Guardian.
Chambers translated Bambi, by Felix Salten, into English.
Bibliography of Whittaker Chambers
History of Soviet espionage in the United States
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients
List of American spies
Harry Dexter White
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Chambers, Whittaker (May 1952). Witness. New
York: Random House. pp. 799 (total).
^ "Whittaker Chambers". Find A Grave. Retrieved September 25,
^ a b Packer, George (22 February 2016). "Turned Around". The New
Yorker. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
^ Staff."A Sad, Solemn Sweetness", Time (magazine), November 17, 1975.
Retrieved September 24, 2008. "Trilling's first and only novel,
published in 1947, made his name known in an unexpected circle—the
FBI. Titled The Middle of the Journey, the book described the
intellectual torture of a Communist in the process of quitting the
party. Reviews which praised its "assurance, literacy and
intelligence" aroused the interest of FBI agents investigating
Whittaker Chambers' allegations of spying by State Department official
Alger Hiss. Indeed Trilling had shared a class with Chambers when both
were Columbia students, and he frankly admitted fictionalizing
Chambers' story in his novel."
^ Tanenhaus 1998, p. 28
^ Ahearn, Barry (1983). Zukofsky's "A": An Introduction. Berkeley, CA:
University of California Press. p. 12. Retrieved 5 March
^ Meier, Andrew (August 11, 2008). The Lost Spy: An American in
Stalin's Secret Service. W. W. Norton. pp. 224–267, 289–300.
^ Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. "Soviets at Work". marxists.org. Retrieved 4
^ Tanenhaus 1998, pp. 70–71
^ "Translations". WhittakerChambers.org. Retrieved January 28,
^ Haynes, John Earl; Klehr, Harvey (2000). Venona: Decoding Soviet
Espionage in America. Yale University Press. pp. 62, 63, 64.
^ Haynes, John Earlne; Klehr, Harvey (2000). Venona: Decoding Soviet
Espionage in America. Yale University Press. pp. 91, 126, 65, 90.
^ Tanenhaus 1998, pp. 131–133
^ Tanenhaus 1998, pp. 159–161
^ Weinstein 1997, p. 292
^ Tanenhaus 1998, pp. 163, 203–204
^ Olmsted, Kathryn S. (2002). Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth
Bentley. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 32.
^ "Night Thoughts". Time. May 8, 1948. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
^ Tanenhaus 1998, pp. 174–175
^ Reidel, James (2007). 'Vanished Act: The Life and Art of Weldon
Kees. University of Nebraska Press. p. 121.
^ Herzstein, Robert E. (2005). Henry R. Luce, Time, and the American
Crusade in Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 42–43.
^ Saroyan, William (1940). Love's Old Sweet Song: A Play in Three
Acts. Samuel French. pp. 72, 76. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
^ Weinstein 1997, p. 354
^ a b Tanenhaus 1998, p. 175
^ Vanderlan, Robert (2011). Intellectuals Incorporated: Politics, Art,
and Ideas Inside Henry Luce's Media Empire. University of Pennsylvania
Press. p. 239. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
^ Dee, Jonathan (1986). "John Hersey, The Art of Fiction No. 92".
Paris Review. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
^ "Time's People and Time's Children". Time. March 8, 1948.
^ Weinstein, Allen (1978). Perjury: The Hiss–Chambers Case. New
York: Knopf. p. 183. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
^ "TIME - Cover Stories". WhittakerChambers.org. Retrieved 21 June
^ Weinstein 1997, p. 308
^ a b c Linder, Douglas. "The
Alger Hiss Trials". "Famous Trials".
University Of Missouri-Kansas City School Of Law. Archived from the
original on August 30, 2006.
^ Truman, Harry (21 March 1947). "
Executive Order 9835
Executive Order 9835 Prescribing
Procedures For The Administration Of An Employees Loyalty Program In
The Executive Branch Of The Government". The
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^ a b Tanenhaus, Sam. "c-cpan interview, 5/26/02". Retrieved 8
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Chambers, Whittaker (1952). Witness. New York: Random House.
Chambers, Whittaker (1964). Cold Friday. New York: Random House.
Tanenhaus, Sam (1998). Whittaker Chambers: A Biography. Modern
Library. ISBN 0-375-75145-9.
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"Writings of Whittaker Chambers". American Writers: A Journey Through
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1. Booknotes. C-SPAN. 78890-1. , "Part 2". Mar 2, 1997.
Berresford, John (Feb 2014). "A Pumpkin Patch, A Typewriter, And
Richard Nixon: The Hiss–Chambers Espionage Case". YouTube. Lecture
series, 38 pt.
"Whittaker Chambers". Contemporary Authors Online (CAO). Gale. 2009.
Soviet and Russian spies
In the US
1940s and before
William Ward Pigman
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Harry Dexter White
1950s and 1960s
Robert Lee Johnson
1970s and after
David Sheldon Boone
Christopher John Boyce
Thomas Patrick Cavanaugh
James Hall III
Edward Lee Howard
Andrew Daulton Lee
Clayton J. Lonetree
Harold James Nicholson
Earl Edwin Pitts
John Anthony Walker
In the UK
Portland Spy Ring
Alan Nunn May
Michael John Smith
John Alexander Symonds
Stephen Joseph Ratkai
Alexander Gregory Barmine
Vladimir Mikhaylovich Petrov
ISNI: 0000 0001 0954 1397
BNF: cb13321358w (da