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(i)

*WALHAZ is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker". The term was used by the ancient Germanic peoples to describe inhabitants of the former Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
, who were largely romanised and spoke Latin or Celtic languages. The adjectival form is attested in Old Norse valskr, meaning "French"; Old High German
Old High German
walhisk, meaning "Romance"; New High German welsch, used in Switzerland
Switzerland
and South Tyrol for Romance speakers; Dutch Waals "Walloon "; Old English
Old English
welisċ, wælisċ, wilisċ, meaning "Romano-British "; and Modern English Welsh . The form of these words imply that they are descended from a Proto-Germanic form *walhiska-. It is attested in the Roman Iron Age from an inscription on one of the Tjurkö bracteates , where walhakurne "Roman/Gallic grain" is apparently a kenning for "gold" (referring to the bracteate itself).

CONTENTS

* 1 From * Walhaz to welsch * 2 From * Walhaz to Vlach

* 3 Toponyms and exonyms

* 3.1 Pennsylvania German * 3.2 Yiddish
Yiddish

* 4 Family names * 5 Historic persons * 6 Other words * 7 See also * 8 References

FROM *WALHAZ TO WELSCH

* Walhaz is almost certainly derived from the name of the tribe which was known to the Romans as Volcae (in the writings of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
) and to the Greeks as Οὐόλκαι / Ouólkai ( Strabo
Strabo
and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
). This tribe occupied territory neighbouring that of the Germanic people and seem to have been referred to by the proto-Germanic name * Walhaz (plural *Walhōz, adjectival form *walhiska-). It is assumed that this term specifically referred to the Celtic Volcae , because application of Grimm\'s law to that word produces the form *Walh-. Subsequently, this term *Walhōz was applied rather indiscriminately to the southern neighbours of the Germanic people, as evidenced in geographic names such as Walchgau and Walchensee
Walchensee
in Bavaria. These southern neighbours, however, were then already completely Romanised. Thus, Germanic speakers generalised this name first to all Celts
Celts
, and later to all Romans . Old High German
Old High German
Walh became Walch in Middle High German , and the adjective OHG walhisk became MHG welsch, e.g. in the 1240 Alexander romance by Rudolf von Ems – resulting in Welsche in Early New High German and modern Swiss German
Swiss German
as the exonym for all Romance speakers. For instance, the historical German name for Trentino
Trentino
, the part of Tyrol with a Romance speaking majority, is Welschtirol, and the historical German name for Verona
Verona
is Welschbern.

Today, welsch is not in usage in German except in Switzerland. This term is used there not only in a historical context, but also as a somewhat pejorative word to describe Swiss speakers of Italian and French.

FROM *WALHAZ TO VLACH

Main article: Vlachs
Vlachs

Look up VLACH in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

In Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
, the word for Latin peoples was borrowed from the Goths
Goths
(as *walhs) into Proto-Slavic some time before the 7th century
7th century
. The first source using the word was the writings of Byzantine historian George Kedrenos in the mid-11th century.

From the Slavs the term passed to other peoples, such as the Hungarians
Hungarians
(oláh, referring to Vlachs
Vlachs
, more specifically Romanians
Romanians
, olasz, referring to Italians), Turks ("Ulahlar") and Byzantines ("Βλάχοι", "Vláhi") and was used for all Latin people of the Balkans
Balkans
.

Over time, the term Vlach (and its different forms) also acquired different meanings. Ottoman Turks in the Balkans
Balkans
commonly used the term to denote native Balkan Christians (possibly due to the cultural link between Christianity and Roman culture), and in parts of the Balkans
Balkans
the term came to denote "shepherd " – from the occupation of many of the Vlachs
Vlachs
throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

The Polish words Włoch (pl. Włosi), "Italian", and Włochy, "Italy", and the Slovenian lah, a mildly derogatory word for "Italian", can also be mentioned.

TOPONYMS AND EXONYMS

See also: Germanic toponymy

Numerous names of non-Germanic, and in particular Romance -speaking, European and near-Asian regions derive from the word Walh, in particular the exonyms

* Wallachia
Wallachia
and Vlachs
Vlachs
– " Romanians
Romanians
"

Consider the following terms historically present in several Central and Eastern European, and other neighbouring languages:

* in Polish : Włochy , the name of Italy, and Wołoch, referring to Vlachs
Vlachs
and historically Romanians
Romanians
. * in Hungarian : "Oláh", referring to Romanians, "Vlachok" referring to Romanians/Vlachs, generally; "Olasz", referring to Italians. * in Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
and Bulgarian : Vlah (влах) – to Romanians or other Romanian/Vlach subgroup. Also in Vlašić , the mountain in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
named after the Vlach shepherds that inhabited it. * in Ukrainian : Voloh (волох) – to Romanians. * in Russian: Valah/Valakh (валах) – to Romanians. * in Greek : Vlahi/Vlakhi (Βλάχοι) – to Romanians
Romanians
or other Romanian/Vlach subgroup (e.g. Aromanians , Megleno- Romanians
Romanians
, etc.) * in German: Wlachen or Walachen – to Romanians
Romanians
of other Romanian/Vlach subgroups; Wallach – a Romanian horse, i.e. a horse that has been gelded , as the Romanians
Romanians
gelded their war horses for practical reasons; Walachei – to any land inhabited by Vlachs, as well as "remote and rough lands", "boondocks "; * in Czech and Slovak : Vlach - Old Czech for an Italian, Valach – to Romanians
Romanians
or to their Slavic-speaking descendants inhabiting Moravian Wallachia
Wallachia
; a gelded horse. * in Turkish : Eflak – to Wallachia
Wallachia
and "Ulahlar" to Romanians
Romanians
or other Romanian/Vlach subgroup. * In Slovene : Laški, archaic name referring to Italians; it is also the name of several settlements in Slovenia
Slovenia
, like Laško near Celje
Celje
, or Laški Rovt near Bohinj . Laško is also the old Slovene name for the area around Monfalcone and Ronchi in Italy, on the border with Slovenia. These names are linked to the presence of larger nuclei of Romance-speaking populations at the time where the Slavs settled the area in the 6th century.

In Western European languages:

* in English:

* Wales
Wales
, Welsh * Cornwall
Cornwall
* The names of many towns and villages throughout the North and West of England such as Walsden in West Yorkshire and Wallasey , near Liverpool. * Waledich or wallditch (weahl + ditch) was the pre-Victorian name of Avebury stone circle in Avebury , Wiltshire * Galwalas, Old English
Old English
name for people of Gaul or France

* Numerous attestations in German (see also de:Welsche):

* in village names ending in -walchen, such as Straßwalchen or Seewalchen am Attersee , mostly located in the Salzkammergut
Salzkammergut
region and indicating Roman settlement * The name of the German village Wallstadt , today a part of the city of Mannheim
Mannheim
, originates from the Germanic Walahastath * In German Welsch or Walsch, outdated for "Romance", and still in use in Swiss Standard German for Romands .

* in numerous placenames, for instance Walensee
Walensee
and Walenstadt , as well as Welschbern and Welschtirol (now almost always Verona
Verona
and Trentino
Trentino
), also in:

* Welschbillig , in the Moselle
Moselle
valley, where Moselle
Moselle
Romance was spoken; * Welschen Ennest (community of Kirchhundem , district Olpe , Sauerland
Sauerland
); * Welschenrohr in the Swiss canton of Solothurn
Solothurn
; * Welschensteinach in the district Ortenau in Baden-Württemberg; * Welschnofen (Nova Levante), in opposition to Deutschnofen (Nova Ponente), in Alto Adige, Italy. In Welschnofen lived until the eighteenth century a Ladin community, while in Deutschnofen lived a German community.

* in Walser German , Wailschu refers to Italian/Piedmontese * There is a street in Regensburg
Regensburg
named Wahlenstrasse, seemingly once inhabited by Italian merchants. In other German places like Duisburg
Duisburg
one can find a Welschengasse, or an Am Welschenkamp, referring to French speaking inhabitants * In Southern Austria, "welsch" is a prefix that generally means Italian. E.g. the wine variety "Welschriesling", common in Styria, Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary (actually not related to the white Riesling variety). It is often used as a rather sweeping, pejorative word for the nearest people of Latin/Romanic origin (the remaining neighbours of Austria being "Tschuschen " – Slavs – and "Piefke " (Germans). * Kauderwelsch (Danish: kaudervælsk, Norwegian: kaudervelsk, Dutch: koeterwaals) is a German word for gibberish and derives from the Rhaetoroman dialect of Chur
Chur
in Switzerland. * Welche , the French spelling of Welsch, refers to an historical Romance dialect in Alsace
Alsace
bordering German-speaking Alsace
Alsace
* Rotwelsch is the language of traveller communities in Germany.

* In Dutch :

* The Belgian region of Wallonia
Wallonia
, cf. Dutch Waals Walloon, Walenland, Wallonië * The former island of Walcheren
Walcheren
* The Calvinistic Walloon church
Walloon church
in the Netherlands, whose native language is French

* In most langues d\'oïl , walhaz was borrowed and altered by changing the initial w to g (cf. English "war" French guerre, English "William" vs. French Guillaume or even English "ward" vs. "guard", borrowed into English from French) resulting in Gaul- : Gaule "Gaul", Gaulois "Gaulish". (These terms are not related to the terms Gallic or Gaelic – which are likewise etymologically unrelated to each other – despite the similarity in form and meaning. See Names of the Celts for more information.)

* French (pays de) Galles, gallois > Italian Galles, gallese "Wales", "Welsh".

