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Politics in Wales
Wales
forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales
Wales
as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK). Constitutionally, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is de jure a unitary state with one sovereign parliament and government. However, under a system of devolution (or home rule) adopted in the late 1990s three of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom, Wales, Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland, voted for limited self-government, subject to the ability of the UK Parliament
UK Parliament
in Westminster, nominally at will, to amend, change, broaden or abolish the national governmental systems. As such the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
(Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) is not de jure sovereign. Executive power in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is vested in the Queen-in-Council, while legislative power is vested in the Queen-in-Parliament
Queen-in-Parliament
(the Crown and the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster in London). The Government of Wales
Wales
Act 1998 established devolution in Wales, and certain executive and legislative powers have been constitutionally delegated to the National Assembly for Wales. The scope of these powers was further widened by the Government of Wales
Wales
Act 2006.

Contents

1 BONN 17 2 The emergence of a Welsh politics 3 Contemporary Welsh politics

3.1 The National Assembly for Wales 3.2 Welsh Government 3.3 Political parties

3.3.1 Current party representation

3.4 Welsh politics since devolution 3.5 Local politics

4 Contemporary Welsh law 5 Welsh representation in the UK Parliament
UK Parliament
and Government

5.1 In the UK Parliament 5.2 In the UK Government

6 Welsh representation in the European Union 7 Intergovernmental relations

7.1 Outside Europe

8 Political media outlets 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography

BONN 17[edit] See also: Government of Northern Ireland, Government of Scotland, and Governance of England The government of Wales, since 1998, composed of the Welsh National Assembly and the Welsh Assembly Government
Welsh Assembly Government
(styled Welsh Government). But judicially it remains within part of the jurisdiction of England and Wales, although the Welsh National Assembly
Welsh National Assembly
was given the rights to enact Wales-specific Measures, and, with the Welsh devolution referendum, 2011, the Welsh National Assembly
Welsh National Assembly
will be given the power to enact Acts. Wales, together with Cheshire, used to have Court of Grand Session, and therefore not within the English circuit court system. Yet it has not been its own jurisdiction since King Edward I of England
England
conquered the country, at which point Welsh Law was replaced by English Law in the north and Marcher Law in the south. Before 1998, there was no separate government in Wales. Executive authority rested in the hands of the HM Government, with substantial authority within the Welsh Office
Welsh Office
since 1965. Legislative power
Legislative power
rested within the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Judicial power has always been with the Courts of England
England
and Wales, and the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(or its predecessor the Law Lords). The emergence of a Welsh politics[edit] After the Laws in Wales
Wales
Acts 1535–1542, Wales
Wales
was treated in legal terms as part of England. The Wales
Wales
and Berwick Act 1746 stated that all laws applying to England
England
would also be applicable to Wales, unless the body of the law explicitly stated otherwise. However, during the latter part of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century the notion of a distinctive Welsh polity gained credence. In 1881 the Welsh Sunday Closing Act was passed, the first such legislation exclusively concerned with Wales. The Central Welsh Board was established in 1896 to inspect the grammar schools set up under the Welsh Intermediate Education Act 1889, and a separate Welsh Department of the Board of Education was formed in 1907. The Agricultural Council for Wales
Wales
was set up in 1912, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries had its own Welsh Office
Welsh Office
from 1919.[1] Despite the failure of popular political movements such as Cymru Fydd, a number of institutions, such as the National Eisteddfod
National Eisteddfod
(1861), the University of Wales
Wales
(Prifysgol Cymru) (1893), the National Library of Wales
Wales
(Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru) (1911) and the Welsh Guards (Gwarchodlu Cymreig) (1915) were created. The campaign for disestablishment of the Anglican Church in Wales, achieved by the passage of the Welsh Church Act 1914
Welsh Church Act 1914
(effective from 1920), was also significant in the development of Welsh political consciousness. Without a popular base, the issue of home rule did not feature as an issue in subsequent General Elections and was quickly eclipsed by the depression. By August 1925 unemployment in Wales
Wales
rose to 28.5%, in contrast to the economic boom in the early 1920s, rendering constitutional debate an exotic subject.[2] In the same year Plaid Cymru was formed with the goal of securing a Welsh-speaking Wales.[3] Following the Second World War
Second World War
the Labour Government of Clement Attlee established the Council for Wales
Wales
and Monmouthshire, an unelected assembly of 27 with the brief of advising the UK government on matters of Welsh interest.[4] By that time, most UK government departments had set up their own offices in Wales.[1] The Labour Party had also partly reappraised its view to devolution, establishing in 1947 the Welsh Regional Council of Labour from the constituent parts of the party in Wales
Wales
and as part of a move to plan the economy on an all- Wales
Wales
basis. However, resistance from other elements of the party meant that the machinery of government was not similarly reformed until much later. The post of Minister of Welsh Affairs
Minister of Welsh Affairs
was first established in 1951, but was at first held by the UK Home Secretary. Further incremental changes also took place, including the establishment of a Digest of Welsh Statistics in 1954, and the designation of Cardiff
Cardiff
(Caerdydd) as Wales’s capital city in 1955. However, further reforms were catalysed partly as a result of the controversy surrounding the flooding of Capel Celyn
Capel Celyn
in 1956. Despite almost unanimous Welsh political opposition the scheme had been approved, a fact that seemed to underline Plaid Cymru's argument that the Welsh national community was powerless.[5] Welsh nationalism
Welsh nationalism
experienced a modest increase in support, with Plaid Cymru’s share of the vote increasing from 0.3% in 1951 to 5.2% by 1959 throughout Wales. In 1964 the incoming Labour Government of Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
created the Welsh Office
Welsh Office
under a Secretary of State for Wales, with its powers augmented to include health, agriculture and education in 1968, 1969 and 1970 respectively. The creation of administration devolution effectively defined the territorial governance of modern Wales.[6] Labour's incremental embrace of a distinctive Welsh polity was arguably catalysed in 1966 when Plaid Cymru
Plaid Cymru
president Gwynfor Evans won the Carmarthen by-election (although in fact Labour had endorsed plans for an elected council for Wales
Wales
weeks before the by-election). However, by 1967 Labour retreated from endorsing home rule mainly because of the open hostility expressed by other Welsh Labour MPs to anything "which could be interpreted as a concession to nationalism" and because of opposition by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who was responding to a growth of Scottish nationalism.[7] In response to the emergence of Plaid Cymru
Plaid Cymru
and the Scottish National Party (SNP) Harold Wilson's Labour Government set up the Royal Commission on the Constitution (the Kilbrandon Commission) to investigate the UK’s constitutional arrangements in 1969.[8] Its eventual recommendations formed the basis of the 1974 White Paper Democracy and Devolution: proposals for Scotland
Scotland
and Wales.,[8] which proposed the creation of a Welsh Assembly. However, voters rejected the proposals by a majority of four to one in a referendum held in 1979.[8][9] The election of a Labour Government in 1997 brought devolution back to the political agenda. In July 1997, the government published a White Paper, A Voice for Wales, which outlined its proposals for devolution, and in September 1997 an elected Assembly with competence over the Welsh Office’s powers was narrowly approved in a referendum. The National Assembly for Wales
Wales
(Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was created in 1999, with further authority devolved in 2007, with the creation of a Welsh legal system to adjudicate on specific cases of Welsh law. Following devolution, the role of the Secretary of State for Wales greatly reduced. Most of the powers of the Welsh Office
Welsh Office
were handed over to the National Assembly; the Wales
Wales
Office was established in 1999 to supersede the Welsh Office
Welsh Office
and support the Secretary of State.[1] Contemporary Welsh politics[edit] The National Assembly for Wales[edit]

The Royal Badge of Wales
Wales
appears on Assembly Measures[10]

