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Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania. It includes Moroccan Arabic, Algerian Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, Libyan Arabic, and Hassaniya Arabic. Speakers of Maghrebi Arabic call their language Derja, Derija or Darija (Arabic: الدارجة‎; meaning "to rise or advance step by step"[2]). This serves to differentiate the spoken vernacular from Modern Standard Arabic.[3] As the Maltese language is believed to have been immediately derived from Siculo-Arabic and ultimately from Tunisian Arabic, it contains some typical Maghrebi Arabic areal characteristics.[4]

Contents

1 Varieties 2 Name 3 Characteristics

3.1 Relationship with Modern Standard Arabic and Berber languages 3.2 Relationship with foreign languages

4 References 5 Further reading

Varieties[edit]

An overview of the different varieties of Arabic. Maghrebi varieties are shades of blue.

Varieties of Arabic Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects Hilalian dialects Koinés:

Algerian Arabic Moroccan Arabic Tunisian Arabic Libyan Arabic Jebli Arabic Jijel Arabic Andalusian Arabic (extinct) Siculo-Arabic (extinct)

Maltese language (descended from Sicilian Arabic, but influenced lexically by Tunisian, Libyan, Sicilian, Italian, French, and more recently, English)

Western Bedouin:

Hassaniya Arabic Saharan Arabic

Name[edit] Darija, Derija or Delja (Arabic: الدارجة‎) means "everyday/colloquial language";[5] it is also rendered as ed-dārija, derija or darja. It refers to any of the varieties of colloquial Maghrebi Arabic. Although it is also common in Algeria and Tunisia to refer to the Maghrebi Arabic varieties directly as languages, similarly it is also common in Egypt and Lebanon to refer to the Mashriqi Arabic varieties directly as languages. For instance, Algerian Arabic would be referred as Dzayri (Algerian) and Tunisian Arabic as Tounsi (Tunisian), and Egyptian Arabic would be referred as Masri (Egyptian) and Lebanese Arabic as Lubnani (Lebanese). In contrast, the colloquial dialects of more eastern Arab countries, such as Egypt, Jordan and Sudan, are usually known as al-‘āmmīya (العامية), though Egyptians may also refer to their dialects as al-logha-d-darga. Characteristics[edit] The varieties of Maghrebi Arabic (Darija) have a significant degree of mutual intelligibility, especially between geographically adjacent ones (such as local dialects spoken in Eastern Morocco and Western Algeria or Eastern Algeria and North Tunisia or South Tunisia and Western Libya), but hardly between Moroccan and Tunisian Darija. Conversely, Moroccan Darija, Tunisian Derja and particularly Algerian Derja cannot be understood by Eastern Arabic speakers (from Egypt, Sudan, Levant, Iraq, and Arabian peninsula) in general as they derive from different substratums and a mixture of many languages (Berber, Latin (African Romance), Old Arabic, Turkish, French, Spanish, Mozarabic, Italian, and Niger-Congo languages). Some linguists like Charles A. Ferguson, William Marçais consider Maghrebi Arabic Darija an independent language.[6][7] Maghrebi Arabic continues to evolve by integrating new French or English words, notably in technical fields, or by replacing old French and Italian/Spanish ones with Modern Standard Arabic words within some circles; more educated and upper-class people who code-switch between Maghrebi Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic have more French and Italian/Spanish loanwords, especially the latter came from the time of al-Andalus. Maghrebi dialects all use n- as the first-person singular prefix on verbs, distinguishing them from Levantine dialects and Modern Standard Arabic. Relationship with Modern Standard Arabic and Berber languages[edit] Modern Standard Arabic (الفصحى al-Fusḥā) is the primary language used in the government, legislation and judiciary of countries in the Maghreb. Maghrebi Arabic is mainly a spoken and vernacular language, although it occasionally appears in entertainment and advertising in urban areas of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. In Algeria, where Maghrebi Arabic was taught as a separate subject under French colonization, some textbooks in the language exist but they are no longer officially endorsed by the Algerian authorities. Maghrebi Arabic contains a Berber substratum, which represents the languages originally spoken by the native populations of the Maghreb prior to their adoption of Arabic.[8] The dialect may also possess a Punic substrate.[9] Additionally, Maghrebi Arabic has a Latin substratum, which may have been derived from the African Romance that was used as an urban lingua franca during the Byzantine Empire period.[10] Relationship with foreign languages[edit] Maghrebi Arabic speakers frequently borrow words from French (in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia), Spanish (in Morocco) and Italian (in Libya and Tunisia) and conjugate them according to the rules of their dialects with some exceptions (like passive voice for example). Since it is not always written, there is no standard and it is free to change quickly and to pick up new vocabulary from neighbouring languages. This is somewhat similar to what happened to Middle English after the Norman conquest. References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "North African Arabic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Wehr, Hans (1979). A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic: (Arab.-Engl.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 319. ISBN 3447020024. Retrieved 30 September 2017.  ^ Harrell, Richard Slade (2004). A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic: Moroccan-English. Georgetown University Press. p. 18. ISBN 1589011031. Retrieved 30 September 2017.  ^ Marie Azzopardi-Alexander, Albert Borg (2013). Maltese. Routledge. p. xiii. ISBN 1136855289. Retrieved 10 January 2018. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Wehr, Hans: Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic (2011); Harrell, Richard S.: Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic (1966) ^ Abdou Elimam, « Le maghribi, langue trois fois millénaire », éd. ANEP, Alger (1997) ^ Abdou Elimam, « Le maghribi, alias ed-darija, langue consensuelle du Maghreb », éd. Dar El Gharb, Alger (2004) ^ Tilmatine Mohand, « Substrat et convergences : Le berbère et l'arabe nord-africain », Estudios de dialectologia norteaafricana y andalusi, n°4, 1999, pp. 99-119 ^ Benramdane, Farid (1998). "Le maghribi, langue trois fois millénaire de ELIMAM, Abdou (Éd. ANEP, Alger 1997)". Insaniyat (6): 129–130. Retrieved 12 February 2015.  ^ Sayahi, Lotfi (2014). Diglossia and Language Contact: Language Variation and Change in North Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 26. ISBN 0521119367. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Singer, Hans-Rudolf (1980) “Das Westarabische oder Maghribinische” in Wolfdietrich Fischer and Otto Jastrow (eds.) Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte. Otto Harrassowitz: Wiesbaden. 249-76.

Links to related articles

v t e

Arabic language

Overviews

Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages

Alphabet

Nabataean alphabet Perso-Arabic alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

Arabic numerals Eastern numerals Arabic Braille

Algerian

Diacritics

i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah

Letters

ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties

Ancient

Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian

Standardized

Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]

Regional

Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious

Judeo-Arabic

Pidgins/Creoles

Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese

Academic

Literature Names

Linguistics

Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic Corpus

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)

Technical

Arabic keyboard Arabic script in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

MacArabic encoding

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

v t e

Varieties of Arabic

Pre-Islamic

Old Arabic

Modern literary

Classical Modern Standard

Nilo-Egyptian

Egyptian Chadian Sa'idi Sudanese

Peninsular

Northeastern

Gulf

Omani Shihhi Dhofari Kuwaiti

Najdi

Western

Bareqi Hejazi

Sedentary Bedouin

Southern

Baharna Yemeni

Hadhrami San'ani Ta'izzi-Adeni Tihami Judeo-Yemeni

Northwestern

Northwest Arabian

Eastern

Mesopotamian

North Mesopotamian

Cypriot Anatolian Judeo-Iraqi

South Mesopotamian

Baghdad Koiné Khuzestani

Central Asian

Afghani Khorasani Central Asian Arabic

Levantine

North Levantine

North Syrian Central Levantine

Central Syrian Lebanese

South Levantine

Jordanian Palestinian

Urban Central village

Outer southern

Western

Iberian

Andalusian

Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian

Urban

North-Eastern Tunisian

Eastern Village

Sahel Sfaxian Lesser Kabylia

Western Village

Traras-Msirda Mountain

Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian

Hilalian

Sulaym

Libyan koiné

Eastern Hilal

Tunisian koiné

Central Hilal

Algerian koiné Algerian Saharan Eastern Algerian Western Algerian

Maqil

Western Moroccan Eastern Moroccan Moroccan koiné Hassānīya

Siculo-Arabic

Sicilian Arabic (extinct ancestor of Maltese which is not part of the Arabic macrolanguage[1])

Undescribed

Shirvani

Judeo-Arabic

Judeo-Iraqi

Judeo-Baghdadi

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian Judeo-Yemeni

Creoles and pidgins

Babalia Bimbashi Juba Nubi Maridi Turku

Italics indicate extinct languages.

v t e

Semitic languages

East Semitic languages

Akkadian Eblaite

West Semitic and Central Semitic languages

Northwest

Canaanite

Hebrew

Biblical Mishnaic Medieval Mizrahi Yemenite Sephardi Ashkenazi Samaritan Modern

Phoenician

Punic

Others

Ammonite Moabite Edomite

Aramaic

Western

Jewish Palestinian Samaritan Christian Palestinian Nabataean Western Neo-Aramaic

Eastern

Biblical Hatran Syriac Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Senaya Koy Sanjaq Surat Hértevin Turoyo Mlahsô Mandaic Judeo-Aramaic Syriac Malayalam

Others

Amorite Eteocypriot Ugaritic

Arabic

Literary

Classical Modern Standard

Dialects

Mashriqi (Eastern)

Arabian Peninsular

Dhofari Gulf

Bahrani Shihhi

Hejazi Najdi Omani Yemeni

Judeo-Yemeni

Bedouin

Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi

Others

Egyptian

Sa'idi Arabic

Levantine

Cypriot Lebanese Palestinian

Mesopotamian

North Mesopotamian Judeo-Iraqi

Sudanese Central Asian

Tajiki Uzbeki

Shirvani

Maghrebi (Western)

Algerian Saharan Shuwa Hassānīya Andalusian Libyan Arabic

Judeo-Tripolitanian

Sicilian

Maltese

Moroccan Arabic

Judeo-Moroccan

Tunisian Arabic

Judeo-Tunisian

Others

Old Arabic Nabataean Arabic

South Semitic languages

Western South

Old South

Sabaean Minaean Qatabanian Hadramautic Awsānian

Ethiopian

North

Ge'ez Tigrinya Tigre Dahalik

South

Amharic

Argobba

Harari

Silt'e (Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor) Zay

Outer

n-group

Gafat Soddo

tt-group

Mesmes Muher West Gurage

Mesqan Ezha Chaha Gura Gumer Gyeto Ennemor Endegen

Modern South Arabian

Bathari Harsusi Hobyot Mehri Shehri Soqotri

v t e

Languages of the Maghreb

Vernacular

Arabic

Literary

Classical Modern Standard Maltese

Pre-Hilalian

Urban

North-Eastern Tunisian

Eastern Village

Sahel Sfaxian Lesser Kabylia

Western Village

Traras-Msirda Mountain

Jewish

Moroccan Tripolitanian Tunisian

Hilalian

Sulaym

Libyan koiné

Eastern Hilal

Tunisian koiné

Central Hilal

Algerian koiné Central and Saharan Eastern Algerian Western Algerian

Maqil

Western Moroccan Eastern Moroccan Moroccan koiné Hassānīya

Berber

Eastern

Awjila Fezzan Ghadamès Kufra Nafusi Siwa

Northern

Non-Zenatic

Atlas Kabyle

Zenatic

Eastern Middle Atlas Northern Saharan Riffian Shawiya Tunisian-Zuwara Western Algerian

Tuareg

Tamahaq Tamashek Tawellemmet Tayart

Southwestern

Tetserret Zenaga

Nilo-Saharan

Korandje Teda

Niger-Congo

Wolof Soninké Pulaar Bambara

Romance

French Italian Spanish

Haketia

Historical

Proto-Berber Phoenician

Punic

Romance

African Romance Sabir

Ottoman Turkish

v t e

 Languages of Sicily

Official language

Italian

Contemporary languages

Sicilian language Italian language Regional Italian Arbëresh language Gallo-Italic of Sicily Modern Greek

Historical languages

Ancient Greek Arabic Tosk Albanian Berber languages Elymian language Hebrew language Italian language Sicilian Greek Judeo-Arabic languages Koine Greek Late Latin Maghrebi Arabic Maltese language Medieval Greek Mediterranean Lingua Franca Norman language Phoenician language Punic language Sicani Sicilian language Siculo-Arabic Southern Italian Koiné Vulgar Latin

^ "Documentation for ISO 639 ident

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