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v t e

Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
(c. 1460–c. 1539 [1]), also called Vyasaraja, Vyasaraya and Chandrikacharya, was a Dvaita
Dvaita
scholar and poet. As the patron saint of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire, Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
was at the forefront of a golden age in Dvaita
Dvaita
which saw new developments in dialectical thought, flowering of the Haridasa
Haridasa
literature under bards like Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa
and Kanaka Dasa
Kanaka Dasa
and an amplified spread of Dvaita across the subcontinent. Three of his polemically themed doxographical works Nyayamruta, Tatparya Chandrika and Tarka Tandava (collectively called Vyasa
Vyasa
Traya) documented and critiqued an encyclopaedic range of sub-philosophies in Advaita,[note 1] Visistadvaita, [3] Mahayana Buddhism, Mimamsa
Mimamsa
and Nyaya, [4] revealing internal contradictions and fallacies. His Nyayamruta caused a significant stir in the Advaita community across the country requiring a rebuttal by Madhusudhana Saraswati through Advaitasiddhi. Apart from his scholarly activities, he penned several kirtanas under the nom de plume of Krishna
Krishna
including the classical Carnatic song Krishna
Krishna
Ni Begane Baaro. Under the reign of Krishna
Krishna
Deva Raya, he developed large scale irrigation systems in the villages gifted to him under grants [5] and distributed his patronage among the rival schools of thought building an atmosphere of religious tolerance. For his immense contribution to the Dvaita
Dvaita
school of thought, he, along with Madhva
Madhva
and Jayatirtha, are considered to be the three great saints of Dvaita
Dvaita
(munitraya). Surendranath Dasgupta
Surendranath Dasgupta
notes, "The logical skill and depth of acute dialectical thinking shown by Vyasa-tirtha stands almost unrivalled in the whole field of Indian thought". [6] B.N.K Sharma calls Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
"the prince of dialectitians" and goes on to say that "we find in his works a profoundly wide knowledge of ancient and contemporary systems of thought and an astonishingly brilliant intellect coupled with rare clarity and incisiveness of thought and expression".[7] Even his rival, Appayya Dikshita, is said to have observed that Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
"saved the melon of Madhvaism from bursting by securing it with three bands", referring to the Vyasa
Vyasa
Traya. [8][9]