* In Irish:

* The term Gallus (Gaul) was borrowed into Irish as Gall . It later became a term for Vikings
Vikings
, then the Anglo-Normans
Anglo-Normans
, and later meant the English (used alongside na Sasanaigh) or generally "foreigner." Several place names, such as Donegal
Donegal
, Moneygall
Moneygall
and Fingal
Fingal
, refer to Gall, and it is not entirely clear which type of foreigner is referred. The term Galltacht is used, analogously to Gaeltacht
Gaeltacht
, to refer to English-speaking regions of Ireland.

PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN

In the Pennsylvania German language
Pennsylvania German language
, Welsch generally means "strange" as well as "Welsh", and is sometimes, although with a more restricted meaning, compounded with other words. For example, the words for "turkey" are Welschhaahne and Welschhinkel, which literally mean "French (or Roman) chicken". "Welschkann" is the word for maize and literally translates to "French (or Roman) grain." The verb welsche means "to jabber".

YIDDISH

The Yiddish
Yiddish
term "Velsh" or "Veilish" is used for Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
and the Rashi script .

FAMILY NAMES

The element also shows up in family names:

* in Dutch:

* De Waal
De Waal
, Waal, De Waele , Waelhens, Swalen, Swelsen; but not van der Waals (< river or water name Waal ).

* in English:

* Welsh , Welch , Walsh , Walch , Whale , Wallace , Wallis , Waugh

* in German:

* Welsch, Welschen, Welzen, Welches, Wälsch, Walech, Walch , Wahl , Wahle , Wahlen , Wahlens, Wahlich, Wälke (in part indirectly through forenames such as Walcho), '

* in Greek:

* Vlahos

* in Hungarian :

* Oláh

* In Irish: (all derived from Gall)

* Mac Diarmada Gall, Dubhghall, Gallbhreatnach, Ó Gallchobhair, Mac an Ghallóglaigh

* Jewish-Polish:

* Bloch
Bloch
, a Jewish family name, that derives from Polish Włochy

* in Polish:

* Włoch, Wołoch, Wołos, Wołoszyn, Wołoszek, Wołoszczak, Wołoszczuk, Bołoch, Bołoz

* in Romanian

* Olah, Olahu, Vlah, Vlahu, Valahu, Vlahuță, Vlahovici, Vlahopol, Vlas, Vlasici, Vlăsianu, Vlăsceanu, Vlaș, Vlașcu

* Slavic:

* Vlach, Vlah (cyr. Влах) (forename, also for Blaise )

HISTORIC PERSONS

* ro:Ieremia Valahul (Italian: Geremia da Valacchia ) (Jon Stoika, 1556–1625), Capuchin priest, b. in Tzazo, Moldavia
Moldavia
("Vallachia Minor" or "Piccola Valacchia", i.e. Small Wallachia) Romania, beatified in 1983 * Saint Blaise (Croatian: Sveti Vlaho, Greek: Agios Vlasios), patron saint of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
, an Armenian martyr * Nicolaus Olahus (Latin for Nicholas, the Vlach; Hungarian: Oláh Miklós, Romanian: Nicolae Valahul) (1493–1568), Archbishop of Esztergom

OTHER WORDS

* The walnut was originally known as the Welsh nut, i.e. it came through France and/or Italy to Germanic speakers (German Walnuss, Dutch okkernoot or walnoot, Danish valnød, Swedish valnöt). In Polish orzechy włoskie translates to ‘Italian nuts’ (włoskie being the adjectival form of Włochy). * Several German compound words, such as Welschkohl, Welschkorn, Welschkraut, literally mean "Welsh/Italian cabbage" (referring to Savoy cabbage ) and "Welsh/Italian corn" (referring to either maize or buckwheat ).

SEE ALSO

* Vlachs
Vlachs
* Theodiscus * Names of the Celts
Celts
* Wallach

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Arend Quak (2005). "Van Ad Welschen naar Ad Waalsen of toch maar niet?" (PDF) (in Dutch). Retrieved 7 January 2015. * ^ Ringe, Don. "Inheritance versus lexical borrowing: a case with decisive sound-change evidence." Language Log, January 2009. * ^ Kelley L. Ross (2003). "Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren\'t, and Other Reflections on Roman History". The Proceedings of the Friesian School. Retrieved 13 January 2008. Note: The Vlach Connection * ^ http://nase-rec.ujc.cas.cz/archiv.php?art=3323 * ^ " Avebury Concise History". Wiltshire County Council. Retrieved 1 April 2009. * ^ A B C D E Ad Welschen: 'Herkomst en geschiedenis van de familie Welschen en de geografische verspreiding van deze familienaam.' part II, in: Limburgs Tijdschrift voor Genealogie 30 (2002), 68–81; separate bibliography in: Limburgs Tijdsc