The National Assembly for Wales
Wales
(NAW or NAfW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru [CCC]) is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales. The assembly building is known as the Senedd. Both English and Welsh languages are treated on a basis of equality in the conduct of business in the Assembly. The Assembly was formed under the Government of Wales
Wales
Act 1998, by the Labour government, following a referendum in 1997. The campaign for a 'yes' vote in the referendum was supported by Welsh Labour, Plaid Cymru, the Liberal Democrats and much of Welsh civic society, such as church groups and the trade union movement.[11] The Conservative Party was the only major political party in Wales
Wales
to oppose devolution.[12] The election in 2003 produced an assembly in which half of the assembly seats were held by women. This is thought to be the first time elections to a legislature have produced equal representation for women.[13] The National Assembly consists of 60 elected members. They use the title Assembly Member (AM) or Aelod y Cynulliad (AC).[14] The Assembly's presiding officer is Welsh Labour member Rosemary Butler. The Welsh Government
Welsh Government
is led by First Minister Carwyn Jones
Carwyn Jones
of Welsh Labour.[15] The executive and civil servants are based in Cardiff's Cathays Park while the Assembly Members, the Assembly Parliamentary Service and Ministerial support staff are based in Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay where a new £67 million Assembly Building, known as the Senedd, has recently been built.[16][17][18] Until May 2007 one important feature of the Assembly was that there was no legal or constitutional separation of the legislative and executive functions, since it was a single corporate entity. Even compared with other parliamentary systems, and other UK devolved countries, this was highly unusual. In reality however there was day to day separation, and the terms "Assembly Government" and "Assembly Parliamentary Service" were used to distinguish between the two arms. The Government of Wales
Wales
Act 2006 regularised the separation once it comes into effect following the 2007 Assembly Election.

Senedd, home to the National Assembly for Wales.

Although the Assembly is a legislature, it has limited legislative power. Whilst in theory the Assembly has no tax varying powers, the Assembly in reality has some very limited power over taxes.[citation needed] For example, in Wales, as in England, the rate of Council Tax
Council Tax
is set by local authorities. In terms of charges for government services it also has some discretion. Notable examples where this discretion has been used and varies significantly to other areas in the UK include:-

Charges for NHS prescriptions in Wales
Wales
- these have been abolished, while patients are still charged in England. Northern Ireland abolished charges in 2010, with Scotland
Scotland
following suit in 2011.[19][20] Charges for University Tuition - are different for Welsh resident students studying at Welsh Universities, compared with students from or studying elsewhere in the UK.[21] Charging for Residential Care - In Wales
Wales
there is a flat rate of contribution towards the cost of nursing care, (roughly comparable to the highest level of English Contribution) for those who require residential care.[22]

This means in reality there is a wider definition of "nursing care" than in England
England
and therefore less dependence on means testing in Wales
Wales
than in England, meaning that more people are entitled to higher levels of state assistance. These variations in the levels of charges, may be viewed as de facto tax varying powers. This model of more limited legislative powers is partly because Wales had a more similar legal system to England
England
from 1536, when it was annexed and legally became an integral part of the Kingdom of England (although Wales
Wales
retained its own judicial system, the Great Sessions until 1830 [23]). Ireland and Scotland
Scotland
were incorporated into the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
through negotiations between the respective Kingdoms' Parliaments, and so retained some more differences in their legal systems. The Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
and the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly have wider powers. The Assembly inherited the powers and budget of the Secretary of State for Wales
Wales
and most of the functions of the Welsh Office. Since May 2007 the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
has had more extensive powers to legislate, in addition to the function of varying laws passed by Westminster using secondary legislation conferred under the original Government of Wales
Wales
Act 1998. The post of Secretary of State for Wales, currently Alun Cairns, retains a residual role. Welsh Government[edit] The Welsh Government
Welsh Government
(Welsh: Llywodraeth Cymru, is the executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet. Following the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
election, 2011, a minority Welsh Labour- Welsh Liberal Democrats
Welsh Liberal Democrats
coalition Government was formed in May 2016. The current cabinet members of the 5th Welsh Government are: First Minister

Rt Hon Carwyn Jones
Carwyn Jones
AM (Labour)

Welsh Cabinet Secretaries[15]

Ken Skates
Ken Skates
AM, Cabinet Secretary for Economy and Infrastructure(Labour) Vaughan Gething
Vaughan Gething
AM, Cabinet Secretary for Health, Well-being and Sport (Labour) Kirsty Williams
Kirsty Williams
AM, Cabinet Secretary for Education (Liberal Democrat) Carl Sargeant
Carl Sargeant
AM, Cabinet Secretary for Communities and Children (Labour) Mark Drakeford
Mark Drakeford
AM, Cabinet Secretary for Finance and Local Government (Labour) Lesley Griffiths
Lesley Griffiths
AM, Cabinet Secretary for Environment and Rural Affairs (Labour) Jane Hutt
Jane Hutt
AM, Leader of the House and Chief Whip (Labour) Mick Antoniw
Mick Antoniw
AM, Counsel General for Wales
Wales
(Labour)

'Welsh Ministers[24][25]

Julie James
Julie James
AM, Minister for Skills and Science (Labour) Alun Davies AM, Minister for Lifelong Learning and Welsh Language (Labour) Rebecca Evans AM, Minister for Social Services and Public Health (Labour)

The Welsh Government
Welsh Government
had no independent executive powers in law - unlike for instance, the Scottish Ministers and Ministers in the UK government. The Assembly was established as a "body corporate" by the Government of Wales
Wales
Act 1998 and the executive, as a committee of the Assembly, only had those powers that the Assembly as a whole votes to vest in ministers. The Government of Wales
Wales
Act 2006 has now formally separated the Assembly and the Welsh Government
Welsh Government
giving Welsh Ministers independent executive authority. Political parties[edit] Main article: List of political parties in Wales Throughout much of the 19th century, Wales
Wales
was a bastion of the Liberal Party. From the early 20th century, the Labour Party has emerged as the most popular political party in Wales, before 2009 having won the largest share of the vote at every UK General Election, National Assembly for Wales
Wales
election and European Parliament
European Parliament
election since 1922.[26] The Wales
Wales
Labour Party has traditionally been most successful in the industrial south Wales
Wales
valleys, north east Wales
Wales
and urban coastal areas, such as Cardiff, Newport and Swansea. The Welsh Conservative Party has historically been the second political party of Wales, having obtained the second largest share of the vote in Wales
Wales
in a majority of UK general elections since 1885.[27] In three General Elections (1906, 1997 and 2001) no Conservative MPs were returned to Westminster, while on only two occasions in the 20th century (1979 and 1983) have more than a quarter of Welsh constituencies been represented by Conservatives. However, in the 2009 European Parliament
European Parliament
elections the Conservatives polled higher than the Labour party in Wales.[28] Plaid Cymru
Plaid Cymru
is the principal Welsh nationalist political party in Wales. The Party was formed in 1925, but did not contest a majority of Welsh seats in any UK general election until 1959. In 1966 the first Plaid Cymru
Plaid Cymru
MP was returned to Parliament. Plaid Cymru's share of the vote since has averaged 10%, with the highest share ever - 14.3% - gained in the 2001 general election.[29] Plaid Cymru
Plaid Cymru
is strongest in rural Welsh-speaking areas of north and west Wales. The Welsh Liberal Democrats
Welsh Liberal Democrats
are part of the UK Liberal Democrats, and were formed by the merger of the Social Democratic Party (the SDP) and the Liberal Party in 1988. Since then they have gained an average vote share of 14% with the highest share - 18% - gained at the 2005 general election. The Welsh Liberal Democrats
Welsh Liberal Democrats
have the strongest support in rural mid and west Wales. The party performs relatively strongly in local government elections. Current party representation[edit] Following the 2017 elections:[30]

Party MEPs MPs AMs Local Authority overall control

Labour 1 of 4 28 of 40 29 of 60 7 of 22

Conservative 1 of 4 8 of 40 12 of 60 1 of 22

Plaid Cymru 1 of 4 4 of 40 11 of 60 1 of 22

Liberal Democrat 0 of 4 0 of 40 1 of 60 0 of 22

UKIP 1 of 4 0 of 40 5 of 60 0 of 22

Welsh politics since devolution[edit] Between 1999 and 2007 there were three elections for the National Assembly. Labour won the largest share of votes and seats in each election and has always been in government in Wales, either as a minority administration or in coalition, first with the Liberal Democrats and more recently with Plaid Cymru.[31] The predominance of coalitions is a result of the Additional Member System used for Assembly elections, which has worked to the benefit of Labour (it won a higher share of seats than votes in the 1999, 2003 and 2007 elections) but not given it the same advantage the party has enjoyed in first-past-the-post elections to Welsh seats in the House of Commons.[31] Policy divergence between Wales
Wales
and England
England
has arisen largely because Welsh governments have not followed the market-based English public service reforms introduced during the premiership of Tony Blair. In 2002, First Minister Rhodri Morgan
Rhodri Morgan
said that a key theme of the first four years of the Assembly was the creation of a new set of citizenship rights that are free at the point of use, universal and unconditional. He accepted the Blairite mantra of equality of opportunity and equality of access, but emphasised what he called "the fundamentally socialist aim of equality of outcome" - in stark contrast to the approach of Blair, who said that the true meaning of equality is specifically "not equality of outcome".[32] Marking ten years of devolution in a 2009 speech, Morgan highlighted free prescriptions, primary school breakfasts and free swimming as ‘Made in Wales’ initiatives that had made "a real difference to people’s everyday lives" since the National Assembly came into being.[33] However, some authors have argued that the approach to public services in England
England
has been more effective than that in Wales, with health and education "cost(ing) less and delivering more".[31] Unfavourable comparisons between National Health Service
National Health Service
waiting lists in England
England
and Wales
Wales
were a contentious issue in the first and second Assemblies.[34] Nevertheless, a 'progressive consensus' based on faith in the power of government, universal rather than means-tested services, co-operation rather than competition in public services, a rejection of individual choice as a guide to policy and a focus on equality of outcome continued to underpin the One Wales
Wales
coalition government in the Third Assembly.[35] The commitment to universalism may be tested by increasing budgetary constraints; in April 2009 a senior Plaid Cymru adviser warned of impending health and education cuts.[36] Local politics[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2009)

See also: Local government in Wales, Community (Wales), and Political make-up of local councils in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
§ Welsh Unitary authorities

Clock tower of Cardiff
Cardiff
City Hall

For the purposes of local government, Wales
Wales
was divided into 22 council areas in 1996. These unitary authorities are responsible for the provision of all local government services, including education, social work, environment and roads services. The lowest tier of local government in Wales
Wales
is the community council, which is analogous to a civil parish in England. The Queen appoints a Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant
to represent her in the eight Preserved counties of Wales, which are combinations of council areas. Contemporary Welsh law[edit]

This article or section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with's quality standards, as it does not address the subject and contains irrelevancies. You can help. The discussion page may contain suggestions. (May 2009)

Main article: Contemporary Welsh Law Since the Laws in Wales
Wales
Acts 1535–1542, Wales
Wales
was annexed into England
England
and has since shared a single legal system. England
England
and Wales are considered a single unit for the conflict of laws. This is because the unit is the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England. If considered as a subdivision of the United Kingdom, England & Wales
Wales
would have a population of 53,390,300 and an area of 151,174 km². Scotland, Northern Ireland, and dependencies such as the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey, are also separate units for this purpose (although they are not separate states under public international law), each with their own legal system (see the more complete explanation in English law). Wales
Wales
was brought under a common monarch with England
England
through conquest with the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 and annexed to England
England
for legal purposes by the Laws in Wales
Wales
Acts 1535-1542. However, references in legislation for 'England' were still taken as excluding Wales. The Wales
Wales
and Berwick Act 1746 meant that in all future laws, 'England' would by default include Wales
Wales
(and Berwick-upon-Tweed). This was later repealed in 1967 and current laws use " England
England
and Wales" as a single entity. Cardiff
Cardiff
was proclaimed as the Welsh capital in 1955. Welsh representation in the UK Parliament
UK Parliament
and Government[edit] In the UK Parliament[edit]

United Kingdom

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v t e

Wales
Wales
elects 40 representatives to the 646-member House of Commons in the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in London. In the 2010 General Election, the Labour Party lost approximately 12% of the vote across Wales, with losses varying by region. However, Labour managed to mitigate their losses by winning 26 seats. The Conservatives returned the three MP's elected in the 2005 general election as well as adding 5 more. The Liberal Democrats have 3 seats. Plaid Cymru, the Welsh nationalist party, also have 3 seats after gaining a seat from Labour. In the UK Government[edit] The Wales
Wales
Office (Swyddfa Cymru) is a United Kingdom
United Kingdom
government department. It is a replacement for the old Welsh Office
Welsh Office
(Swyddfa Gymreig), which had extensive responsibility for governing Wales
Wales
prior to Welsh devolution in 1999. Its current incarnation is significantly less powerful: it is primarily responsible for carrying out the few functions remaining to the Secretary of State for Wales
Wales
that have not been transferred already to National Assembly for Wales
Wales
and securing funds for Wales
Wales
as part of the annual budget settlement. The Secretary of State for Wales
Wales
has overall responsibility for the office but it is located administratively within the Department for Constitutional Affairs. This was carried out as part of the changes announced on 12 June 2003 that were part of a package intended toward replacing the Lord Chancellor's Department. Ministers of the Wales
Wales
Office as of 10 October 2013:

Secretary of State for Wales: The Rt Hon. David Jones MP Parliamentary-Under Secretary of State: Stephen Crabb
Stephen Crabb
MP (Also a Government Whip) Parliamentary-Under Secretary of State: The Baroness Randerson

Welsh representation in the European Union[edit]

The Wales
Wales
constituency of the European Parliament
European Parliament
is coterminous with the country itself, shown here within the United Kingdom

The entire country of Wales
Wales
is a constituency of the European Parliament. It elects four Members of the European Parliament
European Parliament
using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation, representation having been reduced from five seats in 2004. Members of the European Parliament
European Parliament
for Wales[37]

Nathan Gill, UK Independence Party Jill Evans, Plaid Cymru Kay Swinburne, Conservative Derek Vaughan, Labour

Intergovernmental relations[edit] The Concordat on Co-ordination of European Union
European Union
Policy Issues between the UK Government and the devolved administrations notes that "as all foreign policy issues are non-devolved, relations with the European Union are the responsibility of the Parliament and Government of the United Kingdom, as Member State".[38] However, Welsh Government
Welsh Government
civil servants participate in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Permanent Representation to the EU (UKRep),[39] and Wales
Wales
is represented on the EU's Committee of the Regions and Economic and Social Committee.[40] Outside Europe[edit] Relations between Wales
Wales
and America is primarily conducted through the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in addition to her Secretary of Foreign Affairs and Ambassador to the United States. Nevertheless, the Welsh Government
Welsh Government
has deployed their own envoy to America, primarily to promote Wales-specific business interests. The primary Welsh Government Office is based out of the Washington British Embassy, with satellites in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and Atlanta.[41] Commensurately, the United States has established a caucus to build direct relations with Wales[42] comprising:

Friends of Wales
Wales
Caucus

House

Representative Party State

Morgan Griffith Republican Virginia

Kenny Marchant Republican Texas

Ted Lieu Democratic California

Doug Lamborn Republican Colorado

Jeff Miller Republican Florida

Keith Rothfus Republican Pennsylvania

Bob Goodlatte Republican Virginia

Charles W. Dent Republican Pennsylvania

Roger Williams Republican Texas

Senate

Senator Party State

Joe Manchin Democratic West Virginia

Executive

Secretary Party Office

Tom Price Republican Health and Human Services

Political media outlets[edit]

BBC
BBC
Wales
Wales
Politics

Betsan Powys's blog, BBC
BBC
Wales' political editor David Cornock's blog, BBC
BBC
Wales' parliamentary correspondent Vaughan Roderick's blog (in Welsh), BBC's Welsh affairs editor

Wales
Wales
Online Politics — from the Western Mail and its sister publications Cambria — Current affairs magazine Barn — Welsh language
Welsh language
current affairs magazine

See also[edit]

Royal Commission on the Constitution (United Kingdom) Welsh Assembly Government

References[edit]

^ a b c National Archives: Records created or inherited by the Welsh Office and the Wales
Wales
Office: Administrative / biographical background ^ Morgan 1981 ^ Butt-Phillip 1975 ^ Davies 1994, p. 622 ^ Davies 1994 ^ The road to the Welsh Assembly from BBC
BBC
Wales
Wales
History website. Retrieved 23 August 2006. Archived 21 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Davies 1994, p. 667 ^ a b c Devolution
Devolution
in the UK: Department for Constitutional Affairs. UK State website. Retrieved 9 July 2005. ^ The 1979 Referendums: BBC
BBC
website. Retrieved 9 July 2006. ^ BBC
BBC
NEWS Wales
Wales
Wales
Wales
politics First Welsh law's royal approval ^ Andrews 1999 ^ The Politics of Devolution
Devolution
- Party policy: Politics '97 pages, BBC. Retrieved 8 September 2006. ^ Women win half Welsh seats: By Nicholas Watt, The Guardian, 3 May 2003. Retrieved 7 July 2006. ^ The National Assembly for Wales[permanent dead link], Civil rights - In Wales, Advice guide, Citizens Advice Bureau. Retrieved 2006-07-13.[dead link] ^ a b "Cabinet Members". Welsh Government. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-01.  ^ National Assembly for Wales
Wales
and Welsh Assembly Government
Welsh Assembly Government
Archived 14 February 2006 at the UK Government Web Archive in Guide to government: Devolved and local government, Directgov, UK state website. Retrieved 2006-07-13. Archived 14 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Assembly Building: Welsh government website. Retrieved 2006-07-13. Archived 8 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ New assembly building opens doors: BBC
BBC
News, 1 March 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-13. ^ Q and A: Welsh prescription prices: BBC
BBC
News, 1 October 2004. Retrieved 2006-07-31. ^ NHS Wales
Wales
- NHS prescription charges Archived 7 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Q&A: Welsh top-up fees: BBC
BBC
News, 22 June 2005. Retrieved 2006-07-31. ^ "NHS Continuing Care - Commons Health Select Committee", News and Views - NHFA. Retrieved 2006-11-10. Archived 25 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Williams 1985, p. 150 ^ "Deputy Ministers". Welsh Government. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-01.  ^ "Janice Gregory". National Assembly for Wales. Retrieved 2013-04-01.  ^ Jones, B, Welsh Elections 1885 - 1997 (1999), Lolfa. See also UK 2001 General Election results by region, UK 2005 General Election results by region, 1999 Welsh Assembly election results Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine., 2003 Welsh Assembly election results and 2004 European Parliament
European Parliament
election results in Wales
Wales
(BBC) Archived 2 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Jones, B, Welsh Elections 1885 - 1997(1999), Lolfa ^ "Cameron hails 'historic' victory". BBC
BBC
News. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2010.  ^ Jones, B, Welsh Elections 1885 - 1997 (1999), Lolfa. See also UK 2001 General Election results by region, UK 2005 General Election results by region Archived 2 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Wales
Wales
local elections 2017". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 2017-06-21.  ^ a b c McLean, I. "The National Question" in Seldon, A., ed. (2007) Blair's Britain 1997-2007. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ^ Across the clear red water, by Steve Davies. Public Finance 23-05-2003[dead link] ^ Welsh Assembly Government
Welsh Assembly Government
Wales
Wales
“a better country because of devolution” – First Minister ^ BBC
BBC
NEWS Wales
Wales
"Drop in hospital waiting times" Wednesday, 26 January, 2005 ^ Osmond, J. (2008) Cardiff
Cardiff
Bay Papers No. 1: Unpacking the Progressive Consensus. Institute of Welsh Affairs ^ BB NEWS Wales
Wales
"Axe fear for free prescriptions", 30 April 2009 ^ "European Election 2009: Wales". BBC
BBC
News. 2006-06-08. Retrieved 2009-06-10.  ^ Welsh Assembly Government
Welsh Assembly Government
Concordat on Co-ordination of European Union Policy Issues ^ Welsh Assembly Government
Welsh Assembly Government
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Permanent Representation to the EU (UKRep) ^ Welsh Assembly Government
Welsh Assembly Government
EU Advisory Committees ^ http://www.wales.com/business/overseas-offices/usa ^ http://morgangriffith.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=398615

Bibliography[edit]

Andrews, Leighton (1999). Wales
Wales
says yes: the inside story of the yes for Wales
Wales
referendum campaign. Bridgend: Seren.  Butt-Phillip, A. (1975). The Welsh Question. University of Wales Press.  Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-014581-8.  Morgan, Kenneth O. (1981). Rebirth of a Nation. Oxford University Press.  Williams, Gwyn Alf (1985). When Was Wales?. Black Raven Press. 

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