Contents

1 Historical Sources 2 Early Life 3 At Chandragiri 4 At Hampi 5 Later Years 6 Works

6.1 Nyayamruta 6.2 Tatparya Chandrika 6.3 Tarka Tandava 6.4 Mandara Manjari 6.5 Bhedojjivana

7 Legacy 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External Links

Historical Sources[edit] Information about Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
is derived from his biography by Somanatha Kavi called Vyasayogicharita and inscriptional evidence. Songs of Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa
and stories perpetuated through traditions yield important insights too. Though Vyasayogicharita is a hagiography, unlike other works in the genre, it is free of embellishments such as performance of miracles and some of its claims can be corroborated with inscriptional evidence. [10] Somanatha mentions at the end of the text that the biography was approved by Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
himself, implying the contemporary nature of the work. While some scholars attest the veracity of the text to the claim that Somanatha was a Smartha, [11][12] others question the claim citing a lack of evidence [13][14]. Early Life[edit] Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
was born Yatiraja to Ballanna and Akkamma in a hamlet called Bannur. According to Vyasayogicharita, the childless couple approached saint Bramhanya Tirtha, who granted them a boon of three children with the condition that the second child, who would turn out to be Yatiraja, be handed over to him. After Yatiraja's upanayana, Bramhanya Tirtha assumed guardianship over the child. [15] Bramhanya was genuinely surprised at the precocious intellect of the child and intended to ordain him as a monk. Yatiraja, anticipating the ordination, decided to run away from the hermitage. While resting under a tree, he had a vision of Vishnu, who urged him to return after which Yatiraja returned and was subsequently ordained as Vyasatirtha. Sharma contends that Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
would have been 16 years of age at this time. [16] After the death of Bramhanya Tirtha during the famine of 1475-1476, Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
succeeded him as the pontiff of the mutt at Abbur
Abbur
and proceeded to Kanchi, which was the centre for Sastric learning in South India
South India
at the time, to educate himself on the six orthodox schools of thought. Sharma conjectures that the education Vyasatirtha received in Kanchi
Kanchi
was responsible for his deep erudition in the intricacies and subtleties of Advaita, Visistadvaita, Navya Nyaya
Nyaya
and other schools of thought. [16] After completing his education at Kanchi, Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
headed to Mulbagal
Mulbagal
to study the philosophy of Dvaita
Dvaita
under Sripadaraja, whom he would consider as his guru, for a period of 5 to 6 years. He was subsequently sent to the Vijayanagara court of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya at the behest of Sripada.[9] At Chandragiri[edit] Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
was received warmly by Saluva Narasimha
Narasimha
at Chandragiri. [9] Somanatha speaks of several debates and discussions in which Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
emerged triumphant over the leading scholars of the day. He also talks about Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
giving spiritual guidance to the king. Around the same time, Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
was entrusted with the worship of the Venkateshwara
Venkateshwara
idol at Tirupati
Tirupati
and undertook his first South Indian tour. After the death of Saluva Narasimha, Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
remained at Chandragiri
Chandragiri
in the court of Narasimha Raya II until Tuluva Narasa Nayaka declared himself to be the de-facto ruler of Vijayanagara. [17] At the behest of Narasa, Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
moved to Hampi
Hampi
and would remain there for the rest of his life. Some scholars argue against the claim that Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
acted as a spiritual adviser to Saluva Narasimha, Narasimha
Narasimha
II and Vira Narasimha
Narasimha
due to the lack of inscriptional evidence. [18][14] At Hampi[edit] At Hampi, the new capital of the empire, Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
was appointed as the "Guardian Saint of the State" after a period of prolonged disputations and debates with scholars led by Basava Bhatta, an emissary from the Kingdom of Kalinga. [19] His association with the royalty continued after Viranarasimha Raya overthrew Narasimha
Narasimha
Raya II to become the emperor. Fernão Nunes observes that "The King of Bisnega, everyday, hears the teachings of a learned Brahmin who never married nor ever touched a woman" which Sharma conjectures is Vyasatirtha. [20] Somanatha implies that it was around this time that Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
had begun his work on Tatparya Chandrika, Nyayamruta and Tarka Tandva. After the accession of Krishnadeva Raya, Vyasatirtha, who the king regarded as his kuladevata, greatly expanded his influence by serving as an emissary and diplomat to the neighbouring kingdoms while simultaneously disseminating the philosophy of Dvaita into the subcontinent. His close relationship to Krishnadeva Raya
Krishnadeva Raya
is corroborated by inscriptions on the Vitthala Temple at Hampi
Hampi
and accounts by Paes.[note 2] Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
was also sent on diplomatic missions to the Bijapur Sultante and accepted grants of villages in newly conquered territories for the establishment of Mutts. Stoker conjectures that this was advantageous to both the king and Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
as the establishments of mutts in these newly conquered regions led to political stability and also furthered the reach of Dvaita. [22] Somanatha writes of an incident where Krishnadeva Raya was sent a work of criticism against Dvaita
Dvaita
by an Advaita
Advaita
scholar in Kalinga as a challenge. After Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
retaliated accordingly, Krishnadeva Raya
Krishnadeva Raya
awarded Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
with a ratnabhisheka (a shower of jewels) which Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
subsequently distributed among the poor. [23][24] The inscriptions speak of grants of villages to Vyasatirtha from Krishnadeva Raya
Krishnadeva Raya
around this period, including Bettakonda, where he developed large irrigation systems including a lake called Vyasasamudra. [9] By supporting bards like Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa
and Kanaka Dasa and composing several hymns himself, he gave a strong impetus to the spread Haridasa
Haridasa
movement. Later Years[edit] Sharma notes that there may have been a period of "temporary estrangement" from the royalty due to internal political friction, during which Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
retreated to Bettakonda. [24] After the death of Krishnadeva Raya, Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
continued to advise Achyuta Deva Raya. Inscriptions speak of his donation of Narasimha
Narasimha
idol to the Vittala Temple at Hampi. [25] His disciples Vijayendra Tirtha
Vijayendra Tirtha
and Vadiraja Tirtha
Vadiraja Tirtha
furthered his legacy by penning polemical works and spreading the philosophy of Dvaita
Dvaita
into the Chola
Chola
and the Malnad region, eventually assuming pontifical seats at Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
and Sodhe respectively. He passed away in 1539 and his mortal remains are enshrined in Nava Brindavana, near Hampi. He was succeeded by his disciple, Srinivasa Tirtha. Works[edit] Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
authored 8 works consisting of polemical tracts, commentaries on the works of Madhva
Madhva
and a few hymns. Visnudasacharya's Vadaratnavali, a polemical treatise against the tenets of Advaita, is considered to be a significant influence on him. [26] By tracing a detailed, sophisticated and historically sensitive evolution of systems of thought such as Advaita, Vyakarana, Nyaya
Nyaya
and Mimamsa
Mimamsa
and revealing internal inconsistencies, McCrea contends that Vyasatirtha created a new form of doxography. This style of polemics influenced Appayya Dikshita, who authored his own doxographical work titled Śātrasiddhāntaleśasaṃgraha. [27] Nyayamruta[edit] Nyayamruta is a polemical and expositional work in four chapters. The first attacks the idealistic foundations of Advaita, which concerns the falsity of the world. The various definitions of mithyatva (falsity of the world) by the sub-schools of Advaita
Advaita
are dealt with and refuted. In the second chapter, Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
explains how the Madhva
Madhva
doctrine of five-fold difference can be arrived at by synthesising information from the three pramanas (pratyeksa, anumana, sabda). The Advaita
Advaita
concept of the merging of the soul with the Brahman
Brahman
is argued against. While the third deals with the critique of the Advaita
Advaita
view on the attainment of true knowledge (jnana), the fourth argues against soteriological issues in Advