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The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga
Kannadiga
dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya
Chalukya
after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan
Basavakalyan
in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka
Karnataka
state, and alternatively the Later Chalukya
Chalukya
from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of Badami. The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
controlled most of Deccan and Central India
Central India
for over two centuries. In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital. The dynasty quickly rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I
Someshvara I
who moved the capital to Kalyani. For over a century, the two empires of Southern India, the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
of Tanjore
Tanjore
fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi. During these conflicts, the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi, distant cousins of the Western Chalukyas but related to the Cholas by marriage took sides with the Cholas further complicating the situation. During the rule of Vikramaditya VI, in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the Western Chalukyas convincingly contended with the Cholas and reached a peak ruling territories that spread over most of the Deccan, between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River
Kaveri River
in the south.[3][4][5][6] His exploits were not limited to the south for even as a prince, during the rule of Someshvara I, he had led successful military campaigns as far east as modern Bihar
Bihar
and Bengal.[7][8][9] During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
and the Southern Kalachuris of Kalyani, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya
Chalukya
waned during the later half of the 12th century. The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
and that of the later Hoysala empire. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti, the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi. This was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India, especially in literature as the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings encouraged writers in the native language Kannada, and Sanskrit.

Contents

1 History 2 Administration 3 Economy 4 Culture

4.1 Religion 4.2 Society 4.3 Literature 4.4 Architecture 4.5 Language

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

History[edit]

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1028 AD from the rule of King Jayasimha II at the Praneshvara temple in Talagunda, Shivamogga district

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1057 AD of King Someshvara I
Someshvara I
at Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
in Bellary district

Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in Koppal district, Karnataka

Knowledge of Western Chalukya
Chalukya
history has come through examination of the numerous Kannada language
Kannada language
inscriptions left by the kings (scholars Sheldon Pollock and Jan Houben have claimed 90 percent of the Chalukyan royal inscriptions are in Kannada),[10][11] and from the study of important contemporary literary documents in Western Chalukya literature such as Gada Yuddha (982) in Kannada
Kannada
by Ranna
Ranna
and Vikramankadeva Charitam (1120) in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
by Bilhana.[12][13] The earliest record is dated 957, during the rule of Tailapa II
Tailapa II
when the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
were still a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
and Tailapa II
Tailapa II
governed from Tardavadi in present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka.[14][15] The genealogy of the kings of this empire is still debated. One theory, based on contemporary literary and inscriptional evidence plus the finding that the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
employed titles and names commonly used by the early Chalukyas, suggests that the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings belonged to the same family line as the illustrious Badami
Badami
Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of 6th-century,[16][17] while other Western Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptional evidence indicates they were a distinct line unrelated to the early Chalukyas.[18] The records suggests a possible rebellion by a local Chalukya
Chalukya
King, Chattigadeva of Banavasi-12000 province (c. 967), in alliance with local Kadamba chieftains. This rebellion however was unfruitful but paved the way for his successor Tailapa II.[19] A few years later, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
re-established Chalukya
Chalukya
rule and defeated the Rashtrakutas during the reign of Karka II
Karka II
by timing his rebellion to coincide with the confusion caused in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
capital of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
by the invading Paramaras of Central India
Central India
in 973.[20][21] After overpowering the Rashtrakutas, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
moved his capital to Manyakheta
Manyakheta
and consolidated the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire in the western Deccan by subjugating the Paramara
Paramara
and other aggressive rivals and extending his control over the land between the Narmada River
Narmada River
and Tungabhadra River.[22] However, some inscriptions indicate that Balagamve in Mysore territory may have been a power centre up to the rule of Someshvara I
Someshvara I
in 1042.[23] The intense competition between the kingdom of the western Deccan and those of the Tamil country came to the fore in the 11th century over the acutely contested fertile river valleys in the doab region of the Krishna
Krishna
and Godavari River
Godavari River
called Vengi (modern coastal Andhra Pradesh). The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
and the Chola Dynasty
Chola Dynasty
fought many bitter wars over control of this strategic resource. The imperial Cholas gained power during the time of the famous king Rajaraja Chola I and the crown prince Rajendra Chola I.[24] The Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi were cousins of the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
but became increasingly influenced by the Cholas through their marital ties with the Tamil kingdom. As this was against the interests of the Western Chalukyas, they wasted no time in involving themselves politically and militarily in Vengi. When King Satyashraya succeeded Tailapa II
Tailapa II
to the throne, he was able to protect his kingdom from Chola aggression as well as his northern territories in Konkan
Konkan
and Gujarat
Gujarat
although his control over Vengi was shaky.[25][26] His successor, Jayasimha II, fought many battles with the Cholas in the south around c. 1020–21 when both these powerful kingdoms struggled to choose the Vengi king.[26][27] Shortly thereafter in c. 1024, Jayasimha II subdued the Paramara
Paramara
of central India and the rebellious Yadava King Bhillama.[26]

Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasties

Badami
Badami
Chalukyas

Pulakeshin I 543–566

Kirtivarman I 566–597

Mangalesha 597–609

Pulakeshin II 609–642

Vikramaditya I 655–680

Vinayaditya 680–696

Vijayaditya 696–733

Vikramaditya II 733–746

Kirtivarman II 746–753

Vengi / Eastern Chalukyas

Kubja Vishnuvardhana 624–641

Jayasimha I 641–673

Indra Bhattaraka 673

Vishnu Vardhana II 673–682

Mangi Yuvaraja 682–706

Jayasimha II 706–718

Kokkili 719

Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
III 719–755

Vijayaditya I 755–772

Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
IV 772–808

Vijayaditya II 808–847

Kali Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
V 847–849

Vijayaditya III 849–892

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima
Bhima
I 892–921

Vijayaditya IV 921

Amma I 921–927

Beta Vijayaditya V 927

Tala I 927

Vikramaditya II 927–928

Bhima
Bhima
II 928

Yuddhamalla II 928–935

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima
Bhima
II 935–947

Amma II 947–970

Tala I 970

Danarnava 970–973

Jata Choda Bhima 973–999

Shaktivarman I 1000–1011

Vimaladitya 1011–1018

Rajaraja Narendra 1019–1061

Vijayaditya VII

Kalyani / Western Chalukyas

Tailapa II 957–997

Satyashraya 997–1008

Vikramaditya V 1008–1015

Jayasimha II 1015–1042

Someshvara I 1042–1068

Someshvara II 1068–1076

Vikramaditya VI 1076–1126

Someshvara III 1126–1138

Jagadhekamalla II 1138–1151

Tailapa III 1151–1164

Jagadhekamalla III 1163–1183

Someshvara IV 1184–1200

v t e

It is known from records that Jayasimha's son Someshvara I, whose rule historian Sen considers a brilliant period in the Western Chalukya rule, moved the Chalukya
Chalukya
capital to Kalyani in c. 1042.[28][29] Hostilities with the Cholas continued while both sides won and lost battles, though neither lost significant territory[30][31] during the ongoing struggle to install a puppet on the Vengi throne.[29][32][33] In 1068 Someshvara I, suffering from an incurable illness, drowned himself in the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
(Paramayoga).[34][35][36] Despite many conflicts with the Cholas in the south, Someshvara I
Someshvara I
had managed to maintain control over the northern territories in Konkan, Gujarat, Malwa
Malwa
and Kalinga during his rule. His successor, his eldest son Someshvara II, feuded with his younger brother, Vikramaditya VI, an ambitious warrior who had initially been governor of Gangavadi in the southern Deccan when Someshvara II
Someshvara II
was the king. Before 1068, even as a prince, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
had invaded Bengal, weakening the ruling Pala Empire. These incursions led to the establishment of Karnata dynasties such as the Sena dynasty
Sena dynasty
and Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
in Bengal, and the Nayanadeva dynasty in Bihar.,[7][8][9] Married to a Chola princess (a daughter of Vira Rajendra Chola), Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
maintained a friendly alliance with them. After the death of the Chola king in 1070, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
invaded the Tamil kingdom and installed his brother-in-law, Adhirajendra, on the throne creating conflict with Kulothunga Chola I, the powerful ruler of Vengi who sought the Chola throne for himself.[37] At the same time Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
undermined his brother, Someshvara II, by winning the loyalty of the Chalukya feudatories: the Hoysala, the Seuna
Seuna
and the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Hangal. Anticipating a civil war, Someshvara II
Someshvara II
sought help from Vikramaditya VI's enemies, Kulothunga Chola I
Kulothunga Chola I
and the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa. In the ensuing conflict of 1076, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
emerged victorious and proclaimed himself king of the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire.[38][39] The fifty-year reign of Vikramaditya VI, the most successful of the later Chalukya
Chalukya
rulers, was an important period in Karnataka's history and is referred to by historians as the " Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikrama era".[40][41][42] Not only was he successful in controlling his powerful feudatories in the north (Kadamba Jayakesi II of Goa, Silhara Bhoja and the Yadava King) and south (Hoysala Vishnuvardhana), he successfully dealt with the imperial Cholas whom he defeated in the battle of Vengi in 1093 and again in 1118. He retained this territory for many years despite ongoing hostilities with the Cholas.[3][4][5][6] This victory in Vengi reduced the Chola influence in the eastern Deccan and made him emperor of territories stretching from the Kaveri River
Kaveri River
in the south to the Narmada River
Narmada River
in the north, earning him the titles Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla (lord of three worlds). The scholars of his time paid him glowing tributes for his military leadership, interest in fine arts and religious tolerance.[43][44] Literature proliferated and scholars in Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
adorned his court. Poet Bilhana, who immigrated from far away Kashmir, eulogised the king in his well-known work Vikramankadeva Charita.[45][46] Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
was not only an able warrior but also a devout king as indicated by his numerous inscriptions that record grants made to scholars and centers of religion.[47][48]

Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
of Kalyana, coin of King Somesvara I
Somesvara I
Trailokyamalla (1043-1068). Temple façade / Ornate floral ornament.[49]

Coin of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyana (Western Chalukyas). King Somesvara IV (1181-4/1189). Garuda, with prominent beak, running right / “Dapaga dapasa Murari(?)” in Kannada
Kannada
in three lines divided by pelleted lines.[50]

The continual warring with the Cholas exhausted both empires, giving their subordinates the opportunity to rebel.[48][51] In the decades after Vikramaditya VI's death in 1126, the empire steadily decreased in size as their powerful feudatories expanded in autonomy and territorial command.[48][52] The time period between 1150 and 1200 saw many hard fought battles between the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and their feudatories who were also at war with each other. By the time of Jagadhekamalla II, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
had lost control of Vengi and his successor, Tailapa III, was defeated by the Kakatiya
Kakatiya
king Prola in 1149.[52] Tailapa III was taken captive and later released bringing down the prestige of the Western Chalukyas. Seeing decadence and uncertainty seeping into Chalukya
Chalukya
rule, the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and Seunas also encroached upon the empire. Hoysala Narasimha I defeated and killed Tailapa III but was unable to overcome the Kalachuris who were vying for control of the same region. In 1157 the Kalachuris of Kalyanis under Bijjala II captured Kalyani and occupied it for the next twenty years, forcing the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
to move their capital to Annigeri
Annigeri
in the present day Dharwad district.[52][53] The Kalachuris were originally immigrants into the southern Deccan from central India and called themselves Kalanjarapuravaradhisavaras.[54] Bijjala II and his ancestors had governed as Chalukya
Chalukya
commanders (Mahamandaleshwar) over the Karhad-4000 and Tardavadi-1000 provinces (overlapping region in present-day Karnataka
Karnataka
and Maharashtra) with Mangalavada[55] or Annigeri[56] as their capital. Bijjala II's Chikkalagi record of 1157 calls him Mahabhujabala Chakravarti ("emperor with powerful shoulders and arms") indicating he no longer was a subordinate of the Chalukyas.[55] However the successors of Bijjala II were unable to hold on to Kalyani and their rule ended in 1183 when the last Chalukya scion, Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
made a final bid to regain the empire by recapturing Kalyani.[53][56] Kalachuri
Kalachuri
King Sankama was killed by Chalukya
Chalukya
general Narasimha in this conflict.[57][58] During this time, Hoysala Veera Ballala II
Veera Ballala II
was growing ambitious and clashed on several occasions with the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the other claimants over their empire. He defeated Chalukya
Chalukya
Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
and Seuna
Seuna
Bhillama V bringing large regions in the Krishna River
Krishna River
valley under the Hoysala domains, but was unsuccessful against Kalachuris.[59] The Seunas under Bhillama V were on an imperialistic expansion too when the Chalukyas regained Kalyani. Their ambitions were temporarily stemmed by their defeat against Chalukya
Chalukya
general Barma in 1183 but they later had their vengeance in 1189.[60] The overall effort by Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
to rebuild the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire failed and the dynasty was ended by the Seuna
Seuna
rulers who drove Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
into exile in Banavasi
Banavasi
1189. After the fall of the Chalukyas, the Seunas and Hoysalas
Hoysalas
continued warring over the Krishna River region in 1191, each inflicting a defeat on the other at various points in time.[61] This period saw the fall of two great empires, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of the western Deccan and the Cholas of Tamilakam. On the ruins of these two empires were built the Kingdoms of their feudatories whose mutual antagonisms filled the annals of Deccan history for over a hundred years, the Pandyas
Pandyas
taking control over some regions of the erstwhile Chola empire.[62] Administration[edit]

Mallikarjuna group of temples at Badami
Badami
in Bagalkot district, Karnataka

The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kingship was hereditary, passing to the king's brother if the king did not have a male heir. The administration was highly decentralised and feudatory clans such as the Alupas, the Hoysalas, the Kakatiya, the Seuna, the southern Kalachuri
Kalachuri
and others were allowed to rule their autonomous provinces, paying an annual tribute to the Chalukya
Chalukya
emperor.[63] Excavated inscriptions record titles such as Mahapradhana (Chief minister), Sandhivigrahika, and Dharmadhikari (chief justice). Some positions such as Tadeyadandanayaka (commander of reserve army) were specialised in function while all ministerial positions included the role of Dandanayaka (commander), showing that cabinet members were trained as army commanders as well as in general administrative skills.[64] The kingdom was divided into provinces such as Banavasi-12000, Nolambavadi-32000, Gangavadi-96000, each name including the number of villages under its jurisdiction. The large provinces were divided into smaller provinces containing a lesser number of villages, as in Belavola-300. The big provinces were called Mandala and under them were Nadu further divided into Kampanas (groups of villages) and finally a Bada (village). A Mandala was under a member of the royal family, a trusted feudatory or a senior official. Tailapa II
Tailapa II
himself was in charge of Tardavadi province during the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
rule. Chiefs of Mandalas were transferable based on political developments. For example, an official named Bammanayya administered Banavasi-12000 under King Someshvara III
Someshvara III
but was later transferred to Halasige-12000. Women from the royal family also administered Nadus and Kampanas. Army commanders were titled Mahamandaleshwaras and those who headed a Nadu were entitled Nadugouvnda.[65] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
minted punch-marked gold pagodas with Kannada and Nagari legends[66] which were large, thin gold coins with several varying punch marks on the obverse side. They usually carried multiple punches of symbols such as a stylised lion, Sri in Kannada,[67] a spearhead, the king's title, a lotus and others. Jayasimha II used the legend Sri Jaya, Someshvara I
Someshvara I
issued coins with Sri Tre lo ka malla, Someshvara II
Someshvara II
used Bhuvaneka malla, Lakshmideva's coin carried Sri Lasha, and Jagadhekamalla II
Jagadhekamalla II
coinage had the legend Sri Jagade. The Alupas, a feudatory, minted coins with the Kannada
Kannada
and Nagari legend Sri Pandya
Pandya
Dhanamjaya.[68] Lakkundi
Lakkundi
in Gadag district
Gadag district
and Sudi
Sudi
in Dharwad district
Dharwad district
were the main mints (Tankhashaley). Their heaviest gold coin was Gadyanaka weighting 96 grains, Dramma weighted 65 grains, Kalanju 48 grains, Kasu 15 grains, Manjadi 2.5 grains, Akkam 1.25 grains and Pana 9.6 grain.[69] Economy[edit]

Ornate mantapa at Kalleshvara Temple (987 CE) in Bagali, Davanagere district

Agriculture was the empire's main source of income through taxes on land and produce. The majority of the people lived in villages and worked farming the staple crops of rice, pulses, and cotton in the dry areas and sugarcane in areas having sufficient rainfall, with areca and betel being the chief cash crops. The living conditions of the labourers who farmed the land must have been bearable as there are no records of revolts by the landless against wealthy landlords. If peasants were disgruntled the common practice was to migrate in large numbers out of the jurisdiction of the ruler who was mistreating them, thereby depriving him of revenue from their labor.[70] Taxes were levied on mining and forest products, and additional income was raised through tolls for the use of transportation facilities. The state also collected fees from customs, professional licenses, and judicial fines.[71] Records show horses and salt were taxed as well as commodities (gold, textiles, perfumes) and agricultural produce (black pepper, paddy, spices, betel leaves, palm leaves, coconuts and sugar). Land tax assessment was based on frequent surveys evaluating the quality of land and the type of produce. Chalukya
Chalukya
records specifically mention black soil and red soil lands in addition to wetland, dry land and wasteland in determining taxation rates.[72]

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Empire Rashtrakuta
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v t e

Key figures mentioned in inscriptions from rural areas were the Gavundas (officials) or Goudas. The Gavundas belonged to two levels of economic strata, the Praja Gavunda (people's Gavunda) and the Prabhu Gavunda (lord of Gavundas). They served the dual purpose of representing the people before the rulers as well as functioning as state appointees for tax collection and the raising of militias. They are mentioned in inscriptions related to land transactions, irrigation maintenance, village tax collection and village council duties.[73] The organisation of corporate enterprises became common in the 11th century.[74] Almost all arts and crafts were organised into guilds and work was done on a corporate basis; records do not mention individual artists, sculptors and craftsman. Only in the regions ruled by the Hoysala did individual sculptors etched their names below their creations.[75] Merchants organised themselves into powerful guilds that transcended political divisions, allowing their operations to be largely unaffected by wars and revolutions. Their only threat was the possibility of theft from brigands when their ships and caravans traveled to distant lands. Powerful South Indian merchant guilds included the Manigramam, the Nagarattar and the Anjuvannam. Local guilds were called nagaram, while the Nanadesis were traders from neighbouring kingdoms who perhaps mixed business with pleasure. The wealthiest and most influential and celebrated of all South Indian merchant guilds was the self-styled Ainnurruvar, also known as the 500 Svamis of Ayyavolepura ( Brahmins
Brahmins
and Mahajanas of present-day Aihole),[76][77] who conducted extensive land and sea trade and thereby contributed significantly to the total foreign trade of the empire. It fiercely protected its trade obligations (Vira Bananjudharma or law of the noble merchants) and its members often recorded their achievements in inscriptions (prasasti). Five hundred such excavated Prasasti inscriptions, with their own flag and emblem, the bull, record their pride in their business. Rich traders contributed significantly to the king's treasury through paying import and export taxes. The edicts of the Aihole
Aihole
Svamis mention trade ties with foreign kingdoms such as Chera, Pandya, Maleya (Malaysia), Magadh, Kaushal, Saurashtra, Kurumba, Kambhoja (Cambodia), Lata (Gujarat), Parasa (Persia) and Nepal. Travelling both land and sea routes, these merchants traded mostly in precious stones, spices and perfumes, and other specialty items such as camphor. Business flourished in precious stones such as diamonds, lapis lazuli, onyx, topaz, carbuncles and emeralds. Commonly traded spices were cardamom, saffron, and cloves, while perfumes included the by-products of sandalwood, bdellium, musk, civet and rose. These items were sold either in bulk or hawked on streets by local merchants in towns.[78] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
controlled most of South India's west coast and by the 10th century they had established extensive trade ties with the Tang Empire
Tang Empire
of China, the empires of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Abbasid Caliphate in Bhagdad, and by the 12th century Chinese fleets were frequenting Indian ports. Exports to Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
China
China
included textiles, spices, medicinal plants, jewels, ivory, rhino horn, ebony and camphor. The same products also reached ports in the west such as Dhofar
Dhofar
and Aden. The final destinations for those trading with the west were Persia, Arabia and Egypt.[79] The thriving trade center of Siraf, a port on the eastern coast of the Persian Gulf, served an international clientele of merchants including those from the Chalukya empire who were feasted by wealthy local merchants during business visits. An indicator of the Indian merchants' importance in Siraf comes from records describing dining plates reserved for them.[80] In addition to this, Siraf
Siraf
received aloe wood, perfumes, sandalwood and condiments. The most expensive import to South India
South India
were Arabian horse shipments, this trade being monopolised by Arabs and local Brahmin
Brahmin
merchants. Traveller Marco Polo, in the 13th century, recorded that the breeding of horses never succeeded in India due to differing climatic, soil and grassland conditions.[79] Culture[edit] Religion[edit] See also: Ramanujacharya, Basavanna, Allama Prabhu, and Akka Mahadevi

Basavanna
Basavanna
Statue

A Hero stone
Hero stone
with old Kannada
Kannada
inscription (1115 AD) during the rule of Vikarmaditya VI at the Kedareshvara temple in Balligavi

The fall of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire to the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
in the 10th century, coinciding with the defeat of the Western Ganga Dynasty by the Cholas in Gangavadi, was a setback to Jainism. The growth of Virashaivism
Virashaivism
in the Chalukya
Chalukya
territory and Vaishnava Hinduism
Hinduism
in the Hoysala region paralleled a general decreased interest in Jainism, although the succeeding kingdoms continued to be religiously tolerant.[81] Two locations of Jain
Jain
worship in the Hoysala territory continued to be patronaged, Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
and Kambadahalli. The decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in South India
South India
had begun in the 8th century with the spread of Adi Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
philosophy.[82] The only places of Buddhist worship that remained during the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
rule were at Dambal
Dambal
and Balligavi.[2] There is no mention of religious conflict in the writings and inscriptions of the time which suggest the religious transition was smooth. Although the origin of the Virashaiva
Virashaiva
faith has been debated, the movement grew through its association with Basavanna
Basavanna
in the 12th century.[83][84] Basavanna
Basavanna
and other Virashaiva
Virashaiva
saints preached of a faith without a caste system. In his Vachanas
Vachanas
(a form of poetry), Basavanna
Basavanna
appealed to the masses in simple Kannada
Kannada
and wrote "work is worship" (Kayakave Kailasa). Also known as the Lingayats
Lingayats
(worshipers of the Linga, the universal symbol of Shiva), these Virashaivas questioned many of the established norms of society such as the belief in rituals and the theory of rebirth and supported the remarriage of widows and the marriage of unwed older women.[85] This gave more social freedom to women but they were not accepted into the priesthood. Ramanujacharya, the head of the Vaishnava monastery in Srirangam, traveled to the Hoysala territory and preached the way of devotion (bhakti marga). He later wrote Sribhashya, a commentary on Badarayana Brahmasutra, a critique on the Advaita
Advaita
philosophy of Adi Shankara.[86] Ramanujacharya's stay in Melkote
Melkote
resulted in the Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
converting to Vaishnavism, a faith that his successors also followed. The impact of these religious developments on the culture, literature, and architecture in South India
South India
was profound. Important works of metaphysics and poetry based on the teachings of these philosophers were written over the next centuries. Akka Mahadevi, Allama Prabhu, and a host of Basavanna's followers, including Chenna Basava, Prabhudeva, Siddharama, and Kondaguli Kesiraja wrote hundreds of poems called Vachanas
Vachanas
in praise of Lord Shiva.[87] The esteemed scholars in the Hoysala court, Harihara and Raghavanka, were Virashaivas.[88] This tradition continued into the Vijayanagar empire
Vijayanagar empire
with such well-known scholars as Singiraja, Mallanarya, Lakkana Dandesa and other prolific writers of Virashaiva
Virashaiva
literature.[89][90] The Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu dynasties of the Vijayanagar empire
Vijayanagar empire
were followers of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and a Vaishnava temple with an image of Ramanujacharya exists today in the Vitthalapura area of Vijayanagara.[91] Scholars in the succeeding Mysore Kingdom wrote Vaishnavite works supporting the teachings of Ramanujacharya.[92] King Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
built many temples after his conversion from Jainism
Jainism
to Vaishnavism.[93] Society[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Society

Kirtimukha
Kirtimukha
relief at Kedareswara Temple in Balligavi, Shimoga district

The rise of Veerashaivaism was revolutionary and challenged the prevailing Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system
which retained royal support. The social role of women largely depended on their economic status and level of education in this relatively liberal period. Freedom was more available to women in the royal and affluent urban families. Records describe the participation of women in the fine arts, such as Chalukya queen Chandala Devi's and Kalachuris of Kalyani
Kalachuris of Kalyani
queen Sovala Devi's skill in dance and music. The compositions of thirty Vachana
Vachana
women poets included the work of the 12th-century Virashaiva
Virashaiva
mystic Akka Mahadevi whose devotion to the bhakti movement is well known.[94] Contemporary records indicate some royal women were involved in administrative and martial affairs such as princess Akkadevi, (sister of King Jayasimha II) who fought and defeated rebellious feudals.[95][96] Inscriptions emphasise public acceptance of widowhood indicating that Sati (a custom in which a dead man's widow used to immolate herself on her husband's funeral pyre) though present was on a voluntary basis.[97] Ritual deaths to achieve salvation were seen among the Jains who preferred to fast to death (Sallekhana), while people of some other communities chose to jump on spikes (Shoolabrahma) or walking into fire on an eclipse. In a Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system
that was conspicuously present, Brahmins enjoyed a privileged position as providers of knowledge and local justice. These Brahmins
Brahmins
were normally involved in careers that revolved around religion and learning with the exception of a few who achieved success in martial affairs. They were patronised by kings, nobles and wealthy aristocrats who persuaded learned Brahmins
Brahmins
to settle in specific towns and villages by making them grants of land and houses. The relocation of Brahmin
Brahmin
scholars was calculated to be in the interest of the kingdom as they were viewed as persons detached from wealth and power and their knowledge was a useful tool to educate and teach ethical conduct and discipline in local communities. Brahmins
Brahmins
were also actively involved in solving local problems by functioning as neutral arbiters (Panchayat).[98] Regarding eating habits, Brahmins, Jains, Buddhists and Shaivas were strictly vegetarian while the partaking of different kinds of meat was popular among other communities. Marketplace vendors sold meat from domesticated animals such as goats, sheep, pigs and fowl as well as exotic meat including partridge, hare, wild fowl and boar.[99] People found indoor amusement by attending wrestling matches (Kusti) or watching animals fight such as cock fights and ram fights or by gambling. Horse racing was a popular outdoor past time.[100] In addition to these leisurely activities, festivals and fairs were frequent and entertainment by traveling troupes of acrobats, dancers, dramatists and musicians was often provided.[101] Schools and hospitals are mentioned in records and these were built in the vicinity of temples. Marketplaces served as open air town halls where people gathered to discuss and ponder local issues. Choirs, whose main function was to sing devotional hymns, were maintained at temple expense. Young men were trained to sing in choirs in schools attached to monasteries such as Hindu Matha, Jain
Jain
Palli and Buddhist Vihara.[102] These institutions provided advanced education in religion and ethics and were well equipped with libraries (Saraswati Bhandara). Learning was imparted in the local language and in Sanskrit. Schools of higher learning were called Brahmapuri (or Ghatika or Agrahara). Teaching Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was a near monopoly of Brahmins
Brahmins
who received royal endowments for their cause. Inscriptions record that the number of subjects taught varied from four to eighteen.[103] The four most popular subjects with royal students were Economics (Vartta), Political Science (Dandaniti), Veda (trayi) and Philosophy (Anvikshiki), subjects that are mentioned as early as Kautilyas Arthashastra. Literature[edit] Main article: Kannada
Kannada
literature in the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire

Grill work at Tripurantkesvara temple in Balligavi, Shimoga district

The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
era was one of substantial literary activity in the native Kannada, and Sanskrit.[104] In a golden age of Kannada literature,[105] Jain
Jain
scholars wrote about the life of Tirthankaras and Virashaiva
Virashaiva
poets expressed their closeness to God through pithy poems called Vachanas. Nearly three hundred contemporary Vachanakaras ( Vachana
Vachana
poets) including thirty women poets have been recorded.[106][107] Early works by Brahmin
Brahmin
writers were on the epics, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata, Puranas
Puranas
and Vedas. In the field of secular literature, subjects such as romance, erotics, medicine, lexicon, mathematics, astrology, encyclopedia etc. were written for the first time.[108][109] Most notable among Kannada
Kannada
scholars were Ranna, grammarian Nagavarma II, minister Durgasimha and the Virashaiva
Virashaiva
saint and social reformer Basavanna. Ranna
Ranna
who was patronised by king Tailapa II
Tailapa II
and Satyashraya is one among the "three gems of Kannada
Kannada
literature".[110] He was bestowed the title "Emperor among poets" (Kavi Chakravathi) by King Tailapa II
Tailapa II
and has five major works to his credit. Of these, Saahasabheema Vijayam (or Gada yuddha) of 982 in Champu style is a eulogy of his patron King Satyashraya whom he compares to Bhima
Bhima
in valour and achievements and narrates the duel between Bhima
Bhima
and Duryodhana
Duryodhana
using clubs on the eighteenth day of the Mahabharata war.[111] He wrote Ajitha purana
Ajitha purana
in 993 describing the life of the second Tirthankara, Ajitanatha.[112][113] Nagavarma II, poet laureate (Katakacharya) of King Jagadhekamalla II made contributions to Kannada
Kannada
literature in various subjects.[114][115] His works in poetry, prosody, grammar and vocabulary are standard authorities and their importance to the study of Kannada language
Kannada language
is well acknowledged. Kavyavalokana in poetics, Karnataka-Bhashabhushana on grammar and Vastukosa a lexicon (with Kannada
Kannada
equivalents for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words) are some of his comprehensive contributions.[116] Several works on medicine were produced during this period. Notable among them were Jagaddala Somanatha's Karnataka Kalyana Karaka.[117]

A popular Vachana
Vachana
poem in the Kannada language
Kannada language
by Akka Mahadevi

A unique and native form of poetic literature in Kannada
Kannada
called Vachanas
Vachanas
developed during this time. They were written by mystics, who expressed their devotion to God in simple poems that could appeal to the masses. Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi, Allama Prabhu, Channabasavanna and Siddharama are the best known among them.[118] In Sanskrit, a well-known poem (Mahakavya) in 18 cantos called Vikramankadeva Charita by Kashmiri poet Bilhana recounts in epic style the life and achievements of his patron king Vikramaditya VI. The work narrates the episode of Vikramaditya VI's accession to the Chalukya throne after overthrowing his elder brother Someshvara II.[119] The great Indian mathematician Bhāskara II (born c.1114) flourished during this time. From his own account in his famous work Siddhanta Siromani (c. 1150, comprising the Lilavati, Bijaganita on algebra, Goladhaya on the celestial globe and Grahaganita on planets) Bijjada Bida (modern Bijapur) was his native place.[120] Manasollasa
Manasollasa
or Abhilashitartha Chintamani by king Someshvara III (1129) was a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work intended for all sections of society. This is an example of an early encyclopedia in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
covering many subjects including medicine, magic, veterinary science, valuing of precious stones and pearls, fortifications, painting, music, games, amusements etc.[121] While the book does not give any of dealt topics particular hierarchy of importance, it serves as a landmark in understanding the state of knowledge in those subjects at that time.[122] Someshwara III also authored a biography of his famous father Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
called Vikraman-Kabhyudaya. The text is a historical prose narrative which also includes a graphic description of the geography and people of Karnataka.[123] A Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholar Vijnaneshwara became famous in the field of legal literature for his Mitakshara, in the court of Vikramaditya VI. Perhaps the most acknowledged work in that field, Mitakshara is a treatise on law (commentary on Yajnavalkya) based on earlier writings and has found acceptance in most parts of modern India. An Englishman Colebrooke later translated into English the section on inheritance giving it currency in the British Indian court system.[124] Some important literary works of the time related to music and musical instruments were Sangita Chudamani, Sangita Samayasara and Sangita Ratnakara.[125] Architecture[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architecture

Typical Western Chalukya
Chalukya
dravida Vimana at Siddesvara temple in Haveri, Karnataka

The reign of Western Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
was an important period in the development of Deccan architecture. The architecture designed during this time served as a conceptual link between the Badami
Badami
Chalukya Architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala architecture popularised in the 13th century.[126][127] The art of the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
is sometimes called the " Gadag
Gadag
style" after the number of ornate temples they built in the Tungabhadra River- Krishna River
Krishna River
doab region of present-day Gadag district
Gadag district
in Karnataka.[128] The dynasty's temple building activity reached its maturity and culmination in the 12th century with over a hundred temples built across the Deccan, more than half of them in present-day central Karnataka.[129][130] Apart from temples, the dynasty's architecture is well known for the ornate stepped wells (Pushkarni) which served as ritual bathing places, a few of which are well preserved in Lakkundi. These stepped well designs were later incorporated by the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and the Vijayanagara empire in the coming centuries.[131][132]

Ornate pillars at Saraswati temple in Gadag
Gadag
city, Karnataka

The Kasivisvesvara Temple
Kasivisvesvara Temple
at Lakkundi
Lakkundi
( Gadag
Gadag
district),[133][134] the Dodda Basappa Temple
Dodda Basappa Temple
at Dambal
Dambal
( Gadag
Gadag
district),[135][136] the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti (Bellary district),[134][137] the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali (Davangere district),[137][138] the Siddhesvara Temple
Siddhesvara Temple
at Haveri
Haveri
( Haveri
Haveri
district),[139][140] the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri
Annigeri
(Dharwad district),[141] the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi (Koppal district),[142][143] the Kaitabheshvara Temple at Kubatur,[144] and the Kedareshvara Temple at Balligavi
Balligavi
are the finest examples produced by the later Chalukya
Chalukya
architects.[145] The 12th-century Mahadeva Temple with its well executed sculptures is an exquisite example of decorative detail. The intricate, finely crafted carvings on walls, pillars and towers speak volumes about Chalukya taste and culture. An inscription outside the temple calls it "Emperor of Temples" (devalaya chakravarti) and relates that it was built by Mahadeva, a commander in the army of king Vikramaditya VI.[146][147] The Kedareswara Temple (1060) at Balligavi
Balligavi
is an example of a transitional Chalukya-Hoysala architectural style.[148][149] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
built temples in Badami
Badami
and Aihole
Aihole
during their early phase of temple building activity, such as Mallikarjuna Temple, the Yellamma Temple and the Bhutanatha group
Bhutanatha group
of Temples.[150][151]

Brahma Jinalaya
Brahma Jinalaya
at Lakkundi
Lakkundi
dates to the mid-late 11th century

The vimana of their temples (tower over the shrine) is a compromise in detail between the plain stepped style of the early Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the decorative finish of the Hoysalas.[127] To the credit of the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architects is the development of the lathe turned (tuned) pillars and use of Soapstone
Soapstone
(Chloritic Schist) as basic building and sculptural material, a very popular idiom in later Hoysala temples. They popularised the use of decorative Kirtimukha
Kirtimukha
(demon faces) in their sculptures. Famous architects in the Hoysala kingdom included Chalukyan architects who were natives of places such as Balligavi.[152] The artistic wall decor and the general sculptural idiom was dravidian architecture.[132] This style is sometimes called Karnata dravida, one of the notable traditions in Indian architecture.[153] Language[edit]

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription ascribed to King Vikramaditya VI, dated 1112 CE at Mahadeva Temple in Itagi, Karnataka

The local language Kannada
Kannada
was mostly used in Western (Kalyani) Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions and epigraphs. Some historians assert that ninety percent of their inscriptions are in the Kannada language
Kannada language
while the remaining are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language.[154][155] More inscriptions in Kannada
Kannada
are attributed to Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
than any other king prior to the 12th century,[156] many of which have been deciphered and translated by historians of the Archaeological Survey of India.[13] Inscriptions were generally either on stone (Shilashasana) or copper plates (Tamarashasana). This period saw the growth of Kannada
Kannada
as a language of literature and poetry, impetus to which came from the devotional movement of the Virashaivas (called Lingayatism) who expressed their closeness to their deity in the form of simple lyrics called Vachanas.[157] At an administrative level, the regional language was used to record locations and rights related to land grants. When bilingual inscriptions were written, the section stating the title, genealogy, origin myths of the king and benedictions were generally done in Sanskrit. Kannada
Kannada
was used to state terms of the grants, including information on the land, its boundaries, the participation of local authorities, rights and obligations of the grantee, taxes and dues, and witnesses. This ensured the content was clearly understood by the local people without any ambiguity.[158] In addition to inscriptions, chronicles called Vamshavalis were written to provide historical details of dynasties. Writings in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
included poetry, grammar, lexicon, manuals, rhetoric, commentaries on older works, prose fiction and drama. In Kannada, writings on secular subjects became popular. Some well-known works are Chandombudhi, a prosody, and Karnataka
Karnataka
Kadambari, a romance, both written by Nagavarma I, a lexicon called Rannakanda by Ranna
Ranna
(993), a book on medicine called Karnataka-Kalyanakaraka by Jagaddala Somanatha, the earliest writing on astrology called Jatakatilaka by Sridharacharya (1049), a writing on erotics called Madanakatilaka by Chandraraja, and an encyclopedia called Lokapakara by Chavundaraya II (1025).[109][159] See also[edit]

Rashtrakutas Chola dynasty Vikramaditya VI Kulothunga Chola I Balligavi

Notes[edit]

^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.  ^ a b An inscription dated 1095 CE of Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
mentions grants to a Vihara
Vihara
of Buddha and Arya-Taradevi (Cousens 1926, p11) ^ a b Quote:"From 1118, Ananthapala, Vikramaditya VI's famous general is described as the ruler of Vengi, other Chalukyan commanders are found established in other parts of Telugu country and the Chola power practically disappears for a number of years thereafter. Thus Kulotunga sustained another curtailment of his empire which by the end of his reign was practically confined to Tamil country and a relatively small area of the adjoining Telugu districts".(Sastri 1955, p175) ^ a b Quote:" Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
led an expedition against the Cholas in c. 1085 and captured Kanchi and held it for some years. Vikramaditya VI succeeded in conquering major parts of Vengi Kingdom in 1088. Kollipakei-7000, a province of Vengi was under his control for long after this. Vengi was under his control from c. 1093 to 1099 and though it was recaptured by the Cholas in 1099, he reconquered it in c. 1118 and held it till 1124" (Kamath 2001, p105). Vikramaditya VI successfully subdued the Hoysalas, the Silharas of Konkan, the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa, the Pandyas
Pandyas
of Uchangi, the Seuna
Seuna
of Devagiri, the Kakatiya
Kakatiya
of Warangal, the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chedi of Ratnapur and the rulers of the Malwa
Malwa
territories south of the Narmada river (Kamath 2001, p105) ^ a b Quote:"About AD 1118 Vikramaditya's diplomatic and military skill enabled the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
to end Chola ascendancy on Vengi and bring that province back within the sphere of influence of Kalyani"(Chopra 2003, p139, part1) ^ a b Quote:"From about 1118 to the end of Vikramaditya's reign, and for some years thereafter, the Chola power seized to exist in Vengi" (Sen 1999, p387) ^ a b B.P. Sinha in George E. Somers, Dynastic History Of Magadha, p.214, Abhinav Publications, 1977, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7017-059-1 ^ a b Sen (1999), p282 ^ a b Majumdar, R. C. (1977), Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, p320, New Delhi, ISBN 81-208-0436-8 ^ Pollock (2006), pp. 288–289, 332 ^ Houben(1996), p. 215 ^ Kamath (2001), pp10–12, p100 ^ a b Sastry, Shama & Rao, N. Lakshminarayana. "Kannada inscriptions". Archaeological survey of India, South Indian inscriptions, Saturday, November 18, 2006. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. Retrieved 2006-12-28.  ^ The province of Tardavadi, lying in the very heart of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire, was given to Tailapa II
Tailapa II
as a fief (provincial grant) by Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Krishna III
Krishna III
for services rendered in war (Sastri 1955, p162) ^ Kamath (2001), p101 ^ poet Bilhana's 12th-century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work Vikramadeva Charitam and Ranna's Kannada
Kannada
work Gadayuddha (982) and inscriptions from Nilagunda, Yevvur, Kauthem and Miraj claim Tailapa II
Tailapa II
was son of Vikramaditya IV, seventh in descent from Bhima, brother of Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikramaditya II (Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Kings of the Chalukya
Chalukya
line of Vemulavada, who were certainly from the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
family line used the title "Malla" which is often used by the Western Chalukyas. Names such as "Satyashraya" which were used by the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
are also name of a Western Chalukya
Chalukya
king, (Gopal B.R. in Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Unlike the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, the Kalyani Chalukyas
Chalukyas
did not claim to be Harithiputhras of Manavysya gotra in lineage. The use of titles like Tribhuvanamalla marked them of as a distinct line (Fleet, Bhandarkar and Altekar in Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Moraes (1931), pp88-93 ^ Later legends and tradition hailed Tailapa as an incarnation of the God Krishna
Krishna
who fought 108 battles against the race of Ratta (Rashtrakuta) and captured 88 fortresses from them (Sastri 1955, p162) ^ According to a 973 inscription, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
helped by Kadambas
Kadambas
of Hangal, destroyed the Rattas (Rashtrakutas), killed the valiant Munja (of the Paramara
Paramara
kingdom), took the head of Panchala
Panchala
(Ganga dynasty) and restored the royal dignity of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Moraes 1931, pp 93–94) ^ Sastri (1955), p164 ^ A minor capital of Jayasimha II (Cousens 1926, p10, p105) ^ King Rajaraja Chola conquered parts of Chalukya
Chalukya
territory in present-day South Karnataka
Karnataka
by subjugating the Western Ganga Dynasty of Gangavadi (Kamath 2001, p102) ^ From the Hottur inscriptions dated 1007 – 1008, Satyashraya was able to defeat crown prince Rajendra Chola (Kamath 2001, p102) ^ a b c Sen (1999), p383 ^ Jayasimha's choice was Vijayaditya VII while the Cholas sought to place Rajaraja Narendra, son-in-law of Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
(Kamath 2001, p102 ^ Quote:"Beautified it so that it surpassed all the other cities of the earth" (Cousens 1926, p10) ^ a b Sen (1999), p384 ^ Ganguli in Kamath 2001, p103 ^ Sastri (1955), p166 ^ Someshvara I
Someshvara I
supported the cause of Shaktivarman II, son of Vijayaditya II while the Cholas preferred Rajendra, son of the previous king Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra
(Kamath 2001, p103) ^ Sastri (1955), p169 ^ Kamath (2001), p104 ^ Sastri (1955), p170 ^ Cousens (1926), pp10–11 ^ Sastri (1955), p171 ^ Sastri 1955, p172 ^ Eulogising Vikramaditya VI, Kashmiri poet Bilhana wrote in his Vikramanakadeva Charita that lord Shiva
Shiva
himself advised Chalukya Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
to replace his elder brother from the throne (Thapar 2003, p468) ^ Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
abolished the saka era and established the Vikrama-varsha (Vikrama era). Most Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions thereafter are dated to this new era (Cousens 1926, p11) ^ Vikramaditya's rule is mentioned as an era (samvat) along with Satavahana
Satavahana
Vikrama era 58 BCE, Shaka era, of 78 CE, Harshavardhana era of 606 CE (Thapar, 2003, pp 468–469) ^ Sen (1999), p386 ^ Vijnyaneshavara, his court scholar in Sanskrit, wrote of him as a king like none other (Kamath 2001, p106) ^ Cousens (1926), p12 ^ Bilhana called the reign "Rama Rajya" in his writing that consisted of 18 cantos. The last canto of this work is about the life of author himself who writes that the work was composed by him in gratitude for the great honor bestowed upon him by the ruler of Karnata (Sastri 1955, p315) ^ Bilhana was made Vidyapati (chief pandit) by the king (Cousens 1926, p12) ^ No other king prior to the Vijayanagara rulers have left behind so many records as Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
(Kamath 2001, p105) ^ a b c Sen (1999), p387 ^ CNG Coins ^ CNG Coins ^ Their feudatories, Hoysalas
Hoysalas
of Mysore region, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Seunas of Devagiri
Devagiri
and the Pandyas
Pandyas
of Madurai wasted no time in seizing the opportunity, (Sastri 1955,p158) ^ a b c Sastri (1955), p176 ^ a b Sen (1999), p388 ^ Kamath (2001), p107 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p108 ^ a b Cousens (1926), p13 ^ From the Minajagi record of 1184 (Kamath 2001, p109) ^ A Kalachuri
Kalachuri
commander called Barmideva or Brahma is known to have given support to the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Sastri 1955, p179–180) ^ Kamath (2001), p127 ^ Sen (1999), pp388-389 ^ Sastri (1955), p180 ^ Sastri (1955), p192 ^ Kamath (2001), p110 ^ Kamath (2001), p109 ^ There was flexibility to the terms used to designate territorial division (Dikshit G.S. in Kamath 2001, p110) ^ Coins of Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
with Kannada
Kannada
legends have been found (Kamath 2001, p12) ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South-Chalukyas". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South-Alupas". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. Archived from the original on 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Kamath (2001), p111 ^ Thapar (2002), p373 ^ Thapar (2002), p378 ^ Sastri (1955), p298 ^ Thapar (2002), p379 ^ Thapar (2002), p382 ^ Sastri (1955), p299 ^ Sastri (1955), p300 ^ Thapar (2002), p384 ^ Sastri (1955), 301 ^ a b Thapar (2002), 383 ^ Sastri (1955), p302 ^ Kamath (2001), p112, p132 ^ A 16th-century Buddhist work by Lama Taranatha speaks disparagingly of Shankaracharya as close parallels in some beliefs of Shankaracharya with Buddhist philosophy was not viewed favourably by Buddhist writers (Thapar, 2003, pp 349–350, p397) ^ It is said five earlier saints Renuka, Daruka, Ekorama, Panditharadhya and Vishwaradhya were the original founders of Virashaivism
Virashaivism
(Kamath 2001, p152) ^ However it is argued that these saints were from the same period as Basavanna
Basavanna
(Sastri 1955, p393) ^ Thapar (2003), p399 ^ He criticised Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
as a "Buddhist in disguise" (Kamath 2001, p151) ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p20 ^ Sastri (1955), p361–362 ^ Kamath (2001), p182 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p22 ^ Mack (2001), pp35–36 ^ Kamath (2001), p152 ^ Kamath K.L., November 04,2006. "Hoysala Temples of Belur". © 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-01. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ She was not only a pioneer in the era of Women's emancipation but also an example of a transcendental world-view (Thapar 2003, p392) ^ Sastri (1955), p286 ^ This is in stark contrast to the literature of the time (like Vikramankadeva Charita of Bilhana) that portrayed women as retiring, overly romantic and unconcerned with affairs of the state (Thapar 2003, p392) ^ The Belathur inscription of 1057 describes the end of a widow called Dekabbe who committed Sati despite the requests of her parents not to while some widows such as Chalukya
Chalukya
queen Attimabbe
Attimabbe
long survived their deceased husbands (Kamath 2001, pp 112–113) ^ The intellectual qualifications of the Brahmins
Brahmins
made them apt to serve as ministers and advisers of Kings(Rajguru), (Charles Eliot in Sastri 1955, p289) ^ Sastri (1955), p288 ^ Sastri (1955), p289 ^ The Manasollasa
Manasollasa
written by King Someshvara III
Someshvara III
contains significant information of the social life of Western Chalukyan times (Kamath 2001, p112) ^ Orchestras were popularised by the Kalamukhas, a cult who worshipped Lord Shiva
Lord Shiva
(Kamath 2001, p115) ^ Sastri (1955), p292 ^ Kamath (2001), p114 ^ Sen (1999), p. 393 ^ S.S.Basavanal in Puranik, p4452, (1992) ^ Sastri (1955), p361 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp18–20 ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), pp61–65 ^ The other two gems are Adikavi Pampa and Sri Ponna (Sastri 1955, p356) ^ A composition written in a mixed prose-verse style is called Champu (Narasimhacharya 1988, p12) ^ This also is in Champu style and was written at the request of Attimabbe, a pious widow of general Nagavarma who promoted the cause of Jainism
Jainism
(Sastri 1955, p356) ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p32 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp64–65, ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p34 ^ Nagavarma II was the teacher (guru) of another noteworthy scholar Janna
Janna
who later adorned the court of Hoysala Empire
Hoysala Empire
(Sastri 1955, p358) ^ Narasimhachar (1988), p.63 ^ Vachanas
Vachanas
are disconnected paragraphs ending with a name attributed to lord Shiva
Shiva
or one of his forms. The poems teach the valuelessness of riches, rituals and book learning and the spiritual privileges of worshipping Shiva, (B.L. Rice
Rice
in Sastri 1955, p361) ^ Thapar (2003), p394 ^ "Mathematical Achievements of Pre-modern Indian Mathematicians", Putta Swamy T.K., 2012, chapter=Bhaskara II, p331, Elsevier Publications, London, ISBN 978-0-12-397913-1 ^ Thapar, (2003), p393 ^ Sastri (1955), p315 ^ A Textbook of Historiography, 500 B.C. to A.D. 2000 by E. Sreedharan p.328 ^ Sastri (1955), p324 ^ Sangita Ratnakara being written in the court of feudatory Seuna kingdom, (Kamath 2001, p115) ^ An important period in the development of Indian art (Kamath 2001, p115) ^ a b Sastri (1955), p427 ^ Kannikeswaran. "Temples of Karnataka, Kalyani Chalukyan temples". webmaster@templenet.com,1996–2006. Retrieved 2006-12-16.  ^ A fabulous revival of Chalukya
Chalukya
temple building in central Karnataka in the 11th century (Foekema (1996), p14) ^ Hardy (1995), pp156-157 ^ Davison-Jenkins (2001), p89 ^ a b Kamiya, Takeo. "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent,20 September 1996". Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Cousens (1926), pp79–82 ^ a b Hardy (1995), p336 ^ Cousens (1926), pp114–115 ^ Hardy (1995), p326 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p117 ^ Hardy (1995), p323 ^ Cousens (1926), pp85–87 ^ Hardy (1995), p330 ^ Hardy (1995), p321 ^ Cousens (1926), pp100–102 ^ Hardy (1995), p333 ^ Hardy (1995), p335 ^ Hardy (1995), p324 ^ Quote:"A title it fully deserves, for it is probably the finest temple in Kanarese districts, after Halebidu"(Cousens 1926, p101) ^ Rao, Kishan. "Emperor of Temples crying for attention". The Hindu, June 10, 2002. The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Cousens (1926), pp105–106 ^ Githa U.B. "Balligavi-An important seat of learning". ©Chitralakshana.com 2002. Chitralakshana. Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2006-12-15.  ^ Hardy (1995), p 157 ^ Gunther, Michael D 2002. "Monuments of India - V". Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Kamath (2001), pp116–118 ^ Hardy (1995), pp6–7 ^ Pollock (2006), p332 ^ Houben(1996), p215 ^ Thousands of Kannada language
Kannada language
inscriptions are ascribed by Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
and pertain to his daily land and charitable grants (Nityadana),Kamat, Jyotsna. " Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyana". 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-24.  ^ Kannada
Kannada
enjoyed patronage from royalty, influential Jains and the Lingayat
Lingayat
movement of Virashaivas (Thapar 2003, p396) ^ However by the 14th century, bilingual inscriptions lost favour and inscriptions became mostly in the local language (Thapar, 2003, pp393–95) ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p33

References[edit] Book

Chopra, P.N.; Ravindran, T.K.; Subrahmanian, N (2003) [2003]. History of South India
South India
(Ancient, Medieval and Modern) Part 1. New Delhi: Chand Publications. ISBN 81-219-0153-7.  Cousens, Henry (1996) [1926]. The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese Districts. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 37526233.  Davison-Jenkins, Dominic J. (2001). "Hydraulic works". In John M. Fritz and George Michell (editors). New Light on Hampi : Recent Research at Vijayanagara. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Foekema, Gerard (1996). A Complete Guide To Hoysala Temples. New Delhi: Abhinav. ISBN 81-7017-345-0.  Hardy, Adam (1995) [1995]. Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation-The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-312-4.  Houben, Jan E.M. (1996) [1996]. Ideology and Status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the History of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10613-8.  Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) [1980]. A concise history of Karnataka : from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041.  Mack, Alexandra (2001). "The temple district of Vitthalapura". In John M. Fritz and George Michell (editors). New Light on Hampi : Recent Research at Vijayanagara. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Moraes, George M. (1990) [1931]. The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0595-0.  Narasimhacharya, R (1988) [1988]. History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 81-206-0303-6.  Pollock, Sheldon (2006) [2006]. The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24500-8.  Puranik, Siddya (1992). " Vachana
Vachana
literature (Kannada)". In Mohal Lal. Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: sasay to zorgot. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1221-8.  Rice, E.P. (1982) [1921]. Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0063-0.  Sastri, Nilakanta K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India
South India
from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.  Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999) [1999]. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age Publishers. ISBN 81-224-1198-3.  Thapar, Romila (2003) [2003]. The Penguin History of Early India. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-302989-4. 

Web

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire.

Kamiya, Takeyo. "Architecture of Indian subcontinent". Indian Architecture. Gerard da Cunha. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani". Dynasties of Deccan. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  "Indian Inscriptions, Vol 9,11,15,17,18,20". Archaeological Survey of India. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Githa U.B. " Balligavi
Balligavi
- An important seat of learning". History of Indian Art. Chitralakshana.com 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  Gunther, Michael D. "Index IV, Late Chalukya". Monuments of India. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Kannikeswaran, K. "Kalyani Chalukyan temples". TempleNet. webmaster@templenet.com. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Prabhu, Govindaraya S. "Alupa Dynasty-catalogue". Prabhu's web page on Indian Coins. Archived from the original on 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Prabhu, Govindaraya S. " Chalukya
Chalukya
Dynasty-catalogue". Prabhu's web page on Indian Coins. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Rao, Kishan. "Emperor among Temples crying for attention". Southern States - Karnataka. The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 

v t e

Historical places of Chalukyas

Karnataka

Badami Aihole Pattadakal Mahakuta Sudi Banashankari Lakkundi Dambal Gadag Mahadeva Temple, Itagi Lakshmeshwara Annigeri Kundgol Chaudayyadanapura Galaganatha Hangal Hooli Jalasangvi Basavakalyan Manyakheta Chandramouleshwara Temple
Chandramouleshwara Temple
Unkal Hubli-Dharwad Haveri Kuruvatti

Maharashtra

Elephanta Caves Ajanta cave #1 paintings Sangli Sangli
Sangli
State Hottal near Deglur Kolhapur Latur Dhule Solapur Manapura Mumbai Akola Nanded Hottal in Nanded
Nanded
District Naldurg Aurad Omerga Daitya Sudan temple Shiva
Shiva
temples at Pen Naldurg

Telangana

Bhadrakali Temple in Warangal Someshwara temple in Warangal Thousand Pillar Temple
Thousand Pillar Temple
in Hanamakonda Ramappa Temple
Ramappa Temple
near Warangal Alampur, Mahbubnagar Panagal Bhuvanagiri Fort Kulpakji
Kulpakji
and Jangaon, Warangal

Andhra Pradesh

Chebrolu, Guntur district Eluru Kolletikota Nidumolu Rajahmundry Vengi Terela village in Durgi mandal in Guntur district

v t e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period ( Brahmin
Brahmin
ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami
Badami
Chalukyas Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism
Hinduism
(ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta - Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge Univ

.
Western Chalukya
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The Info List - Western Chalukya


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The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga
Kannadiga
dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya
Chalukya
after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan
Basavakalyan
in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka
Karnataka
state, and alternatively the Later Chalukya
Chalukya
from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of Badami. The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
controlled most of Deccan and Central India
Central India
for over two centuries. In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital. The dynasty quickly rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I
Someshvara I
who moved the capital to Kalyani. For over a century, the two empires of Southern India, the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
of Tanjore
Tanjore
fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi. During these conflicts, the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi, distant cousins of the Western Chalukyas but related to the Cholas by marriage took sides with the Cholas further complicating the situation. During the rule of Vikramaditya VI, in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the Western Chalukyas convincingly contended with the Cholas and reached a peak ruling territories that spread over most of the Deccan, between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River
Kaveri River
in the south.[3][4][5][6] His exploits were not limited to the south for even as a prince, during the rule of Someshvara I, he had led successful military campaigns as far east as modern Bihar
Bihar
and Bengal.[7][8][9] During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
and the Southern Kalachuris of Kalyani, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya
Chalukya
waned during the later half of the 12th century. The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
and that of the later Hoysala empire. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti, the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi. This was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India, especially in literature as the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings encouraged writers in the native language Kannada, and Sanskrit.

Contents

1 History 2 Administration 3 Economy 4 Culture

4.1 Religion 4.2 Society 4.3 Literature 4.4 Architecture 4.5 Language

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

History[edit]

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1028 AD from the rule of King Jayasimha II at the Praneshvara temple in Talagunda, Shivamogga district

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1057 AD of King Someshvara I
Someshvara I
at Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
in Bellary district

Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in Koppal district, Karnataka

Knowledge of Western Chalukya
Chalukya
history has come through examination of the numerous Kannada language
Kannada language
inscriptions left by the kings (scholars Sheldon Pollock and Jan Houben have claimed 90 percent of the Chalukyan royal inscriptions are in Kannada),[10][11] and from the study of important contemporary literary documents in Western Chalukya literature such as Gada Yuddha (982) in Kannada
Kannada
by Ranna
Ranna
and Vikramankadeva Charitam (1120) in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
by Bilhana.[12][13] The earliest record is dated 957, during the rule of Tailapa II
Tailapa II
when the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
were still a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
and Tailapa II
Tailapa II
governed from Tardavadi in present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka.[14][15] The genealogy of the kings of this empire is still debated. One theory, based on contemporary literary and inscriptional evidence plus the finding that the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
employed titles and names commonly used by the early Chalukyas, suggests that the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings belonged to the same family line as the illustrious Badami
Badami
Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of 6th-century,[16][17] while other Western Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptional evidence indicates they were a distinct line unrelated to the early Chalukyas.[18] The records suggests a possible rebellion by a local Chalukya
Chalukya
King, Chattigadeva of Banavasi-12000 province (c. 967), in alliance with local Kadamba chieftains. This rebellion however was unfruitful but paved the way for his successor Tailapa II.[19] A few years later, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
re-established Chalukya
Chalukya
rule and defeated the Rashtrakutas during the reign of Karka II
Karka II
by timing his rebellion to coincide with the confusion caused in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
capital of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
by the invading Paramaras of Central India
Central India
in 973.[20][21] After overpowering the Rashtrakutas, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
moved his capital to Manyakheta
Manyakheta
and consolidated the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire in the western Deccan by subjugating the Paramara
Paramara
and other aggressive rivals and extending his control over the land between the Narmada River
Narmada River
and Tungabhadra River.[22] However, some inscriptions indicate that Balagamve in Mysore territory may have been a power centre up to the rule of Someshvara I
Someshvara I
in 1042.[23] The intense competition between the kingdom of the western Deccan and those of the Tamil country came to the fore in the 11th century over the acutely contested fertile river valleys in the doab region of the Krishna
Krishna
and Godavari River
Godavari River
called Vengi (modern coastal Andhra Pradesh). The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
and the Chola Dynasty
Chola Dynasty
fought many bitter wars over control of this strategic resource. The imperial Cholas gained power during the time of the famous king Rajaraja Chola I and the crown prince Rajendra Chola I.[24] The Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi were cousins of the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
but became increasingly influenced by the Cholas through their marital ties with the Tamil kingdom. As this was against the interests of the Western Chalukyas, they wasted no time in involving themselves politically and militarily in Vengi. When King Satyashraya succeeded Tailapa II
Tailapa II
to the throne, he was able to protect his kingdom from Chola aggression as well as his northern territories in Konkan
Konkan
and Gujarat
Gujarat
although his control over Vengi was shaky.[25][26] His successor, Jayasimha II, fought many battles with the Cholas in the south around c. 1020–21 when both these powerful kingdoms struggled to choose the Vengi king.[26][27] Shortly thereafter in c. 1024, Jayasimha II subdued the Paramara
Paramara
of central India and the rebellious Yadava King Bhillama.[26]

Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasties

Badami
Badami
Chalukyas

Pulakeshin I 543–566

Kirtivarman I 566–597

Mangalesha 597–609

Pulakeshin II 609–642

Vikramaditya I 655–680

Vinayaditya 680–696

Vijayaditya 696–733

Vikramaditya II 733–746

Kirtivarman II 746–753

Vengi / Eastern Chalukyas

Kubja Vishnuvardhana 624–641

Jayasimha I 641–673

Indra Bhattaraka 673

Vishnu Vardhana II 673–682

Mangi Yuvaraja 682–706

Jayasimha II 706–718

Kokkili 719

Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
III 719–755

Vijayaditya I 755–772

Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
IV 772–808

Vijayaditya II 808–847

Kali Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
V 847–849

Vijayaditya III 849–892

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima
Bhima
I 892–921

Vijayaditya IV 921

Amma I 921–927

Beta Vijayaditya V 927

Tala I 927

Vikramaditya II 927–928

Bhima
Bhima
II 928

Yuddhamalla II 928–935

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima
Bhima
II 935–947

Amma II 947–970

Tala I 970

Danarnava 970–973

Jata Choda Bhima 973–999

Shaktivarman I 1000–1011

Vimaladitya 1011–1018

Rajaraja Narendra 1019–1061

Vijayaditya VII

Kalyani / Western Chalukyas

Tailapa II 957–997

Satyashraya 997–1008

Vikramaditya V 1008–1015

Jayasimha II 1015–1042

Someshvara I 1042–1068

Someshvara II 1068–1076

Vikramaditya VI 1076–1126

Someshvara III 1126–1138

Jagadhekamalla II 1138–1151

Tailapa III 1151–1164

Jagadhekamalla III 1163–1183

Someshvara IV 1184–1200

v t e

It is known from records that Jayasimha's son Someshvara I, whose rule historian Sen considers a brilliant period in the Western Chalukya rule, moved the Chalukya
Chalukya
capital to Kalyani in c. 1042.[28][29] Hostilities with the Cholas continued while both sides won and lost battles, though neither lost significant territory[30][31] during the ongoing struggle to install a puppet on the Vengi throne.[29][32][33] In 1068 Someshvara I, suffering from an incurable illness, drowned himself in the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
(Paramayoga).[34][35][36] Despite many conflicts with the Cholas in the south, Someshvara I
Someshvara I
had managed to maintain control over the northern territories in Konkan, Gujarat, Malwa
Malwa
and Kalinga during his rule. His successor, his eldest son Someshvara II, feuded with his younger brother, Vikramaditya VI, an ambitious warrior who had initially been governor of Gangavadi in the southern Deccan when Someshvara II
Someshvara II
was the king. Before 1068, even as a prince, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
had invaded Bengal, weakening the ruling Pala Empire. These incursions led to the establishment of Karnata dynasties such as the Sena dynasty
Sena dynasty
and Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
in Bengal, and the Nayanadeva dynasty in Bihar.,[7][8][9] Married to a Chola princess (a daughter of Vira Rajendra Chola), Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
maintained a friendly alliance with them. After the death of the Chola king in 1070, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
invaded the Tamil kingdom and installed his brother-in-law, Adhirajendra, on the throne creating conflict with Kulothunga Chola I, the powerful ruler of Vengi who sought the Chola throne for himself.[37] At the same time Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
undermined his brother, Someshvara II, by winning the loyalty of the Chalukya feudatories: the Hoysala, the Seuna
Seuna
and the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Hangal. Anticipating a civil war, Someshvara II
Someshvara II
sought help from Vikramaditya VI's enemies, Kulothunga Chola I
Kulothunga Chola I
and the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa. In the ensuing conflict of 1076, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
emerged victorious and proclaimed himself king of the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire.[38][39] The fifty-year reign of Vikramaditya VI, the most successful of the later Chalukya
Chalukya
rulers, was an important period in Karnataka's history and is referred to by historians as the " Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikrama era".[40][41][42] Not only was he successful in controlling his powerful feudatories in the north (Kadamba Jayakesi II of Goa, Silhara Bhoja and the Yadava King) and south (Hoysala Vishnuvardhana), he successfully dealt with the imperial Cholas whom he defeated in the battle of Vengi in 1093 and again in 1118. He retained this territory for many years despite ongoing hostilities with the Cholas.[3][4][5][6] This victory in Vengi reduced the Chola influence in the eastern Deccan and made him emperor of territories stretching from the Kaveri River
Kaveri River
in the south to the Narmada River
Narmada River
in the north, earning him the titles Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla (lord of three worlds). The scholars of his time paid him glowing tributes for his military leadership, interest in fine arts and religious tolerance.[43][44] Literature proliferated and scholars in Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
adorned his court. Poet Bilhana, who immigrated from far away Kashmir, eulogised the king in his well-known work Vikramankadeva Charita.[45][46] Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
was not only an able warrior but also a devout king as indicated by his numerous inscriptions that record grants made to scholars and centers of religion.[47][48]

Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
of Kalyana, coin of King Somesvara I
Somesvara I
Trailokyamalla (1043-1068). Temple façade / Ornate floral ornament.[49]

Coin of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyana (Western Chalukyas). King Somesvara IV (1181-4/1189). Garuda, with prominent beak, running right / “Dapaga dapasa Murari(?)” in Kannada
Kannada
in three lines divided by pelleted lines.[50]

The continual warring with the Cholas exhausted both empires, giving their subordinates the opportunity to rebel.[48][51] In the decades after Vikramaditya VI's death in 1126, the empire steadily decreased in size as their powerful feudatories expanded in autonomy and territorial command.[48][52] The time period between 1150 and 1200 saw many hard fought battles between the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and their feudatories who were also at war with each other. By the time of Jagadhekamalla II, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
had lost control of Vengi and his successor, Tailapa III, was defeated by the Kakatiya
Kakatiya
king Prola in 1149.[52] Tailapa III was taken captive and later released bringing down the prestige of the Western Chalukyas. Seeing decadence and uncertainty seeping into Chalukya
Chalukya
rule, the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and Seunas also encroached upon the empire. Hoysala Narasimha I defeated and killed Tailapa III but was unable to overcome the Kalachuris who were vying for control of the same region. In 1157 the Kalachuris of Kalyanis under Bijjala II captured Kalyani and occupied it for the next twenty years, forcing the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
to move their capital to Annigeri
Annigeri
in the present day Dharwad district.[52][53] The Kalachuris were originally immigrants into the southern Deccan from central India and called themselves Kalanjarapuravaradhisavaras.[54] Bijjala II and his ancestors had governed as Chalukya
Chalukya
commanders (Mahamandaleshwar) over the Karhad-4000 and Tardavadi-1000 provinces (overlapping region in present-day Karnataka
Karnataka
and Maharashtra) with Mangalavada[55] or Annigeri[56] as their capital. Bijjala II's Chikkalagi record of 1157 calls him Mahabhujabala Chakravarti ("emperor with powerful shoulders and arms") indicating he no longer was a subordinate of the Chalukyas.[55] However the successors of Bijjala II were unable to hold on to Kalyani and their rule ended in 1183 when the last Chalukya scion, Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
made a final bid to regain the empire by recapturing Kalyani.[53][56] Kalachuri
Kalachuri
King Sankama was killed by Chalukya
Chalukya
general Narasimha in this conflict.[57][58] During this time, Hoysala Veera Ballala II
Veera Ballala II
was growing ambitious and clashed on several occasions with the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the other claimants over their empire. He defeated Chalukya
Chalukya
Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
and Seuna
Seuna
Bhillama V bringing large regions in the Krishna River
Krishna River
valley under the Hoysala domains, but was unsuccessful against Kalachuris.[59] The Seunas under Bhillama V were on an imperialistic expansion too when the Chalukyas regained Kalyani. Their ambitions were temporarily stemmed by their defeat against Chalukya
Chalukya
general Barma in 1183 but they later had their vengeance in 1189.[60] The overall effort by Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
to rebuild the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire failed and the dynasty was ended by the Seuna
Seuna
rulers who drove Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
into exile in Banavasi
Banavasi
1189. After the fall of the Chalukyas, the Seunas and Hoysalas
Hoysalas
continued warring over the Krishna River region in 1191, each inflicting a defeat on the other at various points in time.[61] This period saw the fall of two great empires, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of the western Deccan and the Cholas of Tamilakam. On the ruins of these two empires were built the Kingdoms of their feudatories whose mutual antagonisms filled the annals of Deccan history for over a hundred years, the Pandyas
Pandyas
taking control over some regions of the erstwhile Chola empire.[62] Administration[edit]

Mallikarjuna group of temples at Badami
Badami
in Bagalkot district, Karnataka

The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kingship was hereditary, passing to the king's brother if the king did not have a male heir. The administration was highly decentralised and feudatory clans such as the Alupas, the Hoysalas, the Kakatiya, the Seuna, the southern Kalachuri
Kalachuri
and others were allowed to rule their autonomous provinces, paying an annual tribute to the Chalukya
Chalukya
emperor.[63] Excavated inscriptions record titles such as Mahapradhana (Chief minister), Sandhivigrahika, and Dharmadhikari (chief justice). Some positions such as Tadeyadandanayaka (commander of reserve army) were specialised in function while all ministerial positions included the role of Dandanayaka (commander), showing that cabinet members were trained as army commanders as well as in general administrative skills.[64] The kingdom was divided into provinces such as Banavasi-12000, Nolambavadi-32000, Gangavadi-96000, each name including the number of villages under its jurisdiction. The large provinces were divided into smaller provinces containing a lesser number of villages, as in Belavola-300. The big provinces were called Mandala and under them were Nadu further divided into Kampanas (groups of villages) and finally a Bada (village). A Mandala was under a member of the royal family, a trusted feudatory or a senior official. Tailapa II
Tailapa II
himself was in charge of Tardavadi province during the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
rule. Chiefs of Mandalas were transferable based on political developments. For example, an official named Bammanayya administered Banavasi-12000 under King Someshvara III
Someshvara III
but was later transferred to Halasige-12000. Women from the royal family also administered Nadus and Kampanas. Army commanders were titled Mahamandaleshwaras and those who headed a Nadu were entitled Nadugouvnda.[65] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
minted punch-marked gold pagodas with Kannada and Nagari legends[66] which were large, thin gold coins with several varying punch marks on the obverse side. They usually carried multiple punches of symbols such as a stylised lion, Sri in Kannada,[67] a spearhead, the king's title, a lotus and others. Jayasimha II used the legend Sri Jaya, Someshvara I
Someshvara I
issued coins with Sri Tre lo ka malla, Someshvara II
Someshvara II
used Bhuvaneka malla, Lakshmideva's coin carried Sri Lasha, and Jagadhekamalla II
Jagadhekamalla II
coinage had the legend Sri Jagade. The Alupas, a feudatory, minted coins with the Kannada
Kannada
and Nagari legend Sri Pandya
Pandya
Dhanamjaya.[68] Lakkundi
Lakkundi
in Gadag district
Gadag district
and Sudi
Sudi
in Dharwad district
Dharwad district
were the main mints (Tankhashaley). Their heaviest gold coin was Gadyanaka weighting 96 grains, Dramma weighted 65 grains, Kalanju 48 grains, Kasu 15 grains, Manjadi 2.5 grains, Akkam 1.25 grains and Pana 9.6 grain.[69] Economy[edit]

Ornate mantapa at Kalleshvara Temple (987 CE) in Bagali, Davanagere district

Agriculture was the empire's main source of income through taxes on land and produce. The majority of the people lived in villages and worked farming the staple crops of rice, pulses, and cotton in the dry areas and sugarcane in areas having sufficient rainfall, with areca and betel being the chief cash crops. The living conditions of the labourers who farmed the land must have been bearable as there are no records of revolts by the landless against wealthy landlords. If peasants were disgruntled the common practice was to migrate in large numbers out of the jurisdiction of the ruler who was mistreating them, thereby depriving him of revenue from their labor.[70] Taxes were levied on mining and forest products, and additional income was raised through tolls for the use of transportation facilities. The state also collected fees from customs, professional licenses, and judicial fines.[71] Records show horses and salt were taxed as well as commodities (gold, textiles, perfumes) and agricultural produce (black pepper, paddy, spices, betel leaves, palm leaves, coconuts and sugar). Land tax assessment was based on frequent surveys evaluating the quality of land and the type of produce. Chalukya
Chalukya
records specifically mention black soil and red soil lands in addition to wetland, dry land and wasteland in determining taxation rates.[72]

Part of a series on the

History of Karnataka

Political history of medieval Karnataka Origin of Karnataka's name Kadambas
Kadambas
and Gangas Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Empire Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire Southern Kalachuri Hoysala Empire Vijayanagara Empire Bahmani Sultanate Bijapur Sultanate Kingdom of Mysore Nayakas of Keladi Nayakas of Chitradurga Haleri Kingdom Unification of Karnataka

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Key figures mentioned in inscriptions from rural areas were the Gavundas (officials) or Goudas. The Gavundas belonged to two levels of economic strata, the Praja Gavunda (people's Gavunda) and the Prabhu Gavunda (lord of Gavundas). They served the dual purpose of representing the people before the rulers as well as functioning as state appointees for tax collection and the raising of militias. They are mentioned in inscriptions related to land transactions, irrigation maintenance, village tax collection and village council duties.[73] The organisation of corporate enterprises became common in the 11th century.[74] Almost all arts and crafts were organised into guilds and work was done on a corporate basis; records do not mention individual artists, sculptors and craftsman. Only in the regions ruled by the Hoysala did individual sculptors etched their names below their creations.[75] Merchants organised themselves into powerful guilds that transcended political divisions, allowing their operations to be largely unaffected by wars and revolutions. Their only threat was the possibility of theft from brigands when their ships and caravans traveled to distant lands. Powerful South Indian merchant guilds included the Manigramam, the Nagarattar and the Anjuvannam. Local guilds were called nagaram, while the Nanadesis were traders from neighbouring kingdoms who perhaps mixed business with pleasure. The wealthiest and most influential and celebrated of all South Indian merchant guilds was the self-styled Ainnurruvar, also known as the 500 Svamis of Ayyavolepura ( Brahmins
Brahmins
and Mahajanas of present-day Aihole),[76][77] who conducted extensive land and sea trade and thereby contributed significantly to the total foreign trade of the empire. It fiercely protected its trade obligations (Vira Bananjudharma or law of the noble merchants) and its members often recorded their achievements in inscriptions (prasasti). Five hundred such excavated Prasasti inscriptions, with their own flag and emblem, the bull, record their pride in their business. Rich traders contributed significantly to the king's treasury through paying import and export taxes. The edicts of the Aihole
Aihole
Svamis mention trade ties with foreign kingdoms such as Chera, Pandya, Maleya (Malaysia), Magadh, Kaushal, Saurashtra, Kurumba, Kambhoja (Cambodia), Lata (Gujarat), Parasa (Persia) and Nepal. Travelling both land and sea routes, these merchants traded mostly in precious stones, spices and perfumes, and other specialty items such as camphor. Business flourished in precious stones such as diamonds, lapis lazuli, onyx, topaz, carbuncles and emeralds. Commonly traded spices were cardamom, saffron, and cloves, while perfumes included the by-products of sandalwood, bdellium, musk, civet and rose. These items were sold either in bulk or hawked on streets by local merchants in towns.[78] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
controlled most of South India's west coast and by the 10th century they had established extensive trade ties with the Tang Empire
Tang Empire
of China, the empires of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Abbasid Caliphate in Bhagdad, and by the 12th century Chinese fleets were frequenting Indian ports. Exports to Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
China
China
included textiles, spices, medicinal plants, jewels, ivory, rhino horn, ebony and camphor. The same products also reached ports in the west such as Dhofar
Dhofar
and Aden. The final destinations for those trading with the west were Persia, Arabia and Egypt.[79] The thriving trade center of Siraf, a port on the eastern coast of the Persian Gulf, served an international clientele of merchants including those from the Chalukya empire who were feasted by wealthy local merchants during business visits. An indicator of the Indian merchants' importance in Siraf comes from records describing dining plates reserved for them.[80] In addition to this, Siraf
Siraf
received aloe wood, perfumes, sandalwood and condiments. The most expensive import to South India
South India
were Arabian horse shipments, this trade being monopolised by Arabs and local Brahmin
Brahmin
merchants. Traveller Marco Polo, in the 13th century, recorded that the breeding of horses never succeeded in India due to differing climatic, soil and grassland conditions.[79] Culture[edit] Religion[edit] See also: Ramanujacharya, Basavanna, Allama Prabhu, and Akka Mahadevi

Basavanna
Basavanna
Statue

A Hero stone
Hero stone
with old Kannada
Kannada
inscription (1115 AD) during the rule of Vikarmaditya VI at the Kedareshvara temple in Balligavi

The fall of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire to the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
in the 10th century, coinciding with the defeat of the Western Ganga Dynasty by the Cholas in Gangavadi, was a setback to Jainism. The growth of Virashaivism
Virashaivism
in the Chalukya
Chalukya
territory and Vaishnava Hinduism
Hinduism
in the Hoysala region paralleled a general decreased interest in Jainism, although the succeeding kingdoms continued to be religiously tolerant.[81] Two locations of Jain
Jain
worship in the Hoysala territory continued to be patronaged, Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
and Kambadahalli. The decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in South India
South India
had begun in the 8th century with the spread of Adi Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
philosophy.[82] The only places of Buddhist worship that remained during the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
rule were at Dambal
Dambal
and Balligavi.[2] There is no mention of religious conflict in the writings and inscriptions of the time which suggest the religious transition was smooth. Although the origin of the Virashaiva
Virashaiva
faith has been debated, the movement grew through its association with Basavanna
Basavanna
in the 12th century.[83][84] Basavanna
Basavanna
and other Virashaiva
Virashaiva
saints preached of a faith without a caste system. In his Vachanas
Vachanas
(a form of poetry), Basavanna
Basavanna
appealed to the masses in simple Kannada
Kannada
and wrote "work is worship" (Kayakave Kailasa). Also known as the Lingayats
Lingayats
(worshipers of the Linga, the universal symbol of Shiva), these Virashaivas questioned many of the established norms of society such as the belief in rituals and the theory of rebirth and supported the remarriage of widows and the marriage of unwed older women.[85] This gave more social freedom to women but they were not accepted into the priesthood. Ramanujacharya, the head of the Vaishnava monastery in Srirangam, traveled to the Hoysala territory and preached the way of devotion (bhakti marga). He later wrote Sribhashya, a commentary on Badarayana Brahmasutra, a critique on the Advaita
Advaita
philosophy of Adi Shankara.[86] Ramanujacharya's stay in Melkote
Melkote
resulted in the Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
converting to Vaishnavism, a faith that his successors also followed. The impact of these religious developments on the culture, literature, and architecture in South India
South India
was profound. Important works of metaphysics and poetry based on the teachings of these philosophers were written over the next centuries. Akka Mahadevi, Allama Prabhu, and a host of Basavanna's followers, including Chenna Basava, Prabhudeva, Siddharama, and Kondaguli Kesiraja wrote hundreds of poems called Vachanas
Vachanas
in praise of Lord Shiva.[87] The esteemed scholars in the Hoysala court, Harihara and Raghavanka, were Virashaivas.[88] This tradition continued into the Vijayanagar empire
Vijayanagar empire
with such well-known scholars as Singiraja, Mallanarya, Lakkana Dandesa and other prolific writers of Virashaiva
Virashaiva
literature.[89][90] The Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu dynasties of the Vijayanagar empire
Vijayanagar empire
were followers of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and a Vaishnava temple with an image of Ramanujacharya exists today in the Vitthalapura area of Vijayanagara.[91] Scholars in the succeeding Mysore Kingdom wrote Vaishnavite works supporting the teachings of Ramanujacharya.[92] King Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
built many temples after his conversion from Jainism
Jainism
to Vaishnavism.[93] Society[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Society

Kirtimukha
Kirtimukha
relief at Kedareswara Temple in Balligavi, Shimoga district

The rise of Veerashaivaism was revolutionary and challenged the prevailing Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system
which retained royal support. The social role of women largely depended on their economic status and level of education in this relatively liberal period. Freedom was more available to women in the royal and affluent urban families. Records describe the participation of women in the fine arts, such as Chalukya queen Chandala Devi's and Kalachuris of Kalyani
Kalachuris of Kalyani
queen Sovala Devi's skill in dance and music. The compositions of thirty Vachana
Vachana
women poets included the work of the 12th-century Virashaiva
Virashaiva
mystic Akka Mahadevi whose devotion to the bhakti movement is well known.[94] Contemporary records indicate some royal women were involved in administrative and martial affairs such as princess Akkadevi, (sister of King Jayasimha II) who fought and defeated rebellious feudals.[95][96] Inscriptions emphasise public acceptance of widowhood indicating that Sati (a custom in which a dead man's widow used to immolate herself on her husband's funeral pyre) though present was on a voluntary basis.[97] Ritual deaths to achieve salvation were seen among the Jains who preferred to fast to death (Sallekhana), while people of some other communities chose to jump on spikes (Shoolabrahma) or walking into fire on an eclipse. In a Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system
that was conspicuously present, Brahmins enjoyed a privileged position as providers of knowledge and local justice. These Brahmins
Brahmins
were normally involved in careers that revolved around religion and learning with the exception of a few who achieved success in martial affairs. They were patronised by kings, nobles and wealthy aristocrats who persuaded learned Brahmins
Brahmins
to settle in specific towns and villages by making them grants of land and houses. The relocation of Brahmin
Brahmin
scholars was calculated to be in the interest of the kingdom as they were viewed as persons detached from wealth and power and their knowledge was a useful tool to educate and teach ethical conduct and discipline in local communities. Brahmins
Brahmins
were also actively involved in solving local problems by functioning as neutral arbiters (Panchayat).[98] Regarding eating habits, Brahmins, Jains, Buddhists and Shaivas were strictly vegetarian while the partaking of different kinds of meat was popular among other communities. Marketplace vendors sold meat from domesticated animals such as goats, sheep, pigs and fowl as well as exotic meat including partridge, hare, wild fowl and boar.[99] People found indoor amusement by attending wrestling matches (Kusti) or watching animals fight such as cock fights and ram fights or by gambling. Horse racing was a popular outdoor past time.[100] In addition to these leisurely activities, festivals and fairs were frequent and entertainment by traveling troupes of acrobats, dancers, dramatists and musicians was often provided.[101] Schools and hospitals are mentioned in records and these were built in the vicinity of temples. Marketplaces served as open air town halls where people gathered to discuss and ponder local issues. Choirs, whose main function was to sing devotional hymns, were maintained at temple expense. Young men were trained to sing in choirs in schools attached to monasteries such as Hindu Matha, Jain
Jain
Palli and Buddhist Vihara.[102] These institutions provided advanced education in religion and ethics and were well equipped with libraries (Saraswati Bhandara). Learning was imparted in the local language and in Sanskrit. Schools of higher learning were called Brahmapuri (or Ghatika or Agrahara). Teaching Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was a near monopoly of Brahmins
Brahmins
who received royal endowments for their cause. Inscriptions record that the number of subjects taught varied from four to eighteen.[103] The four most popular subjects with royal students were Economics (Vartta), Political Science (Dandaniti), Veda (trayi) and Philosophy (Anvikshiki), subjects that are mentioned as early as Kautilyas Arthashastra. Literature[edit] Main article: Kannada
Kannada
literature in the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire

Grill work at Tripurantkesvara temple in Balligavi, Shimoga district

The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
era was one of substantial literary activity in the native Kannada, and Sanskrit.[104] In a golden age of Kannada literature,[105] Jain
Jain
scholars wrote about the life of Tirthankaras and Virashaiva
Virashaiva
poets expressed their closeness to God through pithy poems called Vachanas. Nearly three hundred contemporary Vachanakaras ( Vachana
Vachana
poets) including thirty women poets have been recorded.[106][107] Early works by Brahmin
Brahmin
writers were on the epics, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata, Puranas
Puranas
and Vedas. In the field of secular literature, subjects such as romance, erotics, medicine, lexicon, mathematics, astrology, encyclopedia etc. were written for the first time.[108][109] Most notable among Kannada
Kannada
scholars were Ranna, grammarian Nagavarma II, minister Durgasimha and the Virashaiva
Virashaiva
saint and social reformer Basavanna. Ranna
Ranna
who was patronised by king Tailapa II
Tailapa II
and Satyashraya is one among the "three gems of Kannada
Kannada
literature".[110] He was bestowed the title "Emperor among poets" (Kavi Chakravathi) by King Tailapa II
Tailapa II
and has five major works to his credit. Of these, Saahasabheema Vijayam (or Gada yuddha) of 982 in Champu style is a eulogy of his patron King Satyashraya whom he compares to Bhima
Bhima
in valour and achievements and narrates the duel between Bhima
Bhima
and Duryodhana
Duryodhana
using clubs on the eighteenth day of the Mahabharata war.[111] He wrote Ajitha purana
Ajitha purana
in 993 describing the life of the second Tirthankara, Ajitanatha.[112][113] Nagavarma II, poet laureate (Katakacharya) of King Jagadhekamalla II made contributions to Kannada
Kannada
literature in various subjects.[114][115] His works in poetry, prosody, grammar and vocabulary are standard authorities and their importance to the study of Kannada language
Kannada language
is well acknowledged. Kavyavalokana in poetics, Karnataka-Bhashabhushana on grammar and Vastukosa a lexicon (with Kannada
Kannada
equivalents for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words) are some of his comprehensive contributions.[116] Several works on medicine were produced during this period. Notable among them were Jagaddala Somanatha's Karnataka Kalyana Karaka.[117]

A popular Vachana
Vachana
poem in the Kannada language
Kannada language
by Akka Mahadevi

A unique and native form of poetic literature in Kannada
Kannada
called Vachanas
Vachanas
developed during this time. They were written by mystics, who expressed their devotion to God in simple poems that could appeal to the masses. Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi, Allama Prabhu, Channabasavanna and Siddharama are the best known among them.[118] In Sanskrit, a well-known poem (Mahakavya) in 18 cantos called Vikramankadeva Charita by Kashmiri poet Bilhana recounts in epic style the life and achievements of his patron king Vikramaditya VI. The work narrates the episode of Vikramaditya VI's accession to the Chalukya throne after overthrowing his elder brother Someshvara II.[119] The great Indian mathematician Bhāskara II (born c.1114) flourished during this time. From his own account in his famous work Siddhanta Siromani (c. 1150, comprising the Lilavati, Bijaganita on algebra, Goladhaya on the celestial globe and Grahaganita on planets) Bijjada Bida (modern Bijapur) was his native place.[120] Manasollasa
Manasollasa
or Abhilashitartha Chintamani by king Someshvara III (1129) was a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work intended for all sections of society. This is an example of an early encyclopedia in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
covering many subjects including medicine, magic, veterinary science, valuing of precious stones and pearls, fortifications, painting, music, games, amusements etc.[121] While the book does not give any of dealt topics particular hierarchy of importance, it serves as a landmark in understanding the state of knowledge in those subjects at that time.[122] Someshwara III also authored a biography of his famous father Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
called Vikraman-Kabhyudaya. The text is a historical prose narrative which also includes a graphic description of the geography and people of Karnataka.[123] A Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholar Vijnaneshwara became famous in the field of legal literature for his Mitakshara, in the court of Vikramaditya VI. Perhaps the most acknowledged work in that field, Mitakshara is a treatise on law (commentary on Yajnavalkya) based on earlier writings and has found acceptance in most parts of modern India. An Englishman Colebrooke later translated into English the section on inheritance giving it currency in the British Indian court system.[124] Some important literary works of the time related to music and musical instruments were Sangita Chudamani, Sangita Samayasara and Sangita Ratnakara.[125] Architecture[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architecture

Typical Western Chalukya
Chalukya
dravida Vimana at Siddesvara temple in Haveri, Karnataka

The reign of Western Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
was an important period in the development of Deccan architecture. The architecture designed during this time served as a conceptual link between the Badami
Badami
Chalukya Architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala architecture popularised in the 13th century.[126][127] The art of the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
is sometimes called the " Gadag
Gadag
style" after the number of ornate temples they built in the Tungabhadra River- Krishna River
Krishna River
doab region of present-day Gadag district
Gadag district
in Karnataka.[128] The dynasty's temple building activity reached its maturity and culmination in the 12th century with over a hundred temples built across the Deccan, more than half of them in present-day central Karnataka.[129][130] Apart from temples, the dynasty's architecture is well known for the ornate stepped wells (Pushkarni) which served as ritual bathing places, a few of which are well preserved in Lakkundi. These stepped well designs were later incorporated by the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and the Vijayanagara empire in the coming centuries.[131][132]

Ornate pillars at Saraswati temple in Gadag
Gadag
city, Karnataka

The Kasivisvesvara Temple
Kasivisvesvara Temple
at Lakkundi
Lakkundi
( Gadag
Gadag
district),[133][134] the Dodda Basappa Temple
Dodda Basappa Temple
at Dambal
Dambal
( Gadag
Gadag
district),[135][136] the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti (Bellary district),[134][137] the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali (Davangere district),[137][138] the Siddhesvara Temple
Siddhesvara Temple
at Haveri
Haveri
( Haveri
Haveri
district),[139][140] the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri
Annigeri
(Dharwad district),[141] the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi (Koppal district),[142][143] the Kaitabheshvara Temple at Kubatur,[144] and the Kedareshvara Temple at Balligavi
Balligavi
are the finest examples produced by the later Chalukya
Chalukya
architects.[145] The 12th-century Mahadeva Temple with its well executed sculptures is an exquisite example of decorative detail. The intricate, finely crafted carvings on walls, pillars and towers speak volumes about Chalukya taste and culture. An inscription outside the temple calls it "Emperor of Temples" (devalaya chakravarti) and relates that it was built by Mahadeva, a commander in the army of king Vikramaditya VI.[146][147] The Kedareswara Temple (1060) at Balligavi
Balligavi
is an example of a transitional Chalukya-Hoysala architectural style.[148][149] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
built temples in Badami
Badami
and Aihole
Aihole
during their early phase of temple building activity, such as Mallikarjuna Temple, the Yellamma Temple and the Bhutanatha group
Bhutanatha group
of Temples.[150][151]

Brahma Jinalaya
Brahma Jinalaya
at Lakkundi
Lakkundi
dates to the mid-late 11th century

The vimana of their temples (tower over the shrine) is a compromise in detail between the plain stepped style of the early Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the decorative finish of the Hoysalas.[127] To the credit of the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architects is the development of the lathe turned (tuned) pillars and use of Soapstone
Soapstone
(Chloritic Schist) as basic building and sculptural material, a very popular idiom in later Hoysala temples. They popularised the use of decorative Kirtimukha
Kirtimukha
(demon faces) in their sculptures. Famous architects in the Hoysala kingdom included Chalukyan architects who were natives of places such as Balligavi.[152] The artistic wall decor and the general sculptural idiom was dravidian architecture.[132] This style is sometimes called Karnata dravida, one of the notable traditions in Indian architecture.[153] Language[edit]

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription ascribed to King Vikramaditya VI, dated 1112 CE at Mahadeva Temple in Itagi, Karnataka

The local language Kannada
Kannada
was mostly used in Western (Kalyani) Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions and epigraphs. Some historians assert that ninety percent of their inscriptions are in the Kannada language
Kannada language
while the remaining are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language.[154][155] More inscriptions in Kannada
Kannada
are attributed to Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
than any other king prior to the 12th century,[156] many of which have been deciphered and translated by historians of the Archaeological Survey of India.[13] Inscriptions were generally either on stone (Shilashasana) or copper plates (Tamarashasana). This period saw the growth of Kannada
Kannada
as a language of literature and poetry, impetus to which came from the devotional movement of the Virashaivas (called Lingayatism) who expressed their closeness to their deity in the form of simple lyrics called Vachanas.[157] At an administrative level, the regional language was used to record locations and rights related to land grants. When bilingual inscriptions were written, the section stating the title, genealogy, origin myths of the king and benedictions were generally done in Sanskrit. Kannada
Kannada
was used to state terms of the grants, including information on the land, its boundaries, the participation of local authorities, rights and obligations of the grantee, taxes and dues, and witnesses. This ensured the content was clearly understood by the local people without any ambiguity.[158] In addition to inscriptions, chronicles called Vamshavalis were written to provide historical details of dynasties. Writings in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
included poetry, grammar, lexicon, manuals, rhetoric, commentaries on older works, prose fiction and drama. In Kannada, writings on secular subjects became popular. Some well-known works are Chandombudhi, a prosody, and Karnataka
Karnataka
Kadambari, a romance, both written by Nagavarma I, a lexicon called Rannakanda by Ranna
Ranna
(993), a book on medicine called Karnataka-Kalyanakaraka by Jagaddala Somanatha, the earliest writing on astrology called Jatakatilaka by Sridharacharya (1049), a writing on erotics called Madanakatilaka by Chandraraja, and an encyclopedia called Lokapakara by Chavundaraya II (1025).[109][159] See also[edit]

Rashtrakutas Chola dynasty Vikramaditya VI Kulothunga Chola I Balligavi

Notes[edit]

^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.  ^ a b An inscription dated 1095 CE of Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
mentions grants to a Vihara
Vihara
of Buddha and Arya-Taradevi (Cousens 1926, p11) ^ a b Quote:"From 1118, Ananthapala, Vikramaditya VI's famous general is described as the ruler of Vengi, other Chalukyan commanders are found established in other parts of Telugu country and the Chola power practically disappears for a number of years thereafter. Thus Kulotunga sustained another curtailment of his empire which by the end of his reign was practically confined to Tamil country and a relatively small area of the adjoining Telugu districts".(Sastri 1955, p175) ^ a b Quote:" Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
led an expedition against the Cholas in c. 1085 and captured Kanchi and held it for some years. Vikramaditya VI succeeded in conquering major parts of Vengi Kingdom in 1088. Kollipakei-7000, a province of Vengi was under his control for long after this. Vengi was under his control from c. 1093 to 1099 and though it was recaptured by the Cholas in 1099, he reconquered it in c. 1118 and held it till 1124" (Kamath 2001, p105). Vikramaditya VI successfully subdued the Hoysalas, the Silharas of Konkan, the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa, the Pandyas
Pandyas
of Uchangi, the Seuna
Seuna
of Devagiri, the Kakatiya
Kakatiya
of Warangal, the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chedi of Ratnapur and the rulers of the Malwa
Malwa
territories south of the Narmada river (Kamath 2001, p105) ^ a b Quote:"About AD 1118 Vikramaditya's diplomatic and military skill enabled the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
to end Chola ascendancy on Vengi and bring that province back within the sphere of influence of Kalyani"(Chopra 2003, p139, part1) ^ a b Quote:"From about 1118 to the end of Vikramaditya's reign, and for some years thereafter, the Chola power seized to exist in Vengi" (Sen 1999, p387) ^ a b B.P. Sinha in George E. Somers, Dynastic History Of Magadha, p.214, Abhinav Publications, 1977, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7017-059-1 ^ a b Sen (1999), p282 ^ a b Majumdar, R. C. (1977), Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, p320, New Delhi, ISBN 81-208-0436-8 ^ Pollock (2006), pp. 288–289, 332 ^ Houben(1996), p. 215 ^ Kamath (2001), pp10–12, p100 ^ a b Sastry, Shama & Rao, N. Lakshminarayana. "Kannada inscriptions". Archaeological survey of India, South Indian inscriptions, Saturday, November 18, 2006. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. Retrieved 2006-12-28.  ^ The province of Tardavadi, lying in the very heart of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire, was given to Tailapa II
Tailapa II
as a fief (provincial grant) by Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Krishna III
Krishna III
for services rendered in war (Sastri 1955, p162) ^ Kamath (2001), p101 ^ poet Bilhana's 12th-century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work Vikramadeva Charitam and Ranna's Kannada
Kannada
work Gadayuddha (982) and inscriptions from Nilagunda, Yevvur, Kauthem and Miraj claim Tailapa II
Tailapa II
was son of Vikramaditya IV, seventh in descent from Bhima, brother of Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikramaditya II (Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Kings of the Chalukya
Chalukya
line of Vemulavada, who were certainly from the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
family line used the title "Malla" which is often used by the Western Chalukyas. Names such as "Satyashraya" which were used by the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
are also name of a Western Chalukya
Chalukya
king, (Gopal B.R. in Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Unlike the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, the Kalyani Chalukyas
Chalukyas
did not claim to be Harithiputhras of Manavysya gotra in lineage. The use of titles like Tribhuvanamalla marked them of as a distinct line (Fleet, Bhandarkar and Altekar in Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Moraes (1931), pp88-93 ^ Later legends and tradition hailed Tailapa as an incarnation of the God Krishna
Krishna
who fought 108 battles against the race of Ratta (Rashtrakuta) and captured 88 fortresses from them (Sastri 1955, p162) ^ According to a 973 inscription, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
helped by Kadambas
Kadambas
of Hangal, destroyed the Rattas (Rashtrakutas), killed the valiant Munja (of the Paramara
Paramara
kingdom), took the head of Panchala
Panchala
(Ganga dynasty) and restored the royal dignity of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Moraes 1931, pp 93–94) ^ Sastri (1955), p164 ^ A minor capital of Jayasimha II (Cousens 1926, p10, p105) ^ King Rajaraja Chola conquered parts of Chalukya
Chalukya
territory in present-day South Karnataka
Karnataka
by subjugating the Western Ganga Dynasty of Gangavadi (Kamath 2001, p102) ^ From the Hottur inscriptions dated 1007 – 1008, Satyashraya was able to defeat crown prince Rajendra Chola (Kamath 2001, p102) ^ a b c Sen (1999), p383 ^ Jayasimha's choice was Vijayaditya VII while the Cholas sought to place Rajaraja Narendra, son-in-law of Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
(Kamath 2001, p102 ^ Quote:"Beautified it so that it surpassed all the other cities of the earth" (Cousens 1926, p10) ^ a b Sen (1999), p384 ^ Ganguli in Kamath 2001, p103 ^ Sastri (1955), p166 ^ Someshvara I
Someshvara I
supported the cause of Shaktivarman II, son of Vijayaditya II while the Cholas preferred Rajendra, son of the previous king Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra
(Kamath 2001, p103) ^ Sastri (1955), p169 ^ Kamath (2001), p104 ^ Sastri (1955), p170 ^ Cousens (1926), pp10–11 ^ Sastri (1955), p171 ^ Sastri 1955, p172 ^ Eulogising Vikramaditya VI, Kashmiri poet Bilhana wrote in his Vikramanakadeva Charita that lord Shiva
Shiva
himself advised Chalukya Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
to replace his elder brother from the throne (Thapar 2003, p468) ^ Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
abolished the saka era and established the Vikrama-varsha (Vikrama era). Most Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions thereafter are dated to this new era (Cousens 1926, p11) ^ Vikramaditya's rule is mentioned as an era (samvat) along with Satavahana
Satavahana
Vikrama era 58 BCE, Shaka era, of 78 CE, Harshavardhana era of 606 CE (Thapar, 2003, pp 468–469) ^ Sen (1999), p386 ^ Vijnyaneshavara, his court scholar in Sanskrit, wrote of him as a king like none other (Kamath 2001, p106) ^ Cousens (1926), p12 ^ Bilhana called the reign "Rama Rajya" in his writing that consisted of 18 cantos. The last canto of this work is about the life of author himself who writes that the work was composed by him in gratitude for the great honor bestowed upon him by the ruler of Karnata (Sastri 1955, p315) ^ Bilhana was made Vidyapati (chief pandit) by the king (Cousens 1926, p12) ^ No other king prior to the Vijayanagara rulers have left behind so many records as Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
(Kamath 2001, p105) ^ a b c Sen (1999), p387 ^ CNG Coins ^ CNG Coins ^ Their feudatories, Hoysalas
Hoysalas
of Mysore region, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Seunas of Devagiri
Devagiri
and the Pandyas
Pandyas
of Madurai wasted no time in seizing the opportunity, (Sastri 1955,p158) ^ a b c Sastri (1955), p176 ^ a b Sen (1999), p388 ^ Kamath (2001), p107 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p108 ^ a b Cousens (1926), p13 ^ From the Minajagi record of 1184 (Kamath 2001, p109) ^ A Kalachuri
Kalachuri
commander called Barmideva or Brahma is known to have given support to the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Sastri 1955, p179–180) ^ Kamath (2001), p127 ^ Sen (1999), pp388-389 ^ Sastri (1955), p180 ^ Sastri (1955), p192 ^ Kamath (2001), p110 ^ Kamath (2001), p109 ^ There was flexibility to the terms used to designate territorial division (Dikshit G.S. in Kamath 2001, p110) ^ Coins of Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
with Kannada
Kannada
legends have been found (Kamath 2001, p12) ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South-Chalukyas". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South-Alupas". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. Archived from the original on 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Kamath (2001), p111 ^ Thapar (2002), p373 ^ Thapar (2002), p378 ^ Sastri (1955), p298 ^ Thapar (2002), p379 ^ Thapar (2002), p382 ^ Sastri (1955), p299 ^ Sastri (1955), p300 ^ Thapar (2002), p384 ^ Sastri (1955), 301 ^ a b Thapar (2002), 383 ^ Sastri (1955), p302 ^ Kamath (2001), p112, p132 ^ A 16th-century Buddhist work by Lama Taranatha speaks disparagingly of Shankaracharya as close parallels in some beliefs of Shankaracharya with Buddhist philosophy was not viewed favourably by Buddhist writers (Thapar, 2003, pp 349–350, p397) ^ It is said five earlier saints Renuka, Daruka, Ekorama, Panditharadhya and Vishwaradhya were the original founders of Virashaivism
Virashaivism
(Kamath 2001, p152) ^ However it is argued that these saints were from the same period as Basavanna
Basavanna
(Sastri 1955, p393) ^ Thapar (2003), p399 ^ He criticised Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
as a "Buddhist in disguise" (Kamath 2001, p151) ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p20 ^ Sastri (1955), p361–362 ^ Kamath (2001), p182 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p22 ^ Mack (2001), pp35–36 ^ Kamath (2001), p152 ^ Kamath K.L., November 04,2006. "Hoysala Temples of Belur". © 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-01. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ She was not only a pioneer in the era of Women's emancipation but also an example of a transcendental world-view (Thapar 2003, p392) ^ Sastri (1955), p286 ^ This is in stark contrast to the literature of the time (like Vikramankadeva Charita of Bilhana) that portrayed women as retiring, overly romantic and unconcerned with affairs of the state (Thapar 2003, p392) ^ The Belathur inscription of 1057 describes the end of a widow called Dekabbe who committed Sati despite the requests of her parents not to while some widows such as Chalukya
Chalukya
queen Attimabbe
Attimabbe
long survived their deceased husbands (Kamath 2001, pp 112–113) ^ The intellectual qualifications of the Brahmins
Brahmins
made them apt to serve as ministers and advisers of Kings(Rajguru), (Charles Eliot in Sastri 1955, p289) ^ Sastri (1955), p288 ^ Sastri (1955), p289 ^ The Manasollasa
Manasollasa
written by King Someshvara III
Someshvara III
contains significant information of the social life of Western Chalukyan times (Kamath 2001, p112) ^ Orchestras were popularised by the Kalamukhas, a cult who worshipped Lord Shiva
Lord Shiva
(Kamath 2001, p115) ^ Sastri (1955), p292 ^ Kamath (2001), p114 ^ Sen (1999), p. 393 ^ S.S.Basavanal in Puranik, p4452, (1992) ^ Sastri (1955), p361 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp18–20 ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), pp61–65 ^ The other two gems are Adikavi Pampa and Sri Ponna (Sastri 1955, p356) ^ A composition written in a mixed prose-verse style is called Champu (Narasimhacharya 1988, p12) ^ This also is in Champu style and was written at the request of Attimabbe, a pious widow of general Nagavarma who promoted the cause of Jainism
Jainism
(Sastri 1955, p356) ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p32 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp64–65, ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p34 ^ Nagavarma II was the teacher (guru) of another noteworthy scholar Janna
Janna
who later adorned the court of Hoysala Empire
Hoysala Empire
(Sastri 1955, p358) ^ Narasimhachar (1988), p.63 ^ Vachanas
Vachanas
are disconnected paragraphs ending with a name attributed to lord Shiva
Shiva
or one of his forms. The poems teach the valuelessness of riches, rituals and book learning and the spiritual privileges of worshipping Shiva, (B.L. Rice
Rice
in Sastri 1955, p361) ^ Thapar (2003), p394 ^ "Mathematical Achievements of Pre-modern Indian Mathematicians", Putta Swamy T.K., 2012, chapter=Bhaskara II, p331, Elsevier Publications, London, ISBN 978-0-12-397913-1 ^ Thapar, (2003), p393 ^ Sastri (1955), p315 ^ A Textbook of Historiography, 500 B.C. to A.D. 2000 by E. Sreedharan p.328 ^ Sastri (1955), p324 ^ Sangita Ratnakara being written in the court of feudatory Seuna kingdom, (Kamath 2001, p115) ^ An important period in the development of Indian art (Kamath 2001, p115) ^ a b Sastri (1955), p427 ^ Kannikeswaran. "Temples of Karnataka, Kalyani Chalukyan temples". webmaster@templenet.com,1996–2006. Retrieved 2006-12-16.  ^ A fabulous revival of Chalukya
Chalukya
temple building in central Karnataka in the 11th century (Foekema (1996), p14) ^ Hardy (1995), pp156-157 ^ Davison-Jenkins (2001), p89 ^ a b Kamiya, Takeo. "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent,20 September 1996". Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Cousens (1926), pp79–82 ^ a b Hardy (1995), p336 ^ Cousens (1926), pp114–115 ^ Hardy (1995), p326 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p117 ^ Hardy (1995), p323 ^ Cousens (1926), pp85–87 ^ Hardy (1995), p330 ^ Hardy (1995), p321 ^ Cousens (1926), pp100–102 ^ Hardy (1995), p333 ^ Hardy (1995), p335 ^ Hardy (1995), p324 ^ Quote:"A title it fully deserves, for it is probably the finest temple in Kanarese districts, after Halebidu"(Cousens 1926, p101) ^ Rao, Kishan. "Emperor of Temples crying for attention". The Hindu, June 10, 2002. The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Cousens (1926), pp105–106 ^ Githa U.B. "Balligavi-An important seat of learning". ©Chitralakshana.com 2002. Chitralakshana. Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2006-12-15.  ^ Hardy (1995), p 157 ^ Gunther, Michael D 2002. "Monuments of India - V". Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Kamath (2001), pp116–118 ^ Hardy (1995), pp6–7 ^ Pollock (2006), p332 ^ Houben(1996), p215 ^ Thousands of Kannada language
Kannada language
inscriptions are ascribed by Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
and pertain to his daily land and charitable grants (Nityadana),Kamat, Jyotsna. " Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyana". 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-24.  ^ Kannada
Kannada
enjoyed patronage from royalty, influential Jains and the Lingayat
Lingayat
movement of Virashaivas (Thapar 2003, p396) ^ However by the 14th century, bilingual inscriptions lost favour and inscriptions became mostly in the local language (Thapar, 2003, pp393–95) ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p33

References[edit] Book

Chopra, P.N.; Ravindran, T.K.; Subrahmanian, N (2003) [2003]. History of South India
South India
(Ancient, Medieval and Modern) Part 1. New Delhi: Chand Publications. ISBN 81-219-0153-7.  Cousens, Henry (1996) [1926]. The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese Districts. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 37526233.  Davison-Jenkins, Dominic J. (2001). "Hydraulic works". In John M. Fritz and George Michell (editors). New Light on Hampi : Recent Research at Vijayanagara. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Foekema, Gerard (1996). A Complete Guide To Hoysala Temples. New Delhi: Abhinav. ISBN 81-7017-345-0.  Hardy, Adam (1995) [1995]. Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation-The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-312-4.  Houben, Jan E.M. (1996) [1996]. Ideology and Status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the History of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10613-8.  Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) [1980]. A concise history of Karnataka : from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041.  Mack, Alexandra (2001). "The temple district of Vitthalapura". In John M. Fritz and George Michell (editors). New Light on Hampi : Recent Research at Vijayanagara. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Moraes, George M. (1990) [1931]. The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0595-0.  Narasimhacharya, R (1988) [1988]. History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 81-206-0303-6.  Pollock, Sheldon (2006) [2006]. The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24500-8.  Puranik, Siddya (1992). " Vachana
Vachana
literature (Kannada)". In Mohal Lal. Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: sasay to zorgot. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1221-8.  Rice, E.P. (1982) [1921]. Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0063-0.  Sastri, Nilakanta K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India
South India
from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.  Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999) [1999]. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age Publishers. ISBN 81-224-1198-3.  Thapar, Romila (2003) [2003]. The Penguin History of Early India. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-302989-4. 

Web

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire.

Kamiya, Takeyo. "Architecture of Indian subcontinent". Indian Architecture. Gerard da Cunha. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani". Dynasties of Deccan. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  "Indian Inscriptions, Vol 9,11,15,17,18,20". Archaeological Survey of India. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Githa U.B. " Balligavi
Balligavi
- An important seat of learning". History of Indian Art. Chitralakshana.com 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  Gunther, Michael D. "Index IV, Late Chalukya". Monuments of India. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Kannikeswaran, K. "Kalyani Chalukyan temples". TempleNet. webmaster@templenet.com. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Prabhu, Govindaraya S. "Alupa Dynasty-catalogue". Prabhu's web page on Indian Coins. Archived from the original on 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Prabhu, Govindaraya S. " Chalukya
Chalukya
Dynasty-catalogue". Prabhu's web page on Indian Coins. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Rao, Kishan. "Emperor among Temples crying for attention". Southern States - Karnataka. The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 

v t e

Historical places of Chalukyas

Karnataka

Badami Aihole Pattadakal Mahakuta Sudi Banashankari Lakkundi Dambal Gadag Mahadeva Temple, Itagi Lakshmeshwara Annigeri Kundgol Chaudayyadanapura Galaganatha Hangal Hooli Jalasangvi Basavakalyan Manyakheta Chandramouleshwara Temple
Chandramouleshwara Temple
Unkal Hubli-Dharwad Haveri Kuruvatti

Maharashtra

Elephanta Caves Ajanta cave #1 paintings Sangli Sangli
Sangli
State Hottal near Deglur Kolhapur Latur Dhule Solapur Manapura Mumbai Akola Nanded Hottal in Nanded
Nanded
District Naldurg Aurad Omerga Daitya Sudan temple Shiva
Shiva
temples at Pen Naldurg

Telangana

Bhadrakali Temple in Warangal Someshwara temple in Warangal Thousand Pillar Temple
Thousand Pillar Temple
in Hanamakonda Ramappa Temple
Ramappa Temple
near Warangal Alampur, Mahbubnagar Panagal Bhuvanagiri Fort Kulpakji
Kulpakji
and Jangaon, Warangal

Andhra Pradesh

Chebrolu, Guntur district Eluru Kolletikota Nidumolu Rajahmundry Vengi Terela village in Durgi mandal in Guntur district

v t e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period ( Brahmin
Brahmin
ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami
Badami
Chalukyas Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism
Hinduism
(ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta - Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge Univ

.
Western Chalukya
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The Info List - Western Chalukya


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The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga
Kannadiga
dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya
Chalukya
after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan
Basavakalyan
in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka
Karnataka
state, and alternatively the Later Chalukya
Chalukya
from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of Badami. The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
controlled most of Deccan and Central India
Central India
for over two centuries. In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital. The dynasty quickly rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I
Someshvara I
who moved the capital to Kalyani. For over a century, the two empires of Southern India, the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
of Tanjore
Tanjore
fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi. During these conflicts, the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi, distant cousins of the Western Chalukyas but related to the Cholas by marriage took sides with the Cholas further complicating the situation. During the rule of Vikramaditya VI, in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the Western Chalukyas convincingly contended with the Cholas and reached a peak ruling territories that spread over most of the Deccan, between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River
Kaveri River
in the south.[3][4][5][6] His exploits were not limited to the south for even as a prince, during the rule of Someshvara I, he had led successful military campaigns as far east as modern Bihar
Bihar
and Bengal.[7][8][9] During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
and the Southern Kalachuris of Kalyani, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya
Chalukya
waned during the later half of the 12th century. The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
and that of the later Hoysala empire. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti, the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi. This was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India, especially in literature as the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings encouraged writers in the native language Kannada, and Sanskrit.

Contents

1 History 2 Administration 3 Economy 4 Culture

4.1 Religion 4.2 Society 4.3 Literature 4.4 Architecture 4.5 Language

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

History[edit]

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1028 AD from the rule of King Jayasimha II at the Praneshvara temple in Talagunda, Shivamogga district

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1057 AD of King Someshvara I
Someshvara I
at Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
in Bellary district

Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in Koppal district, Karnataka

Knowledge of Western Chalukya
Chalukya
history has come through examination of the numerous Kannada language
Kannada language
inscriptions left by the kings (scholars Sheldon Pollock and Jan Houben have claimed 90 percent of the Chalukyan royal inscriptions are in Kannada),[10][11] and from the study of important contemporary literary documents in Western Chalukya literature such as Gada Yuddha (982) in Kannada
Kannada
by Ranna
Ranna
and Vikramankadeva Charitam (1120) in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
by Bilhana.[12][13] The earliest record is dated 957, during the rule of Tailapa II
Tailapa II
when the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
were still a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
and Tailapa II
Tailapa II
governed from Tardavadi in present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka.[14][15] The genealogy of the kings of this empire is still debated. One theory, based on contemporary literary and inscriptional evidence plus the finding that the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
employed titles and names commonly used by the early Chalukyas, suggests that the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings belonged to the same family line as the illustrious Badami
Badami
Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of 6th-century,[16][17] while other Western Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptional evidence indicates they were a distinct line unrelated to the early Chalukyas.[18] The records suggests a possible rebellion by a local Chalukya
Chalukya
King, Chattigadeva of Banavasi-12000 province (c. 967), in alliance with local Kadamba chieftains. This rebellion however was unfruitful but paved the way for his successor Tailapa II.[19] A few years later, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
re-established Chalukya
Chalukya
rule and defeated the Rashtrakutas during the reign of Karka II
Karka II
by timing his rebellion to coincide with the confusion caused in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
capital of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
by the invading Paramaras of Central India
Central India
in 973.[20][21] After overpowering the Rashtrakutas, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
moved his capital to Manyakheta
Manyakheta
and consolidated the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire in the western Deccan by subjugating the Paramara
Paramara
and other aggressive rivals and extending his control over the land between the Narmada River
Narmada River
and Tungabhadra River.[22] However, some inscriptions indicate that Balagamve in Mysore territory may have been a power centre up to the rule of Someshvara I
Someshvara I
in 1042.[23] The intense competition between the kingdom of the western Deccan and those of the Tamil country came to the fore in the 11th century over the acutely contested fertile river valleys in the doab region of the Krishna
Krishna
and Godavari River
Godavari River
called Vengi (modern coastal Andhra Pradesh). The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
and the Chola Dynasty
Chola Dynasty
fought many bitter wars over control of this strategic resource. The imperial Cholas gained power during the time of the famous king Rajaraja Chola I and the crown prince Rajendra Chola I.[24] The Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi were cousins of the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
but became increasingly influenced by the Cholas through their marital ties with the Tamil kingdom. As this was against the interests of the Western Chalukyas, they wasted no time in involving themselves politically and militarily in Vengi. When King Satyashraya succeeded Tailapa II
Tailapa II
to the throne, he was able to protect his kingdom from Chola aggression as well as his northern territories in Konkan
Konkan
and Gujarat
Gujarat
although his control over Vengi was shaky.[25][26] His successor, Jayasimha II, fought many battles with the Cholas in the south around c. 1020–21 when both these powerful kingdoms struggled to choose the Vengi king.[26][27] Shortly thereafter in c. 1024, Jayasimha II subdued the Paramara
Paramara
of central India and the rebellious Yadava King Bhillama.[26]

Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasties

Badami
Badami
Chalukyas

Pulakeshin I 543–566

Kirtivarman I 566–597

Mangalesha 597–609

Pulakeshin II 609–642

Vikramaditya I 655–680

Vinayaditya 680–696

Vijayaditya 696–733

Vikramaditya II 733–746

Kirtivarman II 746–753

Vengi / Eastern Chalukyas

Kubja Vishnuvardhana 624–641

Jayasimha I 641–673

Indra Bhattaraka 673

Vishnu Vardhana II 673–682

Mangi Yuvaraja 682–706

Jayasimha II 706–718

Kokkili 719

Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
III 719–755

Vijayaditya I 755–772

Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
IV 772–808

Vijayaditya II 808–847

Kali Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
V 847–849

Vijayaditya III 849–892

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima
Bhima
I 892–921

Vijayaditya IV 921

Amma I 921–927

Beta Vijayaditya V 927

Tala I 927

Vikramaditya II 927–928

Bhima
Bhima
II 928

Yuddhamalla II 928–935

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima
Bhima
II 935–947

Amma II 947–970

Tala I 970

Danarnava 970–973

Jata Choda Bhima 973–999

Shaktivarman I 1000–1011

Vimaladitya 1011–1018

Rajaraja Narendra 1019–1061

Vijayaditya VII

Kalyani / Western Chalukyas

Tailapa II 957–997

Satyashraya 997–1008

Vikramaditya V 1008–1015

Jayasimha II 1015–1042

Someshvara I 1042–1068

Someshvara II 1068–1076

Vikramaditya VI 1076–1126

Someshvara III 1126–1138

Jagadhekamalla II 1138–1151

Tailapa III 1151–1164

Jagadhekamalla III 1163–1183

Someshvara IV 1184–1200

v t e

It is known from records that Jayasimha's son Someshvara I, whose rule historian Sen considers a brilliant period in the Western Chalukya rule, moved the Chalukya
Chalukya
capital to Kalyani in c. 1042.[28][29] Hostilities with the Cholas continued while both sides won and lost battles, though neither lost significant territory[30][31] during the ongoing struggle to install a puppet on the Vengi throne.[29][32][33] In 1068 Someshvara I, suffering from an incurable illness, drowned himself in the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
(Paramayoga).[34][35][36] Despite many conflicts with the Cholas in the south, Someshvara I
Someshvara I
had managed to maintain control over the northern territories in Konkan, Gujarat, Malwa
Malwa
and Kalinga during his rule. His successor, his eldest son Someshvara II, feuded with his younger brother, Vikramaditya VI, an ambitious warrior who had initially been governor of Gangavadi in the southern Deccan when Someshvara II
Someshvara II
was the king. Before 1068, even as a prince, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
had invaded Bengal, weakening the ruling Pala Empire. These incursions led to the establishment of Karnata dynasties such as the Sena dynasty
Sena dynasty
and Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
in Bengal, and the Nayanadeva dynasty in Bihar.,[7][8][9] Married to a Chola princess (a daughter of Vira Rajendra Chola), Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
maintained a friendly alliance with them. After the death of the Chola king in 1070, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
invaded the Tamil kingdom and installed his brother-in-law, Adhirajendra, on the throne creating conflict with Kulothunga Chola I, the powerful ruler of Vengi who sought the Chola throne for himself.[37] At the same time Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
undermined his brother, Someshvara II, by winning the loyalty of the Chalukya feudatories: the Hoysala, the Seuna
Seuna
and the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Hangal. Anticipating a civil war, Someshvara II
Someshvara II
sought help from Vikramaditya VI's enemies, Kulothunga Chola I
Kulothunga Chola I
and the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa. In the ensuing conflict of 1076, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
emerged victorious and proclaimed himself king of the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire.[38][39] The fifty-year reign of Vikramaditya VI, the most successful of the later Chalukya
Chalukya
rulers, was an important period in Karnataka's history and is referred to by historians as the " Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikrama era".[40][41][42] Not only was he successful in controlling his powerful feudatories in the north (Kadamba Jayakesi II of Goa, Silhara Bhoja and the Yadava King) and south (Hoysala Vishnuvardhana), he successfully dealt with the imperial Cholas whom he defeated in the battle of Vengi in 1093 and again in 1118. He retained this territory for many years despite ongoing hostilities with the Cholas.[3][4][5][6] This victory in Vengi reduced the Chola influence in the eastern Deccan and made him emperor of territories stretching from the Kaveri River
Kaveri River
in the south to the Narmada River
Narmada River
in the north, earning him the titles Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla (lord of three worlds). The scholars of his time paid him glowing tributes for his military leadership, interest in fine arts and religious tolerance.[43][44] Literature proliferated and scholars in Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
adorned his court. Poet Bilhana, who immigrated from far away Kashmir, eulogised the king in his well-known work Vikramankadeva Charita.[45][46] Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
was not only an able warrior but also a devout king as indicated by his numerous inscriptions that record grants made to scholars and centers of religion.[47][48]

Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
of Kalyana, coin of King Somesvara I
Somesvara I
Trailokyamalla (1043-1068). Temple façade / Ornate floral ornament.[49]

Coin of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyana (Western Chalukyas). King Somesvara IV (1181-4/1189). Garuda, with prominent beak, running right / “Dapaga dapasa Murari(?)” in Kannada
Kannada
in three lines divided by pelleted lines.[50]

The continual warring with the Cholas exhausted both empires, giving their subordinates the opportunity to rebel.[48][51] In the decades after Vikramaditya VI's death in 1126, the empire steadily decreased in size as their powerful feudatories expanded in autonomy and territorial command.[48][52] The time period between 1150 and 1200 saw many hard fought battles between the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and their feudatories who were also at war with each other. By the time of Jagadhekamalla II, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
had lost control of Vengi and his successor, Tailapa III, was defeated by the Kakatiya
Kakatiya
king Prola in 1149.[52] Tailapa III was taken captive and later released bringing down the prestige of the Western Chalukyas. Seeing decadence and uncertainty seeping into Chalukya
Chalukya
rule, the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and Seunas also encroached upon the empire. Hoysala Narasimha I defeated and killed Tailapa III but was unable to overcome the Kalachuris who were vying for control of the same region. In 1157 the Kalachuris of Kalyanis under Bijjala II captured Kalyani and occupied it for the next twenty years, forcing the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
to move their capital to Annigeri
Annigeri
in the present day Dharwad district.[52][53] The Kalachuris were originally immigrants into the southern Deccan from central India and called themselves Kalanjarapuravaradhisavaras.[54] Bijjala II and his ancestors had governed as Chalukya
Chalukya
commanders (Mahamandaleshwar) over the Karhad-4000 and Tardavadi-1000 provinces (overlapping region in present-day Karnataka
Karnataka
and Maharashtra) with Mangalavada[55] or Annigeri[56] as their capital. Bijjala II's Chikkalagi record of 1157 calls him Mahabhujabala Chakravarti ("emperor with powerful shoulders and arms") indicating he no longer was a subordinate of the Chalukyas.[55] However the successors of Bijjala II were unable to hold on to Kalyani and their rule ended in 1183 when the last Chalukya scion, Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
made a final bid to regain the empire by recapturing Kalyani.[53][56] Kalachuri
Kalachuri
King Sankama was killed by Chalukya
Chalukya
general Narasimha in this conflict.[57][58] During this time, Hoysala Veera Ballala II
Veera Ballala II
was growing ambitious and clashed on several occasions with the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the other claimants over their empire. He defeated Chalukya
Chalukya
Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
and Seuna
Seuna
Bhillama V bringing large regions in the Krishna River
Krishna River
valley under the Hoysala domains, but was unsuccessful against Kalachuris.[59] The Seunas under Bhillama V were on an imperialistic expansion too when the Chalukyas regained Kalyani. Their ambitions were temporarily stemmed by their defeat against Chalukya
Chalukya
general Barma in 1183 but they later had their vengeance in 1189.[60] The overall effort by Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
to rebuild the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire failed and the dynasty was ended by the Seuna
Seuna
rulers who drove Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
into exile in Banavasi
Banavasi
1189. After the fall of the Chalukyas, the Seunas and Hoysalas
Hoysalas
continued warring over the Krishna River region in 1191, each inflicting a defeat on the other at various points in time.[61] This period saw the fall of two great empires, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of the western Deccan and the Cholas of Tamilakam. On the ruins of these two empires were built the Kingdoms of their feudatories whose mutual antagonisms filled the annals of Deccan history for over a hundred years, the Pandyas
Pandyas
taking control over some regions of the erstwhile Chola empire.[62] Administration[edit]

Mallikarjuna group of temples at Badami
Badami
in Bagalkot district, Karnataka

The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kingship was hereditary, passing to the king's brother if the king did not have a male heir. The administration was highly decentralised and feudatory clans such as the Alupas, the Hoysalas, the Kakatiya, the Seuna, the southern Kalachuri
Kalachuri
and others were allowed to rule their autonomous provinces, paying an annual tribute to the Chalukya
Chalukya
emperor.[63] Excavated inscriptions record titles such as Mahapradhana (Chief minister), Sandhivigrahika, and Dharmadhikari (chief justice). Some positions such as Tadeyadandanayaka (commander of reserve army) were specialised in function while all ministerial positions included the role of Dandanayaka (commander), showing that cabinet members were trained as army commanders as well as in general administrative skills.[64] The kingdom was divided into provinces such as Banavasi-12000, Nolambavadi-32000, Gangavadi-96000, each name including the number of villages under its jurisdiction. The large provinces were divided into smaller provinces containing a lesser number of villages, as in Belavola-300. The big provinces were called Mandala and under them were Nadu further divided into Kampanas (groups of villages) and finally a Bada (village). A Mandala was under a member of the royal family, a trusted feudatory or a senior official. Tailapa II
Tailapa II
himself was in charge of Tardavadi province during the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
rule. Chiefs of Mandalas were transferable based on political developments. For example, an official named Bammanayya administered Banavasi-12000 under King Someshvara III
Someshvara III
but was later transferred to Halasige-12000. Women from the royal family also administered Nadus and Kampanas. Army commanders were titled Mahamandaleshwaras and those who headed a Nadu were entitled Nadugouvnda.[65] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
minted punch-marked gold pagodas with Kannada and Nagari legends[66] which were large, thin gold coins with several varying punch marks on the obverse side. They usually carried multiple punches of symbols such as a stylised lion, Sri in Kannada,[67] a spearhead, the king's title, a lotus and others. Jayasimha II used the legend Sri Jaya, Someshvara I
Someshvara I
issued coins with Sri Tre lo ka malla, Someshvara II
Someshvara II
used Bhuvaneka malla, Lakshmideva's coin carried Sri Lasha, and Jagadhekamalla II
Jagadhekamalla II
coinage had the legend Sri Jagade. The Alupas, a feudatory, minted coins with the Kannada
Kannada
and Nagari legend Sri Pandya
Pandya
Dhanamjaya.[68] Lakkundi
Lakkundi
in Gadag district
Gadag district
and Sudi
Sudi
in Dharwad district
Dharwad district
were the main mints (Tankhashaley). Their heaviest gold coin was Gadyanaka weighting 96 grains, Dramma weighted 65 grains, Kalanju 48 grains, Kasu 15 grains, Manjadi 2.5 grains, Akkam 1.25 grains and Pana 9.6 grain.[69] Economy[edit]

Ornate mantapa at Kalleshvara Temple (987 CE) in Bagali, Davanagere district

Agriculture was the empire's main source of income through taxes on land and produce. The majority of the people lived in villages and worked farming the staple crops of rice, pulses, and cotton in the dry areas and sugarcane in areas having sufficient rainfall, with areca and betel being the chief cash crops. The living conditions of the labourers who farmed the land must have been bearable as there are no records of revolts by the landless against wealthy landlords. If peasants were disgruntled the common practice was to migrate in large numbers out of the jurisdiction of the ruler who was mistreating them, thereby depriving him of revenue from their labor.[70] Taxes were levied on mining and forest products, and additional income was raised through tolls for the use of transportation facilities. The state also collected fees from customs, professional licenses, and judicial fines.[71] Records show horses and salt were taxed as well as commodities (gold, textiles, perfumes) and agricultural produce (black pepper, paddy, spices, betel leaves, palm leaves, coconuts and sugar). Land tax assessment was based on frequent surveys evaluating the quality of land and the type of produce. Chalukya
Chalukya
records specifically mention black soil and red soil lands in addition to wetland, dry land and wasteland in determining taxation rates.[72]

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Economies Societies

v t e

Key figures mentioned in inscriptions from rural areas were the Gavundas (officials) or Goudas. The Gavundas belonged to two levels of economic strata, the Praja Gavunda (people's Gavunda) and the Prabhu Gavunda (lord of Gavundas). They served the dual purpose of representing the people before the rulers as well as functioning as state appointees for tax collection and the raising of militias. They are mentioned in inscriptions related to land transactions, irrigation maintenance, village tax collection and village council duties.[73] The organisation of corporate enterprises became common in the 11th century.[74] Almost all arts and crafts were organised into guilds and work was done on a corporate basis; records do not mention individual artists, sculptors and craftsman. Only in the regions ruled by the Hoysala did individual sculptors etched their names below their creations.[75] Merchants organised themselves into powerful guilds that transcended political divisions, allowing their operations to be largely unaffected by wars and revolutions. Their only threat was the possibility of theft from brigands when their ships and caravans traveled to distant lands. Powerful South Indian merchant guilds included the Manigramam, the Nagarattar and the Anjuvannam. Local guilds were called nagaram, while the Nanadesis were traders from neighbouring kingdoms who perhaps mixed business with pleasure. The wealthiest and most influential and celebrated of all South Indian merchant guilds was the self-styled Ainnurruvar, also known as the 500 Svamis of Ayyavolepura ( Brahmins
Brahmins
and Mahajanas of present-day Aihole),[76][77] who conducted extensive land and sea trade and thereby contributed significantly to the total foreign trade of the empire. It fiercely protected its trade obligations (Vira Bananjudharma or law of the noble merchants) and its members often recorded their achievements in inscriptions (prasasti). Five hundred such excavated Prasasti inscriptions, with their own flag and emblem, the bull, record their pride in their business. Rich traders contributed significantly to the king's treasury through paying import and export taxes. The edicts of the Aihole
Aihole
Svamis mention trade ties with foreign kingdoms such as Chera, Pandya, Maleya (Malaysia), Magadh, Kaushal, Saurashtra, Kurumba, Kambhoja (Cambodia), Lata (Gujarat), Parasa (Persia) and Nepal. Travelling both land and sea routes, these merchants traded mostly in precious stones, spices and perfumes, and other specialty items such as camphor. Business flourished in precious stones such as diamonds, lapis lazuli, onyx, topaz, carbuncles and emeralds. Commonly traded spices were cardamom, saffron, and cloves, while perfumes included the by-products of sandalwood, bdellium, musk, civet and rose. These items were sold either in bulk or hawked on streets by local merchants in towns.[78] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
controlled most of South India's west coast and by the 10th century they had established extensive trade ties with the Tang Empire
Tang Empire
of China, the empires of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Abbasid Caliphate in Bhagdad, and by the 12th century Chinese fleets were frequenting Indian ports. Exports to Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
China
China
included textiles, spices, medicinal plants, jewels, ivory, rhino horn, ebony and camphor. The same products also reached ports in the west such as Dhofar
Dhofar
and Aden. The final destinations for those trading with the west were Persia, Arabia and Egypt.[79] The thriving trade center of Siraf, a port on the eastern coast of the Persian Gulf, served an international clientele of merchants including those from the Chalukya empire who were feasted by wealthy local merchants during business visits. An indicator of the Indian merchants' importance in Siraf comes from records describing dining plates reserved for them.[80] In addition to this, Siraf
Siraf
received aloe wood, perfumes, sandalwood and condiments. The most expensive import to South India
South India
were Arabian horse shipments, this trade being monopolised by Arabs and local Brahmin
Brahmin
merchants. Traveller Marco Polo, in the 13th century, recorded that the breeding of horses never succeeded in India due to differing climatic, soil and grassland conditions.[79] Culture[edit] Religion[edit] See also: Ramanujacharya, Basavanna, Allama Prabhu, and Akka Mahadevi

Basavanna
Basavanna
Statue

A Hero stone
Hero stone
with old Kannada
Kannada
inscription (1115 AD) during the rule of Vikarmaditya VI at the Kedareshvara temple in Balligavi

The fall of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire to the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
in the 10th century, coinciding with the defeat of the Western Ganga Dynasty by the Cholas in Gangavadi, was a setback to Jainism. The growth of Virashaivism
Virashaivism
in the Chalukya
Chalukya
territory and Vaishnava Hinduism
Hinduism
in the Hoysala region paralleled a general decreased interest in Jainism, although the succeeding kingdoms continued to be religiously tolerant.[81] Two locations of Jain
Jain
worship in the Hoysala territory continued to be patronaged, Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
and Kambadahalli. The decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in South India
South India
had begun in the 8th century with the spread of Adi Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
philosophy.[82] The only places of Buddhist worship that remained during the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
rule were at Dambal
Dambal
and Balligavi.[2] There is no mention of religious conflict in the writings and inscriptions of the time which suggest the religious transition was smooth. Although the origin of the Virashaiva
Virashaiva
faith has been debated, the movement grew through its association with Basavanna
Basavanna
in the 12th century.[83][84] Basavanna
Basavanna
and other Virashaiva
Virashaiva
saints preached of a faith without a caste system. In his Vachanas
Vachanas
(a form of poetry), Basavanna
Basavanna
appealed to the masses in simple Kannada
Kannada
and wrote "work is worship" (Kayakave Kailasa). Also known as the Lingayats
Lingayats
(worshipers of the Linga, the universal symbol of Shiva), these Virashaivas questioned many of the established norms of society such as the belief in rituals and the theory of rebirth and supported the remarriage of widows and the marriage of unwed older women.[85] This gave more social freedom to women but they were not accepted into the priesthood. Ramanujacharya, the head of the Vaishnava monastery in Srirangam, traveled to the Hoysala territory and preached the way of devotion (bhakti marga). He later wrote Sribhashya, a commentary on Badarayana Brahmasutra, a critique on the Advaita
Advaita
philosophy of Adi Shankara.[86] Ramanujacharya's stay in Melkote
Melkote
resulted in the Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
converting to Vaishnavism, a faith that his successors also followed. The impact of these religious developments on the culture, literature, and architecture in South India
South India
was profound. Important works of metaphysics and poetry based on the teachings of these philosophers were written over the next centuries. Akka Mahadevi, Allama Prabhu, and a host of Basavanna's followers, including Chenna Basava, Prabhudeva, Siddharama, and Kondaguli Kesiraja wrote hundreds of poems called Vachanas
Vachanas
in praise of Lord Shiva.[87] The esteemed scholars in the Hoysala court, Harihara and Raghavanka, were Virashaivas.[88] This tradition continued into the Vijayanagar empire
Vijayanagar empire
with such well-known scholars as Singiraja, Mallanarya, Lakkana Dandesa and other prolific writers of Virashaiva
Virashaiva
literature.[89][90] The Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu dynasties of the Vijayanagar empire
Vijayanagar empire
were followers of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and a Vaishnava temple with an image of Ramanujacharya exists today in the Vitthalapura area of Vijayanagara.[91] Scholars in the succeeding Mysore Kingdom wrote Vaishnavite works supporting the teachings of Ramanujacharya.[92] King Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
built many temples after his conversion from Jainism
Jainism
to Vaishnavism.[93] Society[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Society

Kirtimukha
Kirtimukha
relief at Kedareswara Temple in Balligavi, Shimoga district

The rise of Veerashaivaism was revolutionary and challenged the prevailing Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system
which retained royal support. The social role of women largely depended on their economic status and level of education in this relatively liberal period. Freedom was more available to women in the royal and affluent urban families. Records describe the participation of women in the fine arts, such as Chalukya queen Chandala Devi's and Kalachuris of Kalyani
Kalachuris of Kalyani
queen Sovala Devi's skill in dance and music. The compositions of thirty Vachana
Vachana
women poets included the work of the 12th-century Virashaiva
Virashaiva
mystic Akka Mahadevi whose devotion to the bhakti movement is well known.[94] Contemporary records indicate some royal women were involved in administrative and martial affairs such as princess Akkadevi, (sister of King Jayasimha II) who fought and defeated rebellious feudals.[95][96] Inscriptions emphasise public acceptance of widowhood indicating that Sati (a custom in which a dead man's widow used to immolate herself on her husband's funeral pyre) though present was on a voluntary basis.[97] Ritual deaths to achieve salvation were seen among the Jains who preferred to fast to death (Sallekhana), while people of some other communities chose to jump on spikes (Shoolabrahma) or walking into fire on an eclipse. In a Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system
that was conspicuously present, Brahmins enjoyed a privileged position as providers of knowledge and local justice. These Brahmins
Brahmins
were normally involved in careers that revolved around religion and learning with the exception of a few who achieved success in martial affairs. They were patronised by kings, nobles and wealthy aristocrats who persuaded learned Brahmins
Brahmins
to settle in specific towns and villages by making them grants of land and houses. The relocation of Brahmin
Brahmin
scholars was calculated to be in the interest of the kingdom as they were viewed as persons detached from wealth and power and their knowledge was a useful tool to educate and teach ethical conduct and discipline in local communities. Brahmins
Brahmins
were also actively involved in solving local problems by functioning as neutral arbiters (Panchayat).[98] Regarding eating habits, Brahmins, Jains, Buddhists and Shaivas were strictly vegetarian while the partaking of different kinds of meat was popular among other communities. Marketplace vendors sold meat from domesticated animals such as goats, sheep, pigs and fowl as well as exotic meat including partridge, hare, wild fowl and boar.[99] People found indoor amusement by attending wrestling matches (Kusti) or watching animals fight such as cock fights and ram fights or by gambling. Horse racing was a popular outdoor past time.[100] In addition to these leisurely activities, festivals and fairs were frequent and entertainment by traveling troupes of acrobats, dancers, dramatists and musicians was often provided.[101] Schools and hospitals are mentioned in records and these were built in the vicinity of temples. Marketplaces served as open air town halls where people gathered to discuss and ponder local issues. Choirs, whose main function was to sing devotional hymns, were maintained at temple expense. Young men were trained to sing in choirs in schools attached to monasteries such as Hindu Matha, Jain
Jain
Palli and Buddhist Vihara.[102] These institutions provided advanced education in religion and ethics and were well equipped with libraries (Saraswati Bhandara). Learning was imparted in the local language and in Sanskrit. Schools of higher learning were called Brahmapuri (or Ghatika or Agrahara). Teaching Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was a near monopoly of Brahmins
Brahmins
who received royal endowments for their cause. Inscriptions record that the number of subjects taught varied from four to eighteen.[103] The four most popular subjects with royal students were Economics (Vartta), Political Science (Dandaniti), Veda (trayi) and Philosophy (Anvikshiki), subjects that are mentioned as early as Kautilyas Arthashastra. Literature[edit] Main article: Kannada
Kannada
literature in the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire

Grill work at Tripurantkesvara temple in Balligavi, Shimoga district

The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
era was one of substantial literary activity in the native Kannada, and Sanskrit.[104] In a golden age of Kannada literature,[105] Jain
Jain
scholars wrote about the life of Tirthankaras and Virashaiva
Virashaiva
poets expressed their closeness to God through pithy poems called Vachanas. Nearly three hundred contemporary Vachanakaras ( Vachana
Vachana
poets) including thirty women poets have been recorded.[106][107] Early works by Brahmin
Brahmin
writers were on the epics, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata, Puranas
Puranas
and Vedas. In the field of secular literature, subjects such as romance, erotics, medicine, lexicon, mathematics, astrology, encyclopedia etc. were written for the first time.[108][109] Most notable among Kannada
Kannada
scholars were Ranna, grammarian Nagavarma II, minister Durgasimha and the Virashaiva
Virashaiva
saint and social reformer Basavanna. Ranna
Ranna
who was patronised by king Tailapa II
Tailapa II
and Satyashraya is one among the "three gems of Kannada
Kannada
literature".[110] He was bestowed the title "Emperor among poets" (Kavi Chakravathi) by King Tailapa II
Tailapa II
and has five major works to his credit. Of these, Saahasabheema Vijayam (or Gada yuddha) of 982 in Champu style is a eulogy of his patron King Satyashraya whom he compares to Bhima
Bhima
in valour and achievements and narrates the duel between Bhima
Bhima
and Duryodhana
Duryodhana
using clubs on the eighteenth day of the Mahabharata war.[111] He wrote Ajitha purana
Ajitha purana
in 993 describing the life of the second Tirthankara, Ajitanatha.[112][113] Nagavarma II, poet laureate (Katakacharya) of King Jagadhekamalla II made contributions to Kannada
Kannada
literature in various subjects.[114][115] His works in poetry, prosody, grammar and vocabulary are standard authorities and their importance to the study of Kannada language
Kannada language
is well acknowledged. Kavyavalokana in poetics, Karnataka-Bhashabhushana on grammar and Vastukosa a lexicon (with Kannada
Kannada
equivalents for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words) are some of his comprehensive contributions.[116] Several works on medicine were produced during this period. Notable among them were Jagaddala Somanatha's Karnataka Kalyana Karaka.[117]

A popular Vachana
Vachana
poem in the Kannada language
Kannada language
by Akka Mahadevi

A unique and native form of poetic literature in Kannada
Kannada
called Vachanas
Vachanas
developed during this time. They were written by mystics, who expressed their devotion to God in simple poems that could appeal to the masses. Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi, Allama Prabhu, Channabasavanna and Siddharama are the best known among them.[118] In Sanskrit, a well-known poem (Mahakavya) in 18 cantos called Vikramankadeva Charita by Kashmiri poet Bilhana recounts in epic style the life and achievements of his patron king Vikramaditya VI. The work narrates the episode of Vikramaditya VI's accession to the Chalukya throne after overthrowing his elder brother Someshvara II.[119] The great Indian mathematician Bhāskara II (born c.1114) flourished during this time. From his own account in his famous work Siddhanta Siromani (c. 1150, comprising the Lilavati, Bijaganita on algebra, Goladhaya on the celestial globe and Grahaganita on planets) Bijjada Bida (modern Bijapur) was his native place.[120] Manasollasa
Manasollasa
or Abhilashitartha Chintamani by king Someshvara III (1129) was a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work intended for all sections of society. This is an example of an early encyclopedia in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
covering many subjects including medicine, magic, veterinary science, valuing of precious stones and pearls, fortifications, painting, music, games, amusements etc.[121] While the book does not give any of dealt topics particular hierarchy of importance, it serves as a landmark in understanding the state of knowledge in those subjects at that time.[122] Someshwara III also authored a biography of his famous father Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
called Vikraman-Kabhyudaya. The text is a historical prose narrative which also includes a graphic description of the geography and people of Karnataka.[123] A Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholar Vijnaneshwara became famous in the field of legal literature for his Mitakshara, in the court of Vikramaditya VI. Perhaps the most acknowledged work in that field, Mitakshara is a treatise on law (commentary on Yajnavalkya) based on earlier writings and has found acceptance in most parts of modern India. An Englishman Colebrooke later translated into English the section on inheritance giving it currency in the British Indian court system.[124] Some important literary works of the time related to music and musical instruments were Sangita Chudamani, Sangita Samayasara and Sangita Ratnakara.[125] Architecture[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architecture

Typical Western Chalukya
Chalukya
dravida Vimana at Siddesvara temple in Haveri, Karnataka

The reign of Western Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
was an important period in the development of Deccan architecture. The architecture designed during this time served as a conceptual link between the Badami
Badami
Chalukya Architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala architecture popularised in the 13th century.[126][127] The art of the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
is sometimes called the " Gadag
Gadag
style" after the number of ornate temples they built in the Tungabhadra River- Krishna River
Krishna River
doab region of present-day Gadag district
Gadag district
in Karnataka.[128] The dynasty's temple building activity reached its maturity and culmination in the 12th century with over a hundred temples built across the Deccan, more than half of them in present-day central Karnataka.[129][130] Apart from temples, the dynasty's architecture is well known for the ornate stepped wells (Pushkarni) which served as ritual bathing places, a few of which are well preserved in Lakkundi. These stepped well designs were later incorporated by the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and the Vijayanagara empire in the coming centuries.[131][132]

Ornate pillars at Saraswati temple in Gadag
Gadag
city, Karnataka

The Kasivisvesvara Temple
Kasivisvesvara Temple
at Lakkundi
Lakkundi
( Gadag
Gadag
district),[133][134] the Dodda Basappa Temple
Dodda Basappa Temple
at Dambal
Dambal
( Gadag
Gadag
district),[135][136] the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti (Bellary district),[134][137] the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali (Davangere district),[137][138] the Siddhesvara Temple
Siddhesvara Temple
at Haveri
Haveri
( Haveri
Haveri
district),[139][140] the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri
Annigeri
(Dharwad district),[141] the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi (Koppal district),[142][143] the Kaitabheshvara Temple at Kubatur,[144] and the Kedareshvara Temple at Balligavi
Balligavi
are the finest examples produced by the later Chalukya
Chalukya
architects.[145] The 12th-century Mahadeva Temple with its well executed sculptures is an exquisite example of decorative detail. The intricate, finely crafted carvings on walls, pillars and towers speak volumes about Chalukya taste and culture. An inscription outside the temple calls it "Emperor of Temples" (devalaya chakravarti) and relates that it was built by Mahadeva, a commander in the army of king Vikramaditya VI.[146][147] The Kedareswara Temple (1060) at Balligavi
Balligavi
is an example of a transitional Chalukya-Hoysala architectural style.[148][149] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
built temples in Badami
Badami
and Aihole
Aihole
during their early phase of temple building activity, such as Mallikarjuna Temple, the Yellamma Temple and the Bhutanatha group
Bhutanatha group
of Temples.[150][151]

Brahma Jinalaya
Brahma Jinalaya
at Lakkundi
Lakkundi
dates to the mid-late 11th century

The vimana of their temples (tower over the shrine) is a compromise in detail between the plain stepped style of the early Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the decorative finish of the Hoysalas.[127] To the credit of the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architects is the development of the lathe turned (tuned) pillars and use of Soapstone
Soapstone
(Chloritic Schist) as basic building and sculptural material, a very popular idiom in later Hoysala temples. They popularised the use of decorative Kirtimukha
Kirtimukha
(demon faces) in their sculptures. Famous architects in the Hoysala kingdom included Chalukyan architects who were natives of places such as Balligavi.[152] The artistic wall decor and the general sculptural idiom was dravidian architecture.[132] This style is sometimes called Karnata dravida, one of the notable traditions in Indian architecture.[153] Language[edit]

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription ascribed to King Vikramaditya VI, dated 1112 CE at Mahadeva Temple in Itagi, Karnataka

The local language Kannada
Kannada
was mostly used in Western (Kalyani) Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions and epigraphs. Some historians assert that ninety percent of their inscriptions are in the Kannada language
Kannada language
while the remaining are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language.[154][155] More inscriptions in Kannada
Kannada
are attributed to Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
than any other king prior to the 12th century,[156] many of which have been deciphered and translated by historians of the Archaeological Survey of India.[13] Inscriptions were generally either on stone (Shilashasana) or copper plates (Tamarashasana). This period saw the growth of Kannada
Kannada
as a language of literature and poetry, impetus to which came from the devotional movement of the Virashaivas (called Lingayatism) who expressed their closeness to their deity in the form of simple lyrics called Vachanas.[157] At an administrative level, the regional language was used to record locations and rights related to land grants. When bilingual inscriptions were written, the section stating the title, genealogy, origin myths of the king and benedictions were generally done in Sanskrit. Kannada
Kannada
was used to state terms of the grants, including information on the land, its boundaries, the participation of local authorities, rights and obligations of the grantee, taxes and dues, and witnesses. This ensured the content was clearly understood by the local people without any ambiguity.[158] In addition to inscriptions, chronicles called Vamshavalis were written to provide historical details of dynasties. Writings in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
included poetry, grammar, lexicon, manuals, rhetoric, commentaries on older works, prose fiction and drama. In Kannada, writings on secular subjects became popular. Some well-known works are Chandombudhi, a prosody, and Karnataka
Karnataka
Kadambari, a romance, both written by Nagavarma I, a lexicon called Rannakanda by Ranna
Ranna
(993), a book on medicine called Karnataka-Kalyanakaraka by Jagaddala Somanatha, the earliest writing on astrology called Jatakatilaka by Sridharacharya (1049), a writing on erotics called Madanakatilaka by Chandraraja, and an encyclopedia called Lokapakara by Chavundaraya II (1025).[109][159] See also[edit]

Rashtrakutas Chola dynasty Vikramaditya VI Kulothunga Chola I Balligavi

Notes[edit]

^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.  ^ a b An inscription dated 1095 CE of Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
mentions grants to a Vihara
Vihara
of Buddha and Arya-Taradevi (Cousens 1926, p11) ^ a b Quote:"From 1118, Ananthapala, Vikramaditya VI's famous general is described as the ruler of Vengi, other Chalukyan commanders are found established in other parts of Telugu country and the Chola power practically disappears for a number of years thereafter. Thus Kulotunga sustained another curtailment of his empire which by the end of his reign was practically confined to Tamil country and a relatively small area of the adjoining Telugu districts".(Sastri 1955, p175) ^ a b Quote:" Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
led an expedition against the Cholas in c. 1085 and captured Kanchi and held it for some years. Vikramaditya VI succeeded in conquering major parts of Vengi Kingdom in 1088. Kollipakei-7000, a province of Vengi was under his control for long after this. Vengi was under his control from c. 1093 to 1099 and though it was recaptured by the Cholas in 1099, he reconquered it in c. 1118 and held it till 1124" (Kamath 2001, p105). Vikramaditya VI successfully subdued the Hoysalas, the Silharas of Konkan, the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa, the Pandyas
Pandyas
of Uchangi, the Seuna
Seuna
of Devagiri, the Kakatiya
Kakatiya
of Warangal, the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chedi of Ratnapur and the rulers of the Malwa
Malwa
territories south of the Narmada river (Kamath 2001, p105) ^ a b Quote:"About AD 1118 Vikramaditya's diplomatic and military skill enabled the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
to end Chola ascendancy on Vengi and bring that province back within the sphere of influence of Kalyani"(Chopra 2003, p139, part1) ^ a b Quote:"From about 1118 to the end of Vikramaditya's reign, and for some years thereafter, the Chola power seized to exist in Vengi" (Sen 1999, p387) ^ a b B.P. Sinha in George E. Somers, Dynastic History Of Magadha, p.214, Abhinav Publications, 1977, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7017-059-1 ^ a b Sen (1999), p282 ^ a b Majumdar, R. C. (1977), Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, p320, New Delhi, ISBN 81-208-0436-8 ^ Pollock (2006), pp. 288–289, 332 ^ Houben(1996), p. 215 ^ Kamath (2001), pp10–12, p100 ^ a b Sastry, Shama & Rao, N. Lakshminarayana. "Kannada inscriptions". Archaeological survey of India, South Indian inscriptions, Saturday, November 18, 2006. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. Retrieved 2006-12-28.  ^ The province of Tardavadi, lying in the very heart of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire, was given to Tailapa II
Tailapa II
as a fief (provincial grant) by Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Krishna III
Krishna III
for services rendered in war (Sastri 1955, p162) ^ Kamath (2001), p101 ^ poet Bilhana's 12th-century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work Vikramadeva Charitam and Ranna's Kannada
Kannada
work Gadayuddha (982) and inscriptions from Nilagunda, Yevvur, Kauthem and Miraj claim Tailapa II
Tailapa II
was son of Vikramaditya IV, seventh in descent from Bhima, brother of Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikramaditya II (Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Kings of the Chalukya
Chalukya
line of Vemulavada, who were certainly from the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
family line used the title "Malla" which is often used by the Western Chalukyas. Names such as "Satyashraya" which were used by the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
are also name of a Western Chalukya
Chalukya
king, (Gopal B.R. in Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Unlike the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, the Kalyani Chalukyas
Chalukyas
did not claim to be Harithiputhras of Manavysya gotra in lineage. The use of titles like Tribhuvanamalla marked them of as a distinct line (Fleet, Bhandarkar and Altekar in Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Moraes (1931), pp88-93 ^ Later legends and tradition hailed Tailapa as an incarnation of the God Krishna
Krishna
who fought 108 battles against the race of Ratta (Rashtrakuta) and captured 88 fortresses from them (Sastri 1955, p162) ^ According to a 973 inscription, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
helped by Kadambas
Kadambas
of Hangal, destroyed the Rattas (Rashtrakutas), killed the valiant Munja (of the Paramara
Paramara
kingdom), took the head of Panchala
Panchala
(Ganga dynasty) and restored the royal dignity of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Moraes 1931, pp 93–94) ^ Sastri (1955), p164 ^ A minor capital of Jayasimha II (Cousens 1926, p10, p105) ^ King Rajaraja Chola conquered parts of Chalukya
Chalukya
territory in present-day South Karnataka
Karnataka
by subjugating the Western Ganga Dynasty of Gangavadi (Kamath 2001, p102) ^ From the Hottur inscriptions dated 1007 – 1008, Satyashraya was able to defeat crown prince Rajendra Chola (Kamath 2001, p102) ^ a b c Sen (1999), p383 ^ Jayasimha's choice was Vijayaditya VII while the Cholas sought to place Rajaraja Narendra, son-in-law of Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
(Kamath 2001, p102 ^ Quote:"Beautified it so that it surpassed all the other cities of the earth" (Cousens 1926, p10) ^ a b Sen (1999), p384 ^ Ganguli in Kamath 2001, p103 ^ Sastri (1955), p166 ^ Someshvara I
Someshvara I
supported the cause of Shaktivarman II, son of Vijayaditya II while the Cholas preferred Rajendra, son of the previous king Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra
(Kamath 2001, p103) ^ Sastri (1955), p169 ^ Kamath (2001), p104 ^ Sastri (1955), p170 ^ Cousens (1926), pp10–11 ^ Sastri (1955), p171 ^ Sastri 1955, p172 ^ Eulogising Vikramaditya VI, Kashmiri poet Bilhana wrote in his Vikramanakadeva Charita that lord Shiva
Shiva
himself advised Chalukya Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
to replace his elder brother from the throne (Thapar 2003, p468) ^ Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
abolished the saka era and established the Vikrama-varsha (Vikrama era). Most Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions thereafter are dated to this new era (Cousens 1926, p11) ^ Vikramaditya's rule is mentioned as an era (samvat) along with Satavahana
Satavahana
Vikrama era 58 BCE, Shaka era, of 78 CE, Harshavardhana era of 606 CE (Thapar, 2003, pp 468–469) ^ Sen (1999), p386 ^ Vijnyaneshavara, his court scholar in Sanskrit, wrote of him as a king like none other (Kamath 2001, p106) ^ Cousens (1926), p12 ^ Bilhana called the reign "Rama Rajya" in his writing that consisted of 18 cantos. The last canto of this work is about the life of author himself who writes that the work was composed by him in gratitude for the great honor bestowed upon him by the ruler of Karnata (Sastri 1955, p315) ^ Bilhana was made Vidyapati (chief pandit) by the king (Cousens 1926, p12) ^ No other king prior to the Vijayanagara rulers have left behind so many records as Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
(Kamath 2001, p105) ^ a b c Sen (1999), p387 ^ CNG Coins ^ CNG Coins ^ Their feudatories, Hoysalas
Hoysalas
of Mysore region, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Seunas of Devagiri
Devagiri
and the Pandyas
Pandyas
of Madurai wasted no time in seizing the opportunity, (Sastri 1955,p158) ^ a b c Sastri (1955), p176 ^ a b Sen (1999), p388 ^ Kamath (2001), p107 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p108 ^ a b Cousens (1926), p13 ^ From the Minajagi record of 1184 (Kamath 2001, p109) ^ A Kalachuri
Kalachuri
commander called Barmideva or Brahma is known to have given support to the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Sastri 1955, p179–180) ^ Kamath (2001), p127 ^ Sen (1999), pp388-389 ^ Sastri (1955), p180 ^ Sastri (1955), p192 ^ Kamath (2001), p110 ^ Kamath (2001), p109 ^ There was flexibility to the terms used to designate territorial division (Dikshit G.S. in Kamath 2001, p110) ^ Coins of Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
with Kannada
Kannada
legends have been found (Kamath 2001, p12) ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South-Chalukyas". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South-Alupas". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. Archived from the original on 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Kamath (2001), p111 ^ Thapar (2002), p373 ^ Thapar (2002), p378 ^ Sastri (1955), p298 ^ Thapar (2002), p379 ^ Thapar (2002), p382 ^ Sastri (1955), p299 ^ Sastri (1955), p300 ^ Thapar (2002), p384 ^ Sastri (1955), 301 ^ a b Thapar (2002), 383 ^ Sastri (1955), p302 ^ Kamath (2001), p112, p132 ^ A 16th-century Buddhist work by Lama Taranatha speaks disparagingly of Shankaracharya as close parallels in some beliefs of Shankaracharya with Buddhist philosophy was not viewed favourably by Buddhist writers (Thapar, 2003, pp 349–350, p397) ^ It is said five earlier saints Renuka, Daruka, Ekorama, Panditharadhya and Vishwaradhya were the original founders of Virashaivism
Virashaivism
(Kamath 2001, p152) ^ However it is argued that these saints were from the same period as Basavanna
Basavanna
(Sastri 1955, p393) ^ Thapar (2003), p399 ^ He criticised Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
as a "Buddhist in disguise" (Kamath 2001, p151) ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p20 ^ Sastri (1955), p361–362 ^ Kamath (2001), p182 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p22 ^ Mack (2001), pp35–36 ^ Kamath (2001), p152 ^ Kamath K.L., November 04,2006. "Hoysala Temples of Belur". © 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-01. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ She was not only a pioneer in the era of Women's emancipation but also an example of a transcendental world-view (Thapar 2003, p392) ^ Sastri (1955), p286 ^ This is in stark contrast to the literature of the time (like Vikramankadeva Charita of Bilhana) that portrayed women as retiring, overly romantic and unconcerned with affairs of the state (Thapar 2003, p392) ^ The Belathur inscription of 1057 describes the end of a widow called Dekabbe who committed Sati despite the requests of her parents not to while some widows such as Chalukya
Chalukya
queen Attimabbe
Attimabbe
long survived their deceased husbands (Kamath 2001, pp 112–113) ^ The intellectual qualifications of the Brahmins
Brahmins
made them apt to serve as ministers and advisers of Kings(Rajguru), (Charles Eliot in Sastri 1955, p289) ^ Sastri (1955), p288 ^ Sastri (1955), p289 ^ The Manasollasa
Manasollasa
written by King Someshvara III
Someshvara III
contains significant information of the social life of Western Chalukyan times (Kamath 2001, p112) ^ Orchestras were popularised by the Kalamukhas, a cult who worshipped Lord Shiva
Lord Shiva
(Kamath 2001, p115) ^ Sastri (1955), p292 ^ Kamath (2001), p114 ^ Sen (1999), p. 393 ^ S.S.Basavanal in Puranik, p4452, (1992) ^ Sastri (1955), p361 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp18–20 ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), pp61–65 ^ The other two gems are Adikavi Pampa and Sri Ponna (Sastri 1955, p356) ^ A composition written in a mixed prose-verse style is called Champu (Narasimhacharya 1988, p12) ^ This also is in Champu style and was written at the request of Attimabbe, a pious widow of general Nagavarma who promoted the cause of Jainism
Jainism
(Sastri 1955, p356) ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p32 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp64–65, ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p34 ^ Nagavarma II was the teacher (guru) of another noteworthy scholar Janna
Janna
who later adorned the court of Hoysala Empire
Hoysala Empire
(Sastri 1955, p358) ^ Narasimhachar (1988), p.63 ^ Vachanas
Vachanas
are disconnected paragraphs ending with a name attributed to lord Shiva
Shiva
or one of his forms. The poems teach the valuelessness of riches, rituals and book learning and the spiritual privileges of worshipping Shiva, (B.L. Rice
Rice
in Sastri 1955, p361) ^ Thapar (2003), p394 ^ "Mathematical Achievements of Pre-modern Indian Mathematicians", Putta Swamy T.K., 2012, chapter=Bhaskara II, p331, Elsevier Publications, London, ISBN 978-0-12-397913-1 ^ Thapar, (2003), p393 ^ Sastri (1955), p315 ^ A Textbook of Historiography, 500 B.C. to A.D. 2000 by E. Sreedharan p.328 ^ Sastri (1955), p324 ^ Sangita Ratnakara being written in the court of feudatory Seuna kingdom, (Kamath 2001, p115) ^ An important period in the development of Indian art (Kamath 2001, p115) ^ a b Sastri (1955), p427 ^ Kannikeswaran. "Temples of Karnataka, Kalyani Chalukyan temples". webmaster@templenet.com,1996–2006. Retrieved 2006-12-16.  ^ A fabulous revival of Chalukya
Chalukya
temple building in central Karnataka in the 11th century (Foekema (1996), p14) ^ Hardy (1995), pp156-157 ^ Davison-Jenkins (2001), p89 ^ a b Kamiya, Takeo. "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent,20 September 1996". Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Cousens (1926), pp79–82 ^ a b Hardy (1995), p336 ^ Cousens (1926), pp114–115 ^ Hardy (1995), p326 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p117 ^ Hardy (1995), p323 ^ Cousens (1926), pp85–87 ^ Hardy (1995), p330 ^ Hardy (1995), p321 ^ Cousens (1926), pp100–102 ^ Hardy (1995), p333 ^ Hardy (1995), p335 ^ Hardy (1995), p324 ^ Quote:"A title it fully deserves, for it is probably the finest temple in Kanarese districts, after Halebidu"(Cousens 1926, p101) ^ Rao, Kishan. "Emperor of Temples crying for attention". The Hindu, June 10, 2002. The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Cousens (1926), pp105–106 ^ Githa U.B. "Balligavi-An important seat of learning". ©Chitralakshana.com 2002. Chitralakshana. Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2006-12-15.  ^ Hardy (1995), p 157 ^ Gunther, Michael D 2002. "Monuments of India - V". Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Kamath (2001), pp116–118 ^ Hardy (1995), pp6–7 ^ Pollock (2006), p332 ^ Houben(1996), p215 ^ Thousands of Kannada language
Kannada language
inscriptions are ascribed by Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
and pertain to his daily land and charitable grants (Nityadana),Kamat, Jyotsna. " Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyana". 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-24.  ^ Kannada
Kannada
enjoyed patronage from royalty, influential Jains and the Lingayat
Lingayat
movement of Virashaivas (Thapar 2003, p396) ^ However by the 14th century, bilingual inscriptions lost favour and inscriptions became mostly in the local language (Thapar, 2003, pp393–95) ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p33

References[edit] Book

Chopra, P.N.; Ravindran, T.K.; Subrahmanian, N (2003) [2003]. History of South India
South India
(Ancient, Medieval and Modern) Part 1. New Delhi: Chand Publications. ISBN 81-219-0153-7.  Cousens, Henry (1996) [1926]. The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese Districts. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 37526233.  Davison-Jenkins, Dominic J. (2001). "Hydraulic works". In John M. Fritz and George Michell (editors). New Light on Hampi : Recent Research at Vijayanagara. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Foekema, Gerard (1996). A Complete Guide To Hoysala Temples. New Delhi: Abhinav. ISBN 81-7017-345-0.  Hardy, Adam (1995) [1995]. Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation-The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-312-4.  Houben, Jan E.M. (1996) [1996]. Ideology and Status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the History of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10613-8.  Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) [1980]. A concise history of Karnataka : from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041.  Mack, Alexandra (2001). "The temple district of Vitthalapura". In John M. Fritz and George Michell (editors). New Light on Hampi : Recent Research at Vijayanagara. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Moraes, George M. (1990) [1931]. The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0595-0.  Narasimhacharya, R (1988) [1988]. History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 81-206-0303-6.  Pollock, Sheldon (2006) [2006]. The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24500-8.  Puranik, Siddya (1992). " Vachana
Vachana
literature (Kannada)". In Mohal Lal. Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: sasay to zorgot. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1221-8.  Rice, E.P. (1982) [1921]. Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0063-0.  Sastri, Nilakanta K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India
South India
from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.  Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999) [1999]. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age Publishers. ISBN 81-224-1198-3.  Thapar, Romila (2003) [2003]. The Penguin History of Early India. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-302989-4. 

Web

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire.

Kamiya, Takeyo. "Architecture of Indian subcontinent". Indian Architecture. Gerard da Cunha. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani". Dynasties of Deccan. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  "Indian Inscriptions, Vol 9,11,15,17,18,20". Archaeological Survey of India. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Githa U.B. " Balligavi
Balligavi
- An important seat of learning". History of Indian Art. Chitralakshana.com 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  Gunther, Michael D. "Index IV, Late Chalukya". Monuments of India. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Kannikeswaran, K. "Kalyani Chalukyan temples". TempleNet. webmaster@templenet.com. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Prabhu, Govindaraya S. "Alupa Dynasty-catalogue". Prabhu's web page on Indian Coins. Archived from the original on 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Prabhu, Govindaraya S. " Chalukya
Chalukya
Dynasty-catalogue". Prabhu's web page on Indian Coins. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Rao, Kishan. "Emperor among Temples crying for attention". Southern States - Karnataka. The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 

v t e

Historical places of Chalukyas

Karnataka

Badami Aihole Pattadakal Mahakuta Sudi Banashankari Lakkundi Dambal Gadag Mahadeva Temple, Itagi Lakshmeshwara Annigeri Kundgol Chaudayyadanapura Galaganatha Hangal Hooli Jalasangvi Basavakalyan Manyakheta Chandramouleshwara Temple
Chandramouleshwara Temple
Unkal Hubli-Dharwad Haveri Kuruvatti

Maharashtra

Elephanta Caves Ajanta cave #1 paintings Sangli Sangli
Sangli
State Hottal near Deglur Kolhapur Latur Dhule Solapur Manapura Mumbai Akola Nanded Hottal in Nanded
Nanded
District Naldurg Aurad Omerga Daitya Sudan temple Shiva
Shiva
temples at Pen Naldurg

Telangana

Bhadrakali Temple in Warangal Someshwara temple in Warangal Thousand Pillar Temple
Thousand Pillar Temple
in Hanamakonda Ramappa Temple
Ramappa Temple
near Warangal Alampur, Mahbubnagar Panagal Bhuvanagiri Fort Kulpakji
Kulpakji
and Jangaon, Warangal

Andhra Pradesh

Chebrolu, Guntur district Eluru Kolletikota Nidumolu Rajahmundry Vengi Terela village in Durgi mandal in Guntur district

v t e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period ( Brahmin
Brahmin
ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami
Badami
Chalukyas Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism
Hinduism
(ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta - Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge Univ

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Western Chalukya
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The Info List - Western Chalukya


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The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga
Kannadiga
dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya
Chalukya
after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan
Basavakalyan
in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka
Karnataka
state, and alternatively the Later Chalukya
Chalukya
from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of Badami. The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
controlled most of Deccan and Central India
Central India
for over two centuries. In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital. The dynasty quickly rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I
Someshvara I
who moved the capital to Kalyani. For over a century, the two empires of Southern India, the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
of Tanjore
Tanjore
fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi. During these conflicts, the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi, distant cousins of the Western Chalukyas but related to the Cholas by marriage took sides with the Cholas further complicating the situation. During the rule of Vikramaditya VI, in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the Western Chalukyas convincingly contended with the Cholas and reached a peak ruling territories that spread over most of the Deccan, between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River
Kaveri River
in the south.[3][4][5][6] His exploits were not limited to the south for even as a prince, during the rule of Someshvara I, he had led successful military campaigns as far east as modern Bihar
Bihar
and Bengal.[7][8][9] During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
and the Southern Kalachuris of Kalyani, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya
Chalukya
waned during the later half of the 12th century. The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
and that of the later Hoysala empire. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti, the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi. This was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India, especially in literature as the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings encouraged writers in the native language Kannada, and Sanskrit.

Contents

1 History 2 Administration 3 Economy 4 Culture

4.1 Religion 4.2 Society 4.3 Literature 4.4 Architecture 4.5 Language

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

History[edit]

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1028 AD from the rule of King Jayasimha II at the Praneshvara temple in Talagunda, Shivamogga district

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1057 AD of King Someshvara I
Someshvara I
at Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
in Bellary district

Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in Koppal district, Karnataka

Knowledge of Western Chalukya
Chalukya
history has come through examination of the numerous Kannada language
Kannada language
inscriptions left by the kings (scholars Sheldon Pollock and Jan Houben have claimed 90 percent of the Chalukyan royal inscriptions are in Kannada),[10][11] and from the study of important contemporary literary documents in Western Chalukya literature such as Gada Yuddha (982) in Kannada
Kannada
by Ranna
Ranna
and Vikramankadeva Charitam (1120) in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
by Bilhana.[12][13] The earliest record is dated 957, during the rule of Tailapa II
Tailapa II
when the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
were still a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
and Tailapa II
Tailapa II
governed from Tardavadi in present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka.[14][15] The genealogy of the kings of this empire is still debated. One theory, based on contemporary literary and inscriptional evidence plus the finding that the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
employed titles and names commonly used by the early Chalukyas, suggests that the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings belonged to the same family line as the illustrious Badami
Badami
Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of 6th-century,[16][17] while other Western Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptional evidence indicates they were a distinct line unrelated to the early Chalukyas.[18] The records suggests a possible rebellion by a local Chalukya
Chalukya
King, Chattigadeva of Banavasi-12000 province (c. 967), in alliance with local Kadamba chieftains. This rebellion however was unfruitful but paved the way for his successor Tailapa II.[19] A few years later, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
re-established Chalukya
Chalukya
rule and defeated the Rashtrakutas during the reign of Karka II
Karka II
by timing his rebellion to coincide with the confusion caused in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
capital of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
by the invading Paramaras of Central India
Central India
in 973.[20][21] After overpowering the Rashtrakutas, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
moved his capital to Manyakheta
Manyakheta
and consolidated the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire in the western Deccan by subjugating the Paramara
Paramara
and other aggressive rivals and extending his control over the land between the Narmada River
Narmada River
and Tungabhadra River.[22] However, some inscriptions indicate that Balagamve in Mysore territory may have been a power centre up to the rule of Someshvara I
Someshvara I
in 1042.[23] The intense competition between the kingdom of the western Deccan and those of the Tamil country came to the fore in the 11th century over the acutely contested fertile river valleys in the doab region of the Krishna
Krishna
and Godavari River
Godavari River
called Vengi (modern coastal Andhra Pradesh). The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
and the Chola Dynasty
Chola Dynasty
fought many bitter wars over control of this strategic resource. The imperial Cholas gained power during the time of the famous king Rajaraja Chola I and the crown prince Rajendra Chola I.[24] The Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi were cousins of the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
but became increasingly influenced by the Cholas through their marital ties with the Tamil kingdom. As this was against the interests of the Western Chalukyas, they wasted no time in involving themselves politically and militarily in Vengi. When King Satyashraya succeeded Tailapa II
Tailapa II
to the throne, he was able to protect his kingdom from Chola aggression as well as his northern territories in Konkan
Konkan
and Gujarat
Gujarat
although his control over Vengi was shaky.[25][26] His successor, Jayasimha II, fought many battles with the Cholas in the south around c. 1020–21 when both these powerful kingdoms struggled to choose the Vengi king.[26][27] Shortly thereafter in c. 1024, Jayasimha II subdued the Paramara
Paramara
of central India and the rebellious Yadava King Bhillama.[26]

Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasties

Badami
Badami
Chalukyas

Pulakeshin I 543–566

Kirtivarman I 566–597

Mangalesha 597–609

Pulakeshin II 609–642

Vikramaditya I 655–680

Vinayaditya 680–696

Vijayaditya 696–733

Vikramaditya II 733–746

Kirtivarman II 746–753

Vengi / Eastern Chalukyas

Kubja Vishnuvardhana 624–641

Jayasimha I 641–673

Indra Bhattaraka 673

Vishnu Vardhana II 673–682

Mangi Yuvaraja 682–706

Jayasimha II 706–718

Kokkili 719

Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
III 719–755

Vijayaditya I 755–772

Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
IV 772–808

Vijayaditya II 808–847

Kali Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
V 847–849

Vijayaditya III 849–892

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima
Bhima
I 892–921

Vijayaditya IV 921

Amma I 921–927

Beta Vijayaditya V 927

Tala I 927

Vikramaditya II 927–928

Bhima
Bhima
II 928

Yuddhamalla II 928–935

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima
Bhima
II 935–947

Amma II 947–970

Tala I 970

Danarnava 970–973

Jata Choda Bhima 973–999

Shaktivarman I 1000–1011

Vimaladitya 1011–1018

Rajaraja Narendra 1019–1061

Vijayaditya VII

Kalyani / Western Chalukyas

Tailapa II 957–997

Satyashraya 997–1008

Vikramaditya V 1008–1015

Jayasimha II 1015–1042

Someshvara I 1042–1068

Someshvara II 1068–1076

Vikramaditya VI 1076–1126

Someshvara III 1126–1138

Jagadhekamalla II 1138–1151

Tailapa III 1151–1164

Jagadhekamalla III 1163–1183

Someshvara IV 1184–1200

v t e

It is known from records that Jayasimha's son Someshvara I, whose rule historian Sen considers a brilliant period in the Western Chalukya rule, moved the Chalukya
Chalukya
capital to Kalyani in c. 1042.[28][29] Hostilities with the Cholas continued while both sides won and lost battles, though neither lost significant territory[30][31] during the ongoing struggle to install a puppet on the Vengi throne.[29][32][33] In 1068 Someshvara I, suffering from an incurable illness, drowned himself in the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
(Paramayoga).[34][35][36] Despite many conflicts with the Cholas in the south, Someshvara I
Someshvara I
had managed to maintain control over the northern territories in Konkan, Gujarat, Malwa
Malwa
and Kalinga during his rule. His successor, his eldest son Someshvara II, feuded with his younger brother, Vikramaditya VI, an ambitious warrior who had initially been governor of Gangavadi in the southern Deccan when Someshvara II
Someshvara II
was the king. Before 1068, even as a prince, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
had invaded Bengal, weakening the ruling Pala Empire. These incursions led to the establishment of Karnata dynasties such as the Sena dynasty
Sena dynasty
and Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
in Bengal, and the Nayanadeva dynasty in Bihar.,[7][8][9] Married to a Chola princess (a daughter of Vira Rajendra Chola), Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
maintained a friendly alliance with them. After the death of the Chola king in 1070, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
invaded the Tamil kingdom and installed his brother-in-law, Adhirajendra, on the throne creating conflict with Kulothunga Chola I, the powerful ruler of Vengi who sought the Chola throne for himself.[37] At the same time Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
undermined his brother, Someshvara II, by winning the loyalty of the Chalukya feudatories: the Hoysala, the Seuna
Seuna
and the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Hangal. Anticipating a civil war, Someshvara II
Someshvara II
sought help from Vikramaditya VI's enemies, Kulothunga Chola I
Kulothunga Chola I
and the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa. In the ensuing conflict of 1076, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
emerged victorious and proclaimed himself king of the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire.[38][39] The fifty-year reign of Vikramaditya VI, the most successful of the later Chalukya
Chalukya
rulers, was an important period in Karnataka's history and is referred to by historians as the " Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikrama era".[40][41][42] Not only was he successful in controlling his powerful feudatories in the north (Kadamba Jayakesi II of Goa, Silhara Bhoja and the Yadava King) and south (Hoysala Vishnuvardhana), he successfully dealt with the imperial Cholas whom he defeated in the battle of Vengi in 1093 and again in 1118. He retained this territory for many years despite ongoing hostilities with the Cholas.[3][4][5][6] This victory in Vengi reduced the Chola influence in the eastern Deccan and made him emperor of territories stretching from the Kaveri River
Kaveri River
in the south to the Narmada River
Narmada River
in the north, earning him the titles Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla (lord of three worlds). The scholars of his time paid him glowing tributes for his military leadership, interest in fine arts and religious tolerance.[43][44] Literature proliferated and scholars in Kannada
Kannada
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
adorned his court. Poet Bilhana, who immigrated from far away Kashmir, eulogised the king in his well-known work Vikramankadeva Charita.[45][46] Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
was not only an able warrior but also a devout king as indicated by his numerous inscriptions that record grants made to scholars and centers of religion.[47][48]

Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
of Kalyana, coin of King Somesvara I
Somesvara I
Trailokyamalla (1043-1068). Temple façade / Ornate floral ornament.[49]

Coin of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyana (Western Chalukyas). King Somesvara IV (1181-4/1189). Garuda, with prominent beak, running right / “Dapaga dapasa Murari(?)” in Kannada
Kannada
in three lines divided by pelleted lines.[50]

The continual warring with the Cholas exhausted both empires, giving their subordinates the opportunity to rebel.[48][51] In the decades after Vikramaditya VI's death in 1126, the empire steadily decreased in size as their powerful feudatories expanded in autonomy and territorial command.[48][52] The time period between 1150 and 1200 saw many hard fought battles between the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and their feudatories who were also at war with each other. By the time of Jagadhekamalla II, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
had lost control of Vengi and his successor, Tailapa III, was defeated by the Kakatiya
Kakatiya
king Prola in 1149.[52] Tailapa III was taken captive and later released bringing down the prestige of the Western Chalukyas. Seeing decadence and uncertainty seeping into Chalukya
Chalukya
rule, the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and Seunas also encroached upon the empire. Hoysala Narasimha I defeated and killed Tailapa III but was unable to overcome the Kalachuris who were vying for control of the same region. In 1157 the Kalachuris of Kalyanis under Bijjala II captured Kalyani and occupied it for the next twenty years, forcing the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
to move their capital to Annigeri
Annigeri
in the present day Dharwad district.[52][53] The Kalachuris were originally immigrants into the southern Deccan from central India and called themselves Kalanjarapuravaradhisavaras.[54] Bijjala II and his ancestors had governed as Chalukya
Chalukya
commanders (Mahamandaleshwar) over the Karhad-4000 and Tardavadi-1000 provinces (overlapping region in present-day Karnataka
Karnataka
and Maharashtra) with Mangalavada[55] or Annigeri[56] as their capital. Bijjala II's Chikkalagi record of 1157 calls him Mahabhujabala Chakravarti ("emperor with powerful shoulders and arms") indicating he no longer was a subordinate of the Chalukyas.[55] However the successors of Bijjala II were unable to hold on to Kalyani and their rule ended in 1183 when the last Chalukya scion, Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
made a final bid to regain the empire by recapturing Kalyani.[53][56] Kalachuri
Kalachuri
King Sankama was killed by Chalukya
Chalukya
general Narasimha in this conflict.[57][58] During this time, Hoysala Veera Ballala II
Veera Ballala II
was growing ambitious and clashed on several occasions with the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the other claimants over their empire. He defeated Chalukya
Chalukya
Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
and Seuna
Seuna
Bhillama V bringing large regions in the Krishna River
Krishna River
valley under the Hoysala domains, but was unsuccessful against Kalachuris.[59] The Seunas under Bhillama V were on an imperialistic expansion too when the Chalukyas regained Kalyani. Their ambitions were temporarily stemmed by their defeat against Chalukya
Chalukya
general Barma in 1183 but they later had their vengeance in 1189.[60] The overall effort by Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
to rebuild the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire failed and the dynasty was ended by the Seuna
Seuna
rulers who drove Someshvara IV
Someshvara IV
into exile in Banavasi
Banavasi
1189. After the fall of the Chalukyas, the Seunas and Hoysalas
Hoysalas
continued warring over the Krishna River region in 1191, each inflicting a defeat on the other at various points in time.[61] This period saw the fall of two great empires, the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of the western Deccan and the Cholas of Tamilakam. On the ruins of these two empires were built the Kingdoms of their feudatories whose mutual antagonisms filled the annals of Deccan history for over a hundred years, the Pandyas
Pandyas
taking control over some regions of the erstwhile Chola empire.[62] Administration[edit]

Mallikarjuna group of temples at Badami
Badami
in Bagalkot district, Karnataka

The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kingship was hereditary, passing to the king's brother if the king did not have a male heir. The administration was highly decentralised and feudatory clans such as the Alupas, the Hoysalas, the Kakatiya, the Seuna, the southern Kalachuri
Kalachuri
and others were allowed to rule their autonomous provinces, paying an annual tribute to the Chalukya
Chalukya
emperor.[63] Excavated inscriptions record titles such as Mahapradhana (Chief minister), Sandhivigrahika, and Dharmadhikari (chief justice). Some positions such as Tadeyadandanayaka (commander of reserve army) were specialised in function while all ministerial positions included the role of Dandanayaka (commander), showing that cabinet members were trained as army commanders as well as in general administrative skills.[64] The kingdom was divided into provinces such as Banavasi-12000, Nolambavadi-32000, Gangavadi-96000, each name including the number of villages under its jurisdiction. The large provinces were divided into smaller provinces containing a lesser number of villages, as in Belavola-300. The big provinces were called Mandala and under them were Nadu further divided into Kampanas (groups of villages) and finally a Bada (village). A Mandala was under a member of the royal family, a trusted feudatory or a senior official. Tailapa II
Tailapa II
himself was in charge of Tardavadi province during the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
rule. Chiefs of Mandalas were transferable based on political developments. For example, an official named Bammanayya administered Banavasi-12000 under King Someshvara III
Someshvara III
but was later transferred to Halasige-12000. Women from the royal family also administered Nadus and Kampanas. Army commanders were titled Mahamandaleshwaras and those who headed a Nadu were entitled Nadugouvnda.[65] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
minted punch-marked gold pagodas with Kannada and Nagari legends[66] which were large, thin gold coins with several varying punch marks on the obverse side. They usually carried multiple punches of symbols such as a stylised lion, Sri in Kannada,[67] a spearhead, the king's title, a lotus and others. Jayasimha II used the legend Sri Jaya, Someshvara I
Someshvara I
issued coins with Sri Tre lo ka malla, Someshvara II
Someshvara II
used Bhuvaneka malla, Lakshmideva's coin carried Sri Lasha, and Jagadhekamalla II
Jagadhekamalla II
coinage had the legend Sri Jagade. The Alupas, a feudatory, minted coins with the Kannada
Kannada
and Nagari legend Sri Pandya
Pandya
Dhanamjaya.[68] Lakkundi
Lakkundi
in Gadag district
Gadag district
and Sudi
Sudi
in Dharwad district
Dharwad district
were the main mints (Tankhashaley). Their heaviest gold coin was Gadyanaka weighting 96 grains, Dramma weighted 65 grains, Kalanju 48 grains, Kasu 15 grains, Manjadi 2.5 grains, Akkam 1.25 grains and Pana 9.6 grain.[69] Economy[edit]

Ornate mantapa at Kalleshvara Temple (987 CE) in Bagali, Davanagere district

Agriculture was the empire's main source of income through taxes on land and produce. The majority of the people lived in villages and worked farming the staple crops of rice, pulses, and cotton in the dry areas and sugarcane in areas having sufficient rainfall, with areca and betel being the chief cash crops. The living conditions of the labourers who farmed the land must have been bearable as there are no records of revolts by the landless against wealthy landlords. If peasants were disgruntled the common practice was to migrate in large numbers out of the jurisdiction of the ruler who was mistreating them, thereby depriving him of revenue from their labor.[70] Taxes were levied on mining and forest products, and additional income was raised through tolls for the use of transportation facilities. The state also collected fees from customs, professional licenses, and judicial fines.[71] Records show horses and salt were taxed as well as commodities (gold, textiles, perfumes) and agricultural produce (black pepper, paddy, spices, betel leaves, palm leaves, coconuts and sugar). Land tax assessment was based on frequent surveys evaluating the quality of land and the type of produce. Chalukya
Chalukya
records specifically mention black soil and red soil lands in addition to wetland, dry land and wasteland in determining taxation rates.[72]

Part of a series on the

History of Karnataka

Political history of medieval Karnataka Origin of Karnataka's name Kadambas
Kadambas
and Gangas Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Empire Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire Southern Kalachuri Hoysala Empire Vijayanagara Empire Bahmani Sultanate Bijapur Sultanate Kingdom of Mysore Nayakas of Keladi Nayakas of Chitradurga Haleri Kingdom Unification of Karnataka

Categories

Architecture Forts

Economies Societies

v t e

Key figures mentioned in inscriptions from rural areas were the Gavundas (officials) or Goudas. The Gavundas belonged to two levels of economic strata, the Praja Gavunda (people's Gavunda) and the Prabhu Gavunda (lord of Gavundas). They served the dual purpose of representing the people before the rulers as well as functioning as state appointees for tax collection and the raising of militias. They are mentioned in inscriptions related to land transactions, irrigation maintenance, village tax collection and village council duties.[73] The organisation of corporate enterprises became common in the 11th century.[74] Almost all arts and crafts were organised into guilds and work was done on a corporate basis; records do not mention individual artists, sculptors and craftsman. Only in the regions ruled by the Hoysala did individual sculptors etched their names below their creations.[75] Merchants organised themselves into powerful guilds that transcended political divisions, allowing their operations to be largely unaffected by wars and revolutions. Their only threat was the possibility of theft from brigands when their ships and caravans traveled to distant lands. Powerful South Indian merchant guilds included the Manigramam, the Nagarattar and the Anjuvannam. Local guilds were called nagaram, while the Nanadesis were traders from neighbouring kingdoms who perhaps mixed business with pleasure. The wealthiest and most influential and celebrated of all South Indian merchant guilds was the self-styled Ainnurruvar, also known as the 500 Svamis of Ayyavolepura ( Brahmins
Brahmins
and Mahajanas of present-day Aihole),[76][77] who conducted extensive land and sea trade and thereby contributed significantly to the total foreign trade of the empire. It fiercely protected its trade obligations (Vira Bananjudharma or law of the noble merchants) and its members often recorded their achievements in inscriptions (prasasti). Five hundred such excavated Prasasti inscriptions, with their own flag and emblem, the bull, record their pride in their business. Rich traders contributed significantly to the king's treasury through paying import and export taxes. The edicts of the Aihole
Aihole
Svamis mention trade ties with foreign kingdoms such as Chera, Pandya, Maleya (Malaysia), Magadh, Kaushal, Saurashtra, Kurumba, Kambhoja (Cambodia), Lata (Gujarat), Parasa (Persia) and Nepal. Travelling both land and sea routes, these merchants traded mostly in precious stones, spices and perfumes, and other specialty items such as camphor. Business flourished in precious stones such as diamonds, lapis lazuli, onyx, topaz, carbuncles and emeralds. Commonly traded spices were cardamom, saffron, and cloves, while perfumes included the by-products of sandalwood, bdellium, musk, civet and rose. These items were sold either in bulk or hawked on streets by local merchants in towns.[78] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
controlled most of South India's west coast and by the 10th century they had established extensive trade ties with the Tang Empire
Tang Empire
of China, the empires of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Abbasid Caliphate in Bhagdad, and by the 12th century Chinese fleets were frequenting Indian ports. Exports to Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
China
China
included textiles, spices, medicinal plants, jewels, ivory, rhino horn, ebony and camphor. The same products also reached ports in the west such as Dhofar
Dhofar
and Aden. The final destinations for those trading with the west were Persia, Arabia and Egypt.[79] The thriving trade center of Siraf, a port on the eastern coast of the Persian Gulf, served an international clientele of merchants including those from the Chalukya empire who were feasted by wealthy local merchants during business visits. An indicator of the Indian merchants' importance in Siraf comes from records describing dining plates reserved for them.[80] In addition to this, Siraf
Siraf
received aloe wood, perfumes, sandalwood and condiments. The most expensive import to South India
South India
were Arabian horse shipments, this trade being monopolised by Arabs and local Brahmin
Brahmin
merchants. Traveller Marco Polo, in the 13th century, recorded that the breeding of horses never succeeded in India due to differing climatic, soil and grassland conditions.[79] Culture[edit] Religion[edit] See also: Ramanujacharya, Basavanna, Allama Prabhu, and Akka Mahadevi

Basavanna
Basavanna
Statue

A Hero stone
Hero stone
with old Kannada
Kannada
inscription (1115 AD) during the rule of Vikarmaditya VI at the Kedareshvara temple in Balligavi

The fall of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire to the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
in the 10th century, coinciding with the defeat of the Western Ganga Dynasty by the Cholas in Gangavadi, was a setback to Jainism. The growth of Virashaivism
Virashaivism
in the Chalukya
Chalukya
territory and Vaishnava Hinduism
Hinduism
in the Hoysala region paralleled a general decreased interest in Jainism, although the succeeding kingdoms continued to be religiously tolerant.[81] Two locations of Jain
Jain
worship in the Hoysala territory continued to be patronaged, Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
and Kambadahalli. The decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in South India
South India
had begun in the 8th century with the spread of Adi Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
philosophy.[82] The only places of Buddhist worship that remained during the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
rule were at Dambal
Dambal
and Balligavi.[2] There is no mention of religious conflict in the writings and inscriptions of the time which suggest the religious transition was smooth. Although the origin of the Virashaiva
Virashaiva
faith has been debated, the movement grew through its association with Basavanna
Basavanna
in the 12th century.[83][84] Basavanna
Basavanna
and other Virashaiva
Virashaiva
saints preached of a faith without a caste system. In his Vachanas
Vachanas
(a form of poetry), Basavanna
Basavanna
appealed to the masses in simple Kannada
Kannada
and wrote "work is worship" (Kayakave Kailasa). Also known as the Lingayats
Lingayats
(worshipers of the Linga, the universal symbol of Shiva), these Virashaivas questioned many of the established norms of society such as the belief in rituals and the theory of rebirth and supported the remarriage of widows and the marriage of unwed older women.[85] This gave more social freedom to women but they were not accepted into the priesthood. Ramanujacharya, the head of the Vaishnava monastery in Srirangam, traveled to the Hoysala territory and preached the way of devotion (bhakti marga). He later wrote Sribhashya, a commentary on Badarayana Brahmasutra, a critique on the Advaita
Advaita
philosophy of Adi Shankara.[86] Ramanujacharya's stay in Melkote
Melkote
resulted in the Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
converting to Vaishnavism, a faith that his successors also followed. The impact of these religious developments on the culture, literature, and architecture in South India
South India
was profound. Important works of metaphysics and poetry based on the teachings of these philosophers were written over the next centuries. Akka Mahadevi, Allama Prabhu, and a host of Basavanna's followers, including Chenna Basava, Prabhudeva, Siddharama, and Kondaguli Kesiraja wrote hundreds of poems called Vachanas
Vachanas
in praise of Lord Shiva.[87] The esteemed scholars in the Hoysala court, Harihara and Raghavanka, were Virashaivas.[88] This tradition continued into the Vijayanagar empire
Vijayanagar empire
with such well-known scholars as Singiraja, Mallanarya, Lakkana Dandesa and other prolific writers of Virashaiva
Virashaiva
literature.[89][90] The Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu dynasties of the Vijayanagar empire
Vijayanagar empire
were followers of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and a Vaishnava temple with an image of Ramanujacharya exists today in the Vitthalapura area of Vijayanagara.[91] Scholars in the succeeding Mysore Kingdom wrote Vaishnavite works supporting the teachings of Ramanujacharya.[92] King Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
built many temples after his conversion from Jainism
Jainism
to Vaishnavism.[93] Society[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Society

Kirtimukha
Kirtimukha
relief at Kedareswara Temple in Balligavi, Shimoga district

The rise of Veerashaivaism was revolutionary and challenged the prevailing Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system
which retained royal support. The social role of women largely depended on their economic status and level of education in this relatively liberal period. Freedom was more available to women in the royal and affluent urban families. Records describe the participation of women in the fine arts, such as Chalukya queen Chandala Devi's and Kalachuris of Kalyani
Kalachuris of Kalyani
queen Sovala Devi's skill in dance and music. The compositions of thirty Vachana
Vachana
women poets included the work of the 12th-century Virashaiva
Virashaiva
mystic Akka Mahadevi whose devotion to the bhakti movement is well known.[94] Contemporary records indicate some royal women were involved in administrative and martial affairs such as princess Akkadevi, (sister of King Jayasimha II) who fought and defeated rebellious feudals.[95][96] Inscriptions emphasise public acceptance of widowhood indicating that Sati (a custom in which a dead man's widow used to immolate herself on her husband's funeral pyre) though present was on a voluntary basis.[97] Ritual deaths to achieve salvation were seen among the Jains who preferred to fast to death (Sallekhana), while people of some other communities chose to jump on spikes (Shoolabrahma) or walking into fire on an eclipse. In a Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system
that was conspicuously present, Brahmins enjoyed a privileged position as providers of knowledge and local justice. These Brahmins
Brahmins
were normally involved in careers that revolved around religion and learning with the exception of a few who achieved success in martial affairs. They were patronised by kings, nobles and wealthy aristocrats who persuaded learned Brahmins
Brahmins
to settle in specific towns and villages by making them grants of land and houses. The relocation of Brahmin
Brahmin
scholars was calculated to be in the interest of the kingdom as they were viewed as persons detached from wealth and power and their knowledge was a useful tool to educate and teach ethical conduct and discipline in local communities. Brahmins
Brahmins
were also actively involved in solving local problems by functioning as neutral arbiters (Panchayat).[98] Regarding eating habits, Brahmins, Jains, Buddhists and Shaivas were strictly vegetarian while the partaking of different kinds of meat was popular among other communities. Marketplace vendors sold meat from domesticated animals such as goats, sheep, pigs and fowl as well as exotic meat including partridge, hare, wild fowl and boar.[99] People found indoor amusement by attending wrestling matches (Kusti) or watching animals fight such as cock fights and ram fights or by gambling. Horse racing was a popular outdoor past time.[100] In addition to these leisurely activities, festivals and fairs were frequent and entertainment by traveling troupes of acrobats, dancers, dramatists and musicians was often provided.[101] Schools and hospitals are mentioned in records and these were built in the vicinity of temples. Marketplaces served as open air town halls where people gathered to discuss and ponder local issues. Choirs, whose main function was to sing devotional hymns, were maintained at temple expense. Young men were trained to sing in choirs in schools attached to monasteries such as Hindu Matha, Jain
Jain
Palli and Buddhist Vihara.[102] These institutions provided advanced education in religion and ethics and were well equipped with libraries (Saraswati Bhandara). Learning was imparted in the local language and in Sanskrit. Schools of higher learning were called Brahmapuri (or Ghatika or Agrahara). Teaching Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was a near monopoly of Brahmins
Brahmins
who received royal endowments for their cause. Inscriptions record that the number of subjects taught varied from four to eighteen.[103] The four most popular subjects with royal students were Economics (Vartta), Political Science (Dandaniti), Veda (trayi) and Philosophy (Anvikshiki), subjects that are mentioned as early as Kautilyas Arthashastra. Literature[edit] Main article: Kannada
Kannada
literature in the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire

Grill work at Tripurantkesvara temple in Balligavi, Shimoga district

The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
era was one of substantial literary activity in the native Kannada, and Sanskrit.[104] In a golden age of Kannada literature,[105] Jain
Jain
scholars wrote about the life of Tirthankaras and Virashaiva
Virashaiva
poets expressed their closeness to God through pithy poems called Vachanas. Nearly three hundred contemporary Vachanakaras ( Vachana
Vachana
poets) including thirty women poets have been recorded.[106][107] Early works by Brahmin
Brahmin
writers were on the epics, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata, Puranas
Puranas
and Vedas. In the field of secular literature, subjects such as romance, erotics, medicine, lexicon, mathematics, astrology, encyclopedia etc. were written for the first time.[108][109] Most notable among Kannada
Kannada
scholars were Ranna, grammarian Nagavarma II, minister Durgasimha and the Virashaiva
Virashaiva
saint and social reformer Basavanna. Ranna
Ranna
who was patronised by king Tailapa II
Tailapa II
and Satyashraya is one among the "three gems of Kannada
Kannada
literature".[110] He was bestowed the title "Emperor among poets" (Kavi Chakravathi) by King Tailapa II
Tailapa II
and has five major works to his credit. Of these, Saahasabheema Vijayam (or Gada yuddha) of 982 in Champu style is a eulogy of his patron King Satyashraya whom he compares to Bhima
Bhima
in valour and achievements and narrates the duel between Bhima
Bhima
and Duryodhana
Duryodhana
using clubs on the eighteenth day of the Mahabharata war.[111] He wrote Ajitha purana
Ajitha purana
in 993 describing the life of the second Tirthankara, Ajitanatha.[112][113] Nagavarma II, poet laureate (Katakacharya) of King Jagadhekamalla II made contributions to Kannada
Kannada
literature in various subjects.[114][115] His works in poetry, prosody, grammar and vocabulary are standard authorities and their importance to the study of Kannada language
Kannada language
is well acknowledged. Kavyavalokana in poetics, Karnataka-Bhashabhushana on grammar and Vastukosa a lexicon (with Kannada
Kannada
equivalents for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words) are some of his comprehensive contributions.[116] Several works on medicine were produced during this period. Notable among them were Jagaddala Somanatha's Karnataka Kalyana Karaka.[117]

A popular Vachana
Vachana
poem in the Kannada language
Kannada language
by Akka Mahadevi

A unique and native form of poetic literature in Kannada
Kannada
called Vachanas
Vachanas
developed during this time. They were written by mystics, who expressed their devotion to God in simple poems that could appeal to the masses. Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi, Allama Prabhu, Channabasavanna and Siddharama are the best known among them.[118] In Sanskrit, a well-known poem (Mahakavya) in 18 cantos called Vikramankadeva Charita by Kashmiri poet Bilhana recounts in epic style the life and achievements of his patron king Vikramaditya VI. The work narrates the episode of Vikramaditya VI's accession to the Chalukya throne after overthrowing his elder brother Someshvara II.[119] The great Indian mathematician Bhāskara II (born c.1114) flourished during this time. From his own account in his famous work Siddhanta Siromani (c. 1150, comprising the Lilavati, Bijaganita on algebra, Goladhaya on the celestial globe and Grahaganita on planets) Bijjada Bida (modern Bijapur) was his native place.[120] Manasollasa
Manasollasa
or Abhilashitartha Chintamani by king Someshvara III (1129) was a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work intended for all sections of society. This is an example of an early encyclopedia in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
covering many subjects including medicine, magic, veterinary science, valuing of precious stones and pearls, fortifications, painting, music, games, amusements etc.[121] While the book does not give any of dealt topics particular hierarchy of importance, it serves as a landmark in understanding the state of knowledge in those subjects at that time.[122] Someshwara III also authored a biography of his famous father Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
called Vikraman-Kabhyudaya. The text is a historical prose narrative which also includes a graphic description of the geography and people of Karnataka.[123] A Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholar Vijnaneshwara became famous in the field of legal literature for his Mitakshara, in the court of Vikramaditya VI. Perhaps the most acknowledged work in that field, Mitakshara is a treatise on law (commentary on Yajnavalkya) based on earlier writings and has found acceptance in most parts of modern India. An Englishman Colebrooke later translated into English the section on inheritance giving it currency in the British Indian court system.[124] Some important literary works of the time related to music and musical instruments were Sangita Chudamani, Sangita Samayasara and Sangita Ratnakara.[125] Architecture[edit] Main article: Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architecture

Typical Western Chalukya
Chalukya
dravida Vimana at Siddesvara temple in Haveri, Karnataka

The reign of Western Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
was an important period in the development of Deccan architecture. The architecture designed during this time served as a conceptual link between the Badami
Badami
Chalukya Architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala architecture popularised in the 13th century.[126][127] The art of the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
is sometimes called the " Gadag
Gadag
style" after the number of ornate temples they built in the Tungabhadra River- Krishna River
Krishna River
doab region of present-day Gadag district
Gadag district
in Karnataka.[128] The dynasty's temple building activity reached its maturity and culmination in the 12th century with over a hundred temples built across the Deccan, more than half of them in present-day central Karnataka.[129][130] Apart from temples, the dynasty's architecture is well known for the ornate stepped wells (Pushkarni) which served as ritual bathing places, a few of which are well preserved in Lakkundi. These stepped well designs were later incorporated by the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
and the Vijayanagara empire in the coming centuries.[131][132]

Ornate pillars at Saraswati temple in Gadag
Gadag
city, Karnataka

The Kasivisvesvara Temple
Kasivisvesvara Temple
at Lakkundi
Lakkundi
( Gadag
Gadag
district),[133][134] the Dodda Basappa Temple
Dodda Basappa Temple
at Dambal
Dambal
( Gadag
Gadag
district),[135][136] the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti (Bellary district),[134][137] the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali (Davangere district),[137][138] the Siddhesvara Temple
Siddhesvara Temple
at Haveri
Haveri
( Haveri
Haveri
district),[139][140] the Amrtesvara Temple at Annigeri
Annigeri
(Dharwad district),[141] the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi (Koppal district),[142][143] the Kaitabheshvara Temple at Kubatur,[144] and the Kedareshvara Temple at Balligavi
Balligavi
are the finest examples produced by the later Chalukya
Chalukya
architects.[145] The 12th-century Mahadeva Temple with its well executed sculptures is an exquisite example of decorative detail. The intricate, finely crafted carvings on walls, pillars and towers speak volumes about Chalukya taste and culture. An inscription outside the temple calls it "Emperor of Temples" (devalaya chakravarti) and relates that it was built by Mahadeva, a commander in the army of king Vikramaditya VI.[146][147] The Kedareswara Temple (1060) at Balligavi
Balligavi
is an example of a transitional Chalukya-Hoysala architectural style.[148][149] The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
built temples in Badami
Badami
and Aihole
Aihole
during their early phase of temple building activity, such as Mallikarjuna Temple, the Yellamma Temple and the Bhutanatha group
Bhutanatha group
of Temples.[150][151]

Brahma Jinalaya
Brahma Jinalaya
at Lakkundi
Lakkundi
dates to the mid-late 11th century

The vimana of their temples (tower over the shrine) is a compromise in detail between the plain stepped style of the early Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the decorative finish of the Hoysalas.[127] To the credit of the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
architects is the development of the lathe turned (tuned) pillars and use of Soapstone
Soapstone
(Chloritic Schist) as basic building and sculptural material, a very popular idiom in later Hoysala temples. They popularised the use of decorative Kirtimukha
Kirtimukha
(demon faces) in their sculptures. Famous architects in the Hoysala kingdom included Chalukyan architects who were natives of places such as Balligavi.[152] The artistic wall decor and the general sculptural idiom was dravidian architecture.[132] This style is sometimes called Karnata dravida, one of the notable traditions in Indian architecture.[153] Language[edit]

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription ascribed to King Vikramaditya VI, dated 1112 CE at Mahadeva Temple in Itagi, Karnataka

The local language Kannada
Kannada
was mostly used in Western (Kalyani) Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions and epigraphs. Some historians assert that ninety percent of their inscriptions are in the Kannada language
Kannada language
while the remaining are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language.[154][155] More inscriptions in Kannada
Kannada
are attributed to Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
than any other king prior to the 12th century,[156] many of which have been deciphered and translated by historians of the Archaeological Survey of India.[13] Inscriptions were generally either on stone (Shilashasana) or copper plates (Tamarashasana). This period saw the growth of Kannada
Kannada
as a language of literature and poetry, impetus to which came from the devotional movement of the Virashaivas (called Lingayatism) who expressed their closeness to their deity in the form of simple lyrics called Vachanas.[157] At an administrative level, the regional language was used to record locations and rights related to land grants. When bilingual inscriptions were written, the section stating the title, genealogy, origin myths of the king and benedictions were generally done in Sanskrit. Kannada
Kannada
was used to state terms of the grants, including information on the land, its boundaries, the participation of local authorities, rights and obligations of the grantee, taxes and dues, and witnesses. This ensured the content was clearly understood by the local people without any ambiguity.[158] In addition to inscriptions, chronicles called Vamshavalis were written to provide historical details of dynasties. Writings in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
included poetry, grammar, lexicon, manuals, rhetoric, commentaries on older works, prose fiction and drama. In Kannada, writings on secular subjects became popular. Some well-known works are Chandombudhi, a prosody, and Karnataka
Karnataka
Kadambari, a romance, both written by Nagavarma I, a lexicon called Rannakanda by Ranna
Ranna
(993), a book on medicine called Karnataka-Kalyanakaraka by Jagaddala Somanatha, the earliest writing on astrology called Jatakatilaka by Sridharacharya (1049), a writing on erotics called Madanakatilaka by Chandraraja, and an encyclopedia called Lokapakara by Chavundaraya II (1025).[109][159] See also[edit]

Rashtrakutas Chola dynasty Vikramaditya VI Kulothunga Chola I Balligavi

Notes[edit]

^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.  ^ a b An inscription dated 1095 CE of Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
mentions grants to a Vihara
Vihara
of Buddha and Arya-Taradevi (Cousens 1926, p11) ^ a b Quote:"From 1118, Ananthapala, Vikramaditya VI's famous general is described as the ruler of Vengi, other Chalukyan commanders are found established in other parts of Telugu country and the Chola power practically disappears for a number of years thereafter. Thus Kulotunga sustained another curtailment of his empire which by the end of his reign was practically confined to Tamil country and a relatively small area of the adjoining Telugu districts".(Sastri 1955, p175) ^ a b Quote:" Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
led an expedition against the Cholas in c. 1085 and captured Kanchi and held it for some years. Vikramaditya VI succeeded in conquering major parts of Vengi Kingdom in 1088. Kollipakei-7000, a province of Vengi was under his control for long after this. Vengi was under his control from c. 1093 to 1099 and though it was recaptured by the Cholas in 1099, he reconquered it in c. 1118 and held it till 1124" (Kamath 2001, p105). Vikramaditya VI successfully subdued the Hoysalas, the Silharas of Konkan, the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa, the Pandyas
Pandyas
of Uchangi, the Seuna
Seuna
of Devagiri, the Kakatiya
Kakatiya
of Warangal, the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chedi of Ratnapur and the rulers of the Malwa
Malwa
territories south of the Narmada river (Kamath 2001, p105) ^ a b Quote:"About AD 1118 Vikramaditya's diplomatic and military skill enabled the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
to end Chola ascendancy on Vengi and bring that province back within the sphere of influence of Kalyani"(Chopra 2003, p139, part1) ^ a b Quote:"From about 1118 to the end of Vikramaditya's reign, and for some years thereafter, the Chola power seized to exist in Vengi" (Sen 1999, p387) ^ a b B.P. Sinha in George E. Somers, Dynastic History Of Magadha, p.214, Abhinav Publications, 1977, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7017-059-1 ^ a b Sen (1999), p282 ^ a b Majumdar, R. C. (1977), Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, p320, New Delhi, ISBN 81-208-0436-8 ^ Pollock (2006), pp. 288–289, 332 ^ Houben(1996), p. 215 ^ Kamath (2001), pp10–12, p100 ^ a b Sastry, Shama & Rao, N. Lakshminarayana. "Kannada inscriptions". Archaeological survey of India, South Indian inscriptions, Saturday, November 18, 2006. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. Retrieved 2006-12-28.  ^ The province of Tardavadi, lying in the very heart of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire, was given to Tailapa II
Tailapa II
as a fief (provincial grant) by Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Krishna III
Krishna III
for services rendered in war (Sastri 1955, p162) ^ Kamath (2001), p101 ^ poet Bilhana's 12th-century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work Vikramadeva Charitam and Ranna's Kannada
Kannada
work Gadayuddha (982) and inscriptions from Nilagunda, Yevvur, Kauthem and Miraj claim Tailapa II
Tailapa II
was son of Vikramaditya IV, seventh in descent from Bhima, brother of Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
Vikramaditya II (Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Kings of the Chalukya
Chalukya
line of Vemulavada, who were certainly from the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
family line used the title "Malla" which is often used by the Western Chalukyas. Names such as "Satyashraya" which were used by the Badami
Badami
Chalukya
Chalukya
are also name of a Western Chalukya
Chalukya
king, (Gopal B.R. in Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Unlike the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas, the Kalyani Chalukyas
Chalukyas
did not claim to be Harithiputhras of Manavysya gotra in lineage. The use of titles like Tribhuvanamalla marked them of as a distinct line (Fleet, Bhandarkar and Altekar in Kamath 2001, p100) ^ Moraes (1931), pp88-93 ^ Later legends and tradition hailed Tailapa as an incarnation of the God Krishna
Krishna
who fought 108 battles against the race of Ratta (Rashtrakuta) and captured 88 fortresses from them (Sastri 1955, p162) ^ According to a 973 inscription, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
helped by Kadambas
Kadambas
of Hangal, destroyed the Rattas (Rashtrakutas), killed the valiant Munja (of the Paramara
Paramara
kingdom), took the head of Panchala
Panchala
(Ganga dynasty) and restored the royal dignity of the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Moraes 1931, pp 93–94) ^ Sastri (1955), p164 ^ A minor capital of Jayasimha II (Cousens 1926, p10, p105) ^ King Rajaraja Chola conquered parts of Chalukya
Chalukya
territory in present-day South Karnataka
Karnataka
by subjugating the Western Ganga Dynasty of Gangavadi (Kamath 2001, p102) ^ From the Hottur inscriptions dated 1007 – 1008, Satyashraya was able to defeat crown prince Rajendra Chola (Kamath 2001, p102) ^ a b c Sen (1999), p383 ^ Jayasimha's choice was Vijayaditya VII while the Cholas sought to place Rajaraja Narendra, son-in-law of Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
(Kamath 2001, p102 ^ Quote:"Beautified it so that it surpassed all the other cities of the earth" (Cousens 1926, p10) ^ a b Sen (1999), p384 ^ Ganguli in Kamath 2001, p103 ^ Sastri (1955), p166 ^ Someshvara I
Someshvara I
supported the cause of Shaktivarman II, son of Vijayaditya II while the Cholas preferred Rajendra, son of the previous king Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra
(Kamath 2001, p103) ^ Sastri (1955), p169 ^ Kamath (2001), p104 ^ Sastri (1955), p170 ^ Cousens (1926), pp10–11 ^ Sastri (1955), p171 ^ Sastri 1955, p172 ^ Eulogising Vikramaditya VI, Kashmiri poet Bilhana wrote in his Vikramanakadeva Charita that lord Shiva
Shiva
himself advised Chalukya Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
to replace his elder brother from the throne (Thapar 2003, p468) ^ Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
abolished the saka era and established the Vikrama-varsha (Vikrama era). Most Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptions thereafter are dated to this new era (Cousens 1926, p11) ^ Vikramaditya's rule is mentioned as an era (samvat) along with Satavahana
Satavahana
Vikrama era 58 BCE, Shaka era, of 78 CE, Harshavardhana era of 606 CE (Thapar, 2003, pp 468–469) ^ Sen (1999), p386 ^ Vijnyaneshavara, his court scholar in Sanskrit, wrote of him as a king like none other (Kamath 2001, p106) ^ Cousens (1926), p12 ^ Bilhana called the reign "Rama Rajya" in his writing that consisted of 18 cantos. The last canto of this work is about the life of author himself who writes that the work was composed by him in gratitude for the great honor bestowed upon him by the ruler of Karnata (Sastri 1955, p315) ^ Bilhana was made Vidyapati (chief pandit) by the king (Cousens 1926, p12) ^ No other king prior to the Vijayanagara rulers have left behind so many records as Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
(Kamath 2001, p105) ^ a b c Sen (1999), p387 ^ CNG Coins ^ CNG Coins ^ Their feudatories, Hoysalas
Hoysalas
of Mysore region, Kakatiyas of Warangal, Seunas of Devagiri
Devagiri
and the Pandyas
Pandyas
of Madurai wasted no time in seizing the opportunity, (Sastri 1955,p158) ^ a b c Sastri (1955), p176 ^ a b Sen (1999), p388 ^ Kamath (2001), p107 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p108 ^ a b Cousens (1926), p13 ^ From the Minajagi record of 1184 (Kamath 2001, p109) ^ A Kalachuri
Kalachuri
commander called Barmideva or Brahma is known to have given support to the Chalukyas
Chalukyas
(Sastri 1955, p179–180) ^ Kamath (2001), p127 ^ Sen (1999), pp388-389 ^ Sastri (1955), p180 ^ Sastri (1955), p192 ^ Kamath (2001), p110 ^ Kamath (2001), p109 ^ There was flexibility to the terms used to designate territorial division (Dikshit G.S. in Kamath 2001, p110) ^ Coins of Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
with Kannada
Kannada
legends have been found (Kamath 2001, p12) ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South-Chalukyas". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Govindaraya Prabhu, S. "Indian coins-Dynasties of South-Alupas". Prabhu's Web Page On Indian Coinage, November 1, 2001. Archived from the original on 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Kamath (2001), p111 ^ Thapar (2002), p373 ^ Thapar (2002), p378 ^ Sastri (1955), p298 ^ Thapar (2002), p379 ^ Thapar (2002), p382 ^ Sastri (1955), p299 ^ Sastri (1955), p300 ^ Thapar (2002), p384 ^ Sastri (1955), 301 ^ a b Thapar (2002), 383 ^ Sastri (1955), p302 ^ Kamath (2001), p112, p132 ^ A 16th-century Buddhist work by Lama Taranatha speaks disparagingly of Shankaracharya as close parallels in some beliefs of Shankaracharya with Buddhist philosophy was not viewed favourably by Buddhist writers (Thapar, 2003, pp 349–350, p397) ^ It is said five earlier saints Renuka, Daruka, Ekorama, Panditharadhya and Vishwaradhya were the original founders of Virashaivism
Virashaivism
(Kamath 2001, p152) ^ However it is argued that these saints were from the same period as Basavanna
Basavanna
(Sastri 1955, p393) ^ Thapar (2003), p399 ^ He criticised Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
as a "Buddhist in disguise" (Kamath 2001, p151) ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p20 ^ Sastri (1955), p361–362 ^ Kamath (2001), p182 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p22 ^ Mack (2001), pp35–36 ^ Kamath (2001), p152 ^ Kamath K.L., November 04,2006. "Hoysala Temples of Belur". © 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-01. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ She was not only a pioneer in the era of Women's emancipation but also an example of a transcendental world-view (Thapar 2003, p392) ^ Sastri (1955), p286 ^ This is in stark contrast to the literature of the time (like Vikramankadeva Charita of Bilhana) that portrayed women as retiring, overly romantic and unconcerned with affairs of the state (Thapar 2003, p392) ^ The Belathur inscription of 1057 describes the end of a widow called Dekabbe who committed Sati despite the requests of her parents not to while some widows such as Chalukya
Chalukya
queen Attimabbe
Attimabbe
long survived their deceased husbands (Kamath 2001, pp 112–113) ^ The intellectual qualifications of the Brahmins
Brahmins
made them apt to serve as ministers and advisers of Kings(Rajguru), (Charles Eliot in Sastri 1955, p289) ^ Sastri (1955), p288 ^ Sastri (1955), p289 ^ The Manasollasa
Manasollasa
written by King Someshvara III
Someshvara III
contains significant information of the social life of Western Chalukyan times (Kamath 2001, p112) ^ Orchestras were popularised by the Kalamukhas, a cult who worshipped Lord Shiva
Lord Shiva
(Kamath 2001, p115) ^ Sastri (1955), p292 ^ Kamath (2001), p114 ^ Sen (1999), p. 393 ^ S.S.Basavanal in Puranik, p4452, (1992) ^ Sastri (1955), p361 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp18–20 ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), pp61–65 ^ The other two gems are Adikavi Pampa and Sri Ponna (Sastri 1955, p356) ^ A composition written in a mixed prose-verse style is called Champu (Narasimhacharya 1988, p12) ^ This also is in Champu style and was written at the request of Attimabbe, a pious widow of general Nagavarma who promoted the cause of Jainism
Jainism
(Sastri 1955, p356) ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p32 ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), pp64–65, ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p34 ^ Nagavarma II was the teacher (guru) of another noteworthy scholar Janna
Janna
who later adorned the court of Hoysala Empire
Hoysala Empire
(Sastri 1955, p358) ^ Narasimhachar (1988), p.63 ^ Vachanas
Vachanas
are disconnected paragraphs ending with a name attributed to lord Shiva
Shiva
or one of his forms. The poems teach the valuelessness of riches, rituals and book learning and the spiritual privileges of worshipping Shiva, (B.L. Rice
Rice
in Sastri 1955, p361) ^ Thapar (2003), p394 ^ "Mathematical Achievements of Pre-modern Indian Mathematicians", Putta Swamy T.K., 2012, chapter=Bhaskara II, p331, Elsevier Publications, London, ISBN 978-0-12-397913-1 ^ Thapar, (2003), p393 ^ Sastri (1955), p315 ^ A Textbook of Historiography, 500 B.C. to A.D. 2000 by E. Sreedharan p.328 ^ Sastri (1955), p324 ^ Sangita Ratnakara being written in the court of feudatory Seuna kingdom, (Kamath 2001, p115) ^ An important period in the development of Indian art (Kamath 2001, p115) ^ a b Sastri (1955), p427 ^ Kannikeswaran. "Temples of Karnataka, Kalyani Chalukyan temples". webmaster@templenet.com,1996–2006. Retrieved 2006-12-16.  ^ A fabulous revival of Chalukya
Chalukya
temple building in central Karnataka in the 11th century (Foekema (1996), p14) ^ Hardy (1995), pp156-157 ^ Davison-Jenkins (2001), p89 ^ a b Kamiya, Takeo. "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent,20 September 1996". Gerard da Cunha-Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Cousens (1926), pp79–82 ^ a b Hardy (1995), p336 ^ Cousens (1926), pp114–115 ^ Hardy (1995), p326 ^ a b Kamath (2001), p117 ^ Hardy (1995), p323 ^ Cousens (1926), pp85–87 ^ Hardy (1995), p330 ^ Hardy (1995), p321 ^ Cousens (1926), pp100–102 ^ Hardy (1995), p333 ^ Hardy (1995), p335 ^ Hardy (1995), p324 ^ Quote:"A title it fully deserves, for it is probably the finest temple in Kanarese districts, after Halebidu"(Cousens 1926, p101) ^ Rao, Kishan. "Emperor of Temples crying for attention". The Hindu, June 10, 2002. The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Cousens (1926), pp105–106 ^ Githa U.B. "Balligavi-An important seat of learning". ©Chitralakshana.com 2002. Chitralakshana. Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2006-12-15.  ^ Hardy (1995), p 157 ^ Gunther, Michael D 2002. "Monuments of India - V". Retrieved 2006-11-10.  ^ Kamath (2001), pp116–118 ^ Hardy (1995), pp6–7 ^ Pollock (2006), p332 ^ Houben(1996), p215 ^ Thousands of Kannada language
Kannada language
inscriptions are ascribed by Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
and pertain to his daily land and charitable grants (Nityadana),Kamat, Jyotsna. " Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyana". 1996–2006 Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-24.  ^ Kannada
Kannada
enjoyed patronage from royalty, influential Jains and the Lingayat
Lingayat
movement of Virashaivas (Thapar 2003, p396) ^ However by the 14th century, bilingual inscriptions lost favour and inscriptions became mostly in the local language (Thapar, 2003, pp393–95) ^ E.P. Rice
Rice
(1921), p33

References[edit] Book

Chopra, P.N.; Ravindran, T.K.; Subrahmanian, N (2003) [2003]. History of South India
South India
(Ancient, Medieval and Modern) Part 1. New Delhi: Chand Publications. ISBN 81-219-0153-7.  Cousens, Henry (1996) [1926]. The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese Districts. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 37526233.  Davison-Jenkins, Dominic J. (2001). "Hydraulic works". In John M. Fritz and George Michell (editors). New Light on Hampi : Recent Research at Vijayanagara. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Foekema, Gerard (1996). A Complete Guide To Hoysala Temples. New Delhi: Abhinav. ISBN 81-7017-345-0.  Hardy, Adam (1995) [1995]. Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation-The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th to 13th Centuries. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-312-4.  Houben, Jan E.M. (1996) [1996]. Ideology and Status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the History of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10613-8.  Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) [1980]. A concise history of Karnataka : from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041.  Mack, Alexandra (2001). "The temple district of Vitthalapura". In John M. Fritz and George Michell (editors). New Light on Hampi : Recent Research at Vijayanagara. Mumbai: MARG. ISBN 81-85026-53-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Moraes, George M. (1990) [1931]. The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0595-0.  Narasimhacharya, R (1988) [1988]. History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 81-206-0303-6.  Pollock, Sheldon (2006) [2006]. The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24500-8.  Puranik, Siddya (1992). " Vachana
Vachana
literature (Kannada)". In Mohal Lal. Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: sasay to zorgot. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1221-8.  Rice, E.P. (1982) [1921]. Kannada
Kannada
Literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0063-0.  Sastri, Nilakanta K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India
South India
from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.  Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999) [1999]. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age Publishers. ISBN 81-224-1198-3.  Thapar, Romila (2003) [2003]. The Penguin History of Early India. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-302989-4. 

Web

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire.

Kamiya, Takeyo. "Architecture of Indian subcontinent". Indian Architecture. Gerard da Cunha. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Chalukyas
Chalukyas
of Kalyani". Dynasties of Deccan. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  "Indian Inscriptions, Vol 9,11,15,17,18,20". Archaeological Survey of India. What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Githa U.B. " Balligavi
Balligavi
- An important seat of learning". History of Indian Art. Chitralakshana.com 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2006-12-31.  Gunther, Michael D. "Index IV, Late Chalukya". Monuments of India. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Kannikeswaran, K. "Kalyani Chalukyan temples". TempleNet. webmaster@templenet.com. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Prabhu, Govindaraya S. "Alupa Dynasty-catalogue". Prabhu's web page on Indian Coins. Archived from the original on 2006-08-15. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Prabhu, Govindaraya S. " Chalukya
Chalukya
Dynasty-catalogue". Prabhu's web page on Indian Coins. Retrieved 2006-11-10.  Rao, Kishan. "Emperor among Temples crying for attention". Southern States - Karnataka. The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 

v t e

Historical places of Chalukyas

Karnataka

Badami Aihole Pattadakal Mahakuta Sudi Banashankari Lakkundi Dambal Gadag Mahadeva Temple, Itagi Lakshmeshwara Annigeri Kundgol Chaudayyadanapura Galaganatha Hangal Hooli Jalasangvi Basavakalyan Manyakheta Chandramouleshwara Temple
Chandramouleshwara Temple
Unkal Hubli-Dharwad Haveri Kuruvatti

Maharashtra

Elephanta Caves Ajanta cave #1 paintings Sangli Sangli
Sangli
State Hottal near Deglur Kolhapur Latur Dhule Solapur Manapura Mumbai Akola Nanded Hottal in Nanded
Nanded
District Naldurg Aurad Omerga Daitya Sudan temple Shiva
Shiva
temples at Pen Naldurg

Telangana

Bhadrakali Temple in Warangal Someshwara temple in Warangal Thousand Pillar Temple
Thousand Pillar Temple
in Hanamakonda Ramappa Temple
Ramappa Temple
near Warangal Alampur, Mahbubnagar Panagal Bhuvanagiri Fort Kulpakji
Kulpakji
and Jangaon, Warangal

Andhra Pradesh

Chebrolu, Guntur district Eluru Kolletikota Nidumolu Rajahmundry Vengi Terela village in Durgi mandal in Guntur district

v t e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period ( Brahmin
Brahmin
ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami
Badami
Chalukyas Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism
Hinduism
(ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta - Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge Univ

.
Western Chalukya


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The Western Chalukya
Chalukya
Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga
Kannadiga
dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya
Chalukya
after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan
Basavakalyan
in the modern Bidar District of Karnataka
Karnataka
state, and alternatively the Later Chalukya
Chalukya
from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of Badami. The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
controlled most of Deccan and Central India
Central India
for over two centuries. In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital. The dynasty quickly rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I
Someshvara I
who moved the capital to Kalyani. For over a century, the two empires of Southern India, the Western Chalukyas
Chalukyas
and the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
of Tanjore
Tanjore
fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi. During these conflicts, the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi, distant cousins of the Western Chalukyas but related to the Cholas by marriage took sides with the Cholas further complicating the situation. During the rule of Vikramaditya VI, in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the Western Chalukyas convincingly contended with the Cholas and reached a peak ruling territories that spread over most of the Deccan, between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River
Kaveri River
in the south.[3][4][5][6] His exploits were not limited to the south for even as a prince, during the rule of Someshvara I, he had led successful military campaigns as far east as modern Bihar
Bihar
and Bengal.[7][8][9] During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
and the Southern Kalachuris of Kalyani, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya
Chalukya
waned during the later half of the 12th century. The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
and that of the later Hoysala empire. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti, the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi. This was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India, especially in literature as the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings encouraged writers in the native language Kannada, and Sanskrit.

Contents

1 History 2 Administration 3 Economy 4 Culture

4.1 Religion 4.2 Society 4.3 Literature 4.4 Architecture 4.5 Language

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

History[edit]

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1028 AD from the rule of King Jayasimha II at the Praneshvara temple in Talagunda, Shivamogga district

Old Kannada
Kannada
inscription dated 1057 AD of King Someshvara I
Someshvara I
at Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali
in Bellary district

Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in Koppal district, Karnataka

Knowledge of Western Chalukya
Chalukya
history has come through examination of the numerous Kannada language
Kannada language
inscriptions left by the kings (scholars Sheldon Pollock and Jan Houben have claimed 90 percent of the Chalukyan royal inscriptions are in Kannada),[10][11] and from the study of important contemporary literary documents in Western Chalukya literature such as Gada Yuddha (982) in Kannada
Kannada
by Ranna
Ranna
and Vikramankadeva Charitam (1120) in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
by Bilhana.[12][13] The earliest record is dated 957, during the rule of Tailapa II
Tailapa II
when the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
were still a feudatory of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
and Tailapa II
Tailapa II
governed from Tardavadi in present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka.[14][15] The genealogy of the kings of this empire is still debated. One theory, based on contemporary literary and inscriptional evidence plus the finding that the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
employed titles and names commonly used by the early Chalukyas, suggests that the Western Chalukya
Chalukya
kings belonged to the same family line as the illustrious Badami
Badami
Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
of 6th-century,[16][17] while other Western Chalukya
Chalukya
inscriptional evidence indicates they were a distinct line unrelated to the early Chalukyas.[18] The records suggests a possible rebellion by a local Chalukya
Chalukya
King, Chattigadeva of Banavasi-12000 province (c. 967), in alliance with local Kadamba chieftains. This rebellion however was unfruitful but paved the way for his successor Tailapa II.[19] A few years later, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
re-established Chalukya
Chalukya
rule and defeated the Rashtrakutas during the reign of Karka II
Karka II
by timing his rebellion to coincide with the confusion caused in the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
capital of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
by the invading Paramaras of Central India
Central India
in 973.[20][21] After overpowering the Rashtrakutas, Tailapa II
Tailapa II
moved his capital to Manyakheta
Manyakheta
and consolidated the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire in the western Deccan by subjugating the Paramara
Paramara
and other aggressive rivals and extending his control over the land between the Narmada River
Narmada River
and Tungabhadra River.[22] However, some inscriptions indicate that Balagamve in Mysore territory may have been a power centre up to the rule of Someshvara I
Someshvara I
in 1042.[23] The intense competition between the kingdom of the western Deccan and those of the Tamil country came to the fore in the 11th century over the acutely contested fertile river valleys in the doab region of the Krishna
Krishna
and Godavari River
Godavari River
called Vengi (modern coastal Andhra Pradesh). The Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
and the Chola Dynasty
Chola Dynasty
fought many bitter wars over control of this strategic resource. The imperial Cholas gained power during the time of the famous king Rajaraja Chola I and the crown prince Rajendra Chola I.[24] The Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
of Vengi were cousins of the Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas
but became increasingly influenced by the Cholas through their marital ties with the Tamil kingdom. As this was against the interests of the Western Chalukyas, they wasted no time in involving themselves politically and militarily in Vengi. When King Satyashraya succeeded Tailapa II
Tailapa II
to the throne, he was able to protect his kingdom from Chola aggression as well as his northern territories in Konkan
Konkan
and Gujarat
Gujarat
although his control over Vengi was shaky.[25][26] His successor, Jayasimha II, fought many battles with the Cholas in the south around c. 1020–21 when both these powerful kingdoms struggled to choose the Vengi king.[26][27] Shortly thereafter in c. 1024, Jayasimha II subdued the Paramara
Paramara
of central India and the rebellious Yadava King Bhillama.[26]

Chalukya
Chalukya
dynasties

Badami
Badami
Chalukyas

Pulakeshin I 543–566

Kirtivarman I 566–597

Mangalesha 597–609

Pulakeshin II 609–642

Vikramaditya I 655–680

Vinayaditya 680–696

Vijayaditya 696–733

Vikramaditya II 733–746

Kirtivarman II 746–753

Vengi / Eastern Chalukyas

Kubja Vishnuvardhana 624–641

Jayasimha I 641–673

Indra Bhattaraka 673

Vishnu Vardhana II 673–682

Mangi Yuvaraja 682–706

Jayasimha II 706–718

Kokkili 719

Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
III 719–755

Vijayaditya I 755–772

Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
IV 772–808

Vijayaditya II 808–847

Kali Vishnuvardhana
Vishnuvardhana
V 847–849

Vijayaditya III 849–892

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima
Bhima
I 892–921

Vijayaditya IV 921

Amma I 921–927

Beta Vijayaditya V 927

Tala I 927

Vikramaditya II 927–928

Bhima
Bhima
II 928

Yuddhamalla II 928–935

Chalukya
Chalukya
Bhima
Bhima
II 935–947

Amma II 947–970

Tala I 970

Danarnava 970–973

Jata Choda Bhima 973–999

Shaktivarman I 1000–1011

Vimaladitya 1011–1018

Rajaraja Narendra 1019–1061

Vijayaditya VII

Kalyani / Western Chalukyas

Tailapa II 957–997

Satyashraya 997–1008

Vikramaditya V 1008–1015

Jayasimha II 1015–1042

Someshvara I 1042–1068

Someshvara II 1068–1076

Vikramaditya VI 1076–1126

Someshvara III 1126–1138

Jagadhekamalla II 1138–1151

Tailapa III 1151–1164

Jagadhekamalla III 1163–1183

Someshvara IV 1184–1200

v t e

It is known from records that Jayasimha's son Someshvara I, whose rule historian Sen considers a brilliant period in the Western Chalukya rule, moved the Chalukya
Chalukya
capital to Kalyani in c. 1042.[28][29] Hostilities with the Cholas continued while both sides won and lost battles, though neither lost significant territory[30][31] during the ongoing struggle to install a puppet on the Vengi throne.[29][32][33] In 1068 Someshvara I, suffering from an incurable illness, drowned himself in the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
(Paramayoga).[34][35][36] Despite many conflicts with the Cholas in the south, Someshvara I
Someshvara I
had managed to maintain control over the northern territories in Konkan, Gujarat, Malwa
Malwa
and Kalinga during his rule. His successor, his eldest son Someshvara II, feuded with his younger brother, Vikramaditya VI, an ambitious warrior who had initially been governor of Gangavadi in the southern Deccan when Someshvara II
Someshvara II
was the king. Before 1068, even as a prince, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
had invaded Bengal, weakening the ruling Pala Empire. These incursions led to the establishment of Karnata dynasties such as the Sena dynasty
Sena dynasty
and Varman dynasty
Varman dynasty
in Bengal, and the Nayanadeva dynasty in Bihar.,[7][8][9] Married to a Chola princess (a daughter of Vira Rajendra Chola), Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
maintained a friendly alliance with them. After the death of the Chola king in 1070, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
invaded the Tamil kingdom and installed his brother-in-law, Adhirajendra, on the throne creating conflict with Kulothunga Chola I, the powerful ruler of Vengi who sought the Chola throne for himself.[37] At the same time Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
undermined his brother, Someshvara II, by winning the loyalty of the Chalukya feudatories: the Hoysala, the Seuna
Seuna
and the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Hangal. Anticipating a civil war, Someshvara II
Someshvara II
sought help from Vikramaditya VI's enemies, Kulothunga Chola I
Kulothunga Chola I
and the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Goa. In the ensuing conflict of 1076, Vikramaditya VI
Vikramaditya VI
emerged victorious and proclaimed himself king of the Chalukya
Chalukya
empire.[38][39] The fifty-year reign of Vikramaditya VI, the most successful of the later Chalukya