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MAGHREBI ARABIC (WESTERN ARABIC), or MAGHREBI DARIJA, is an Arabic dialect spoken in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region, in Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia and Libya
Libya
. It includes Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
, Algerian Arabic , Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
and Libyan Arabic
Libyan Arabic
. The variety is sometimes referred to as Western Arabic, as opposed to Eastern Arabic
Arabic
( Mashriqi Arabic ). Speakers of Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
call their language DERJA, DERIJA or DARIJA ( Arabic
Arabic
: الدارجة‎‎; meaning "to rise or advance step by step" ), which alludes to colloquial spoken Arabic
Arabic
rather than Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
.

Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(الفصحى (al-)fushā) is the primary language used in the government, legislation and judiciary of countries in the Maghreb. Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
is mainly a spoken and vernacular language , although it occasionally appears in entertainment and advertising in urban areas of Algeria, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia. In Algeria, where Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
was taught as a separate subject under French colonization, some textbooks in the language exist but they are no longer officially endorsed by the Algerian authorities. Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
contains a Berber substratum , which represents the languages originally spoken by the native populations of the Maghreb
Maghreb
prior to their adoption of Arabic. Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
may also possess a Punic substrate.

The varieties of Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
Darija have a significant degree of mutual intelligibility, especially between geographically adjacent ones (such as local dialects spoken in Eastern Morocco
Morocco
and Western Algeria
Algeria
or Eastern Algeria
Algeria
and North Tunisia
Tunisia
or South Tunisia
Tunisia
and Western Libya), but hardly between Moroccan and Tunisian Darija. Conversely, Moroccan Darija
Moroccan Darija
and particularly Algerian Derja cannot be understood by Eastern Arabic
Arabic
speakers (from Egypt, Sudan, Levant, Iraq, and Arabian peninsula) in general as they derive from different substratums and a mixture of many languages (Berber, Old Arabic, Turkish, French, Spanish, Italian, and Niger-Congo languages). Some linguists like Charles A. Ferguson , William Marçais and Abdou Elimam , tend to consider Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
Darija as an independent language.

Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
continues to evolve by integrating new French or English words, notably in technical fields, or by replacing old French and Italian/Spanish ones with Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
words within some circles; more educated and upper-class people who code-switch between Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
and Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
have more French and Italian/Spanish loanwords, especially the latter came from the time of al-Andalus . Maghrebi dialects all use n- as the first-person singular prefix on verbs , distinguishing them from Levantine dialects and Modern Standard Arabic.

Speakers frequently borrow words from French (in Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia), Spanish (in Morocco) and Italian (in Libya
Libya
and Tunisia) and conjugate them according to the rules of Arabic
Arabic
with some exceptions (like passive voice for example). Since it is not always written, there is no standard and it is free to change quickly and to pick up new vocabulary from neighbouring languages. This is somewhat similar to what happened to Middle English
Middle English
after the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
.

Linguistically, Siculo-Arabic and therefore its descendant Maltese are considered Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
closest to Tunisian Arabic
Tunisian Arabic
, but it is no longer mutually intelligible with the varieties spoken today in North Africa. When discussing modern languages, the word is often given a geographic definition and limited to Northern Africa.

CONTENTS

* 1 Varieties * 2 Name * 3 References * 4 Further reading

VARIETIES

An overview of the different varieties of Arabic
Arabic
. Maghrebi varieties are shades of blue.

* Varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic
* Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects * Hilalian dialects

* Koinés :

* Algerian Arabic * Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
* Tunisian Arabic
Tunisian Arabic
* Libyan Arabic
Libyan Arabic
* Jebli Arabic
Jebli Arabic
* Jijel Arabic * Andalusian Arabic
Andalusian Arabic
(extinct)

* Siculo-Arabic (extinct)

* Maltese language
Maltese language
(descended from Sicilian Arabic, but influenced lexically by Tunisian, Libyan, Sicilian, Italian, French, and more recently, English)

* Western Bedouin
Bedouin
:

* Hassaniya Arabic
Arabic
* Saharan Arabic
Saharan Arabic

NAME

Darija, Derija or Delja ( Arabic
Arabic
: الدارجة‎‎) means "everyday/colloquial language"; it is also rendered as ed-dārija, derija or darja. It refers to any of the varieties of colloquial Maghrebi Arabic. Although it is also common in Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
to refer to the Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
varieties directly as languages, similarly it is also common in Egypt
Egypt
and Lebanon
Lebanon
to refer to the Mashriqi Arabic varieties directly as languages. For instance, Algerian Arabic would be referred as Dzayri (Algerian) and Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
as Tounsi (Tunisian), and Egyptian Arabic
Arabic
would be referred as Masri (Egyptian) and Lebanese Arabic
Arabic
as Lubnani (Lebanese).

In contrast, the colloquial dialects of more eastern Arab countries, such as Egypt, Jordan and Sudan, are usually known as al-‘āmmīya (العامية), though Egyptians may also refer to their dialects as al-logha-d-darga.

REFERENCES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "North African Arabic". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ Wehr, Hans (1979). A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic: (Arab.-Engl.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 319. ISBN 3447020024 . Retrieved 30 September 2017. * ^ Harrell, Richard Slade (2004). A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic: Moroccan-English. Georgetown University Press. p. 18. ISBN 1589011031 . Retrieved 30 September 2017. * ^ Tilmatine Mohand, « Substrat et convergences : Le berbère et l'arabe nord-africain », Estudios de dialectologia norteaafricana y andalusi, n°4, 1999, pp. 99-119 * ^ Benramdane, Farid (1998). "Le maghribi, langue trois fois millénaire de ELIMAM, Abdou (Éd. ANEP, Alger 1997)". Insaniyat (6): 129–130. Retrieved 12 February 2015. * ^ Abdou Elimam, « Le maghribi, langue trois fois millénaire », éd. ANEP, Alger (1997) * ^ Abdou Elimam, « Le maghribi, alias ed-darija, langue consensuelle du Maghreb
Maghreb
», éd. Dar El Gharb, Alger (2004) * ^ Borg and Azzopardi-Alexander Maltese (1997:xiii) "The immediate source for the Arabic
Arabic
vernacular spoken in Malta was Muslim Sicily, but its ultimate origin appears to have been Tunisia". * ^ Wehr, Hans: Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic
Arabic
(2011); Harrell, Richard S.: Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
(1966)

FURTHER READING

* Singer, Hans-Rudolf (1980) “Das Westarabische oder Maghribinische” in Wolfdietrich Fischer and Otto Jastrow (eds.) Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte. Otto Harrassowitz: Wiesbaden. 249-76.

LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES

* v * t * e

Arabic language
Arabic language

OVERVIEWS

* Language * Alphabet * History * Romanization * Numerology * Influence on other languages

ALPHABET

* Nabataean alphabet
Nabataean alphabet
* Perso- Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
* Ancient North Arabian

* Ancient South Arabian script
Ancient South Arabian script

* Zabūr script

* Arabic
Arabic
numerals * Eastern numerals

* Arabic
Arabic
Braille

* Algerian

* Diacritics

* i‘jām * Tashkil * Harakat
Harakat
* Tanwin * Shaddah * Hamza
Hamza

* Tāʾ marbūṭah

LETTERS

* ʾAlif * Bāʾ * Tāʾ * Ṯāʾ
Ṯāʾ
* Ǧīm * Ḥāʾ * Ḫāʾ * Dāl * Ḏāl
Ḏāl
* Rāʾ * Zāy * Sīn * Šīn * Ṣād * Ḍād
Ḍād
* Ṭāʾ * Ẓāʾ
Ẓāʾ
* ʿAyn * Ġayn * Fāʾ * Qāf * Kāf * Lām * Mīm * Nūn * Hāʾ * Wāw * Yāʾ

NOTABLE VARIETIES

ANCIENT

* Proto- Arabic
Arabic
* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Ancient North Arabian * Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian

STANDARDIZED

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

REGIONAL

* Nilo-Egyptian * Levantine

* Maghrebi

* Pre- Hilalian dialects * Hilalian dialects * Moroccan Darija
Moroccan Darija
* Tunisian Arabic
Tunisian Arabic
* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Mesopotamian

* Peninsular

* Yemeni Arabic
Arabic
* Tihamiyya Arabic
Arabic

* Sudanese * Chadian * Modern South Arabian
Modern South Arabian

ETHNIC / RELIGIOUS

* Judeo- Arabic
Arabic

PIDGINS/CREOLES

* Juba Arabic
Arabic
* Nubi language * Babalia Creole Arabic
Arabic
* Maridi Arabic
Arabic
* Maltese

ACADEMIC

* Literature * Names

LINGUISTICS

* Phonology * Sun and moon letters
Sun and moon letters
* ʾIʿrāb (inflection) * Grammar * Triliteral root * Mater lectionis * IPA * Quranic Arabic
Arabic
Corpus

* Calligraphy * Script

* Diwani
Diwani
* Jawi script * Kufic
Kufic
* Rasm * Mashq
Mashq
* Hijazi script
Hijazi script
* Muhaqqaq
Muhaqqaq
* Thuluth
Thuluth
* Naskh (script)
Naskh (script)
* Ruqʿah script * Taʿlīq script * Nastaʿlīq script
Nastaʿlīq script
* Shahmukhī script * Sini (script)

TECHNICAL

* Arabic
Arabic
keyboard * Arabic
Arabic
script in Unicode * ISO/IEC 8859-6 * Windows-1256

* MS-DOS codepages

* 708 * 709 * 710 * 711 * 720 * 864

* Mac Arabic
Arabic
encoding

* v * t * e

Varieties of Arabic
Varieties of Arabic

PRE-ISLAMIC

* Old Arabic
Arabic

MODERN LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

NILO-EGYPTIAN

* Egyptian * Chadian * Sa\'idi * Sudanese

PENINSULAR

NORTHEASTERN

* Gulf

* Omani * Shihhi * Dhofari * Kuwaiti

* Najdi

WESTERN

* Bareqi

* Hejazi

* Sedentary * Bedouin
Bedouin

SOUTHERN

* Baharna

* Yemeni

* Hadhrami * San\'ani * Ta\'izzi-Adeni * Tihami * Judeo-Yemeni

NORTHWESTERN

* Northwest Arabian

EASTERN

MESOPOTAMIAN

* North Mesopotamian

* Cypriot * Anatolian * Judeo-Iraqi

* South Mesopotamian

* Baghdad Koiné * Khuzestani

CENTRAL ASIAN

* Afghani * Khorasani * Central Asian Arabic
Arabic

LEVANTINE

NORTH LEVANTINE

* North Syrian

* Central Levantine

* Central Syrian * Lebanese

SOUTH LEVANTINE

* Jordanian

* Palestinian

* Urban * Central village

* Outer southern

WESTERN

IBERIAN

* Andalusian

MAGHREBI

PRE-HILALIAN

* Urban

* Eastern Village

* Sahel * Lesser Kabylia

* Western Village

* Traras-Msirda * Mountain

* Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian

HILALIAN

* Sulaym

* Libyan koiné

* Eastern Hilal

* Tunisian koiné

* Central Hilal

* Algerian koiné * Algerian Saharan * Eastern Algerian * Western Algerian

* Maqil

* Western Moroccan * Eastern Moroccan * Moroccan koiné * Hassānīya

SICULO-ARABIC

* Maltese * Sicilian

UNDESCRIBED

* Shirvani

JUDEO-ARABIC

* Judeo-Iraqi

* Judeo-Baghdadi

* Judeo-Moroccan * Judeo-Tripolitanian * Judeo-Tunisian * Judeo-Yemeni

CREOLES AND PIDGINS

* Babalia * Bimbashi * Juba * Nubi * Maridi * Turku

Italics indicate extinct languages .

* v * t * e

Semitic languages
Semitic languages

EAST SEMITIC LANGUAGES

* Akkadian
Akkadian
* Eblaite

WEST SEMITIC AND CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES

NORTHWEST

CANAANITE

HEBREW

* Biblical * Mishnaic * Medieval * Mizrahi * Yemenite * Sephardi * Ashkenazi * Samaritan * Modern

PHOENICIAN

* Punic

OTHERS

* Ammonite * Moabite * Edomite

ARAMAIC

WESTERN

* Jewish Palestinian * Samaritan * Christian Palestinian * Nabataean * Western Neo-Aramaic
Western Neo-Aramaic

EASTERN

* Biblical * Hatran * Syriac * Jewish Babylonian Aramaic * Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
* Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
* Senaya * Koy Sanjaq Surat * Hértevin * Turoyo * Mlahsô * Mandaic * Judeo-Aramaic * Syriac Malayalam

OTHERS

* Amorite * Eteocypriot * Ugaritic
Ugaritic

ARABIC

LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard

DIALECTS

MASHRIQI (EASTERN)

ARABIAN PENINSULAR

* Dhofari

* Gulf

* Bahrani * Shihhi

* Hejazi * Najdi * Omani

* Yemeni

* Judeo-Yemeni

BEDOUIN

* Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi

OTHERS

* Egyptian

* Sa\'idi Arabic
Arabic

* Levantine

* Cypriot * Lebanese * Palestinian

* Mesopotamian

* North Mesopotamian * Judeo-Iraqi

* Sudanese

* Central Asian

* Tajiki * Uzbeki

* Shirvani

MAGHREBI (WESTERN)

* Algerian * Saharan * Shuwa * Hassānīya * Andalusian

* Libyan Arabic
Libyan Arabic

* Judeo-Tripolitanian

* Sicilian

* Maltese

* Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic

* Judeo-Moroccan

* Tunisian Arabic
Tunisian Arabic

* Judeo-Tunisian

OTHERS

* Old Arabic
Arabic
* Nabataean Arabic
Arabic

SOUTH SEMITIC LANGUAGES

WESTERN SOUTH

OLD SOUTH

* Sabaean * Minaean * Qatabanian * Hadramautic * Awsānian

ETHIOPIAN

NORTH

* Ge\'ez * Tigrinya * Tigre * Dahalik

SOUTH

AMHARIC

* Argobba

HARARI

* Silt\'e (Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor) * Zay

OUTER

N-GROUP

* Gafat * Soddo

TT-GROUP

* Mesmes * Muher

* West Gurage

* Mesqan * Ezha * Chaha * Gura * Gumer * Gyeto * Ennemor * Endegen

MODERN SOUTH ARABIAN

* Bathari * Harsusi * Hobyot * Mehri * Shehri * Soqotri

* v * t * e

Languages of the Maghreb
Maghreb

VERNACULAR

ARABIC

LITERARY

* Classical * Modern Standard * Maltese

PRE-HILALIAN

* Urban

* Eastern Village

* Sahel * Lesser Kabylia

* Western Village

* Traras-Msirda * Mountain

* Jewish

* Moroccan * Tripolitanian * Tunisian

HILALIAN

* Sulaym

* Libyan koiné

* Eastern Hilal

* Tunisian koiné

* Central Hilal

* Algerian koiné * Central and Saharan * Eastern Algerian * Western Algerian

* Maqil

* Western Moroccan * Eastern Moroccan * Moroccan koiné * Hassānīya

BERBER

EASTERN

* Awjila * Fezzan * Ghadamès * Kufra * Nafusi * Siwa

NORTHERN

* Non-Zenatic

* Atlas * Kabyle

* Zenatic

* Eastern Middle Atlas * Northern Saharan * Riffian * Shawiya * Tunisian-Zuwara * Western Algerian

TUAREG

* Tamahaq * Tamashek * Tawellemmet * Tayart

SOUTHWESTERN

* Tetserret * Zenaga

NILO-SAHARAN

* Korandje * Teda

NIGER-CONGO

* Wolof * Soninké * Pulaar * Bambara

ROMANCE

* French * Italian

* Spanish

* Haketia
Haketia

HISTORICAL

* Proto-Berber

* Phoenician

* Punic

* Romance

* African Romance
African Romance
* Sabir

* Ottoman Turkish

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Arabic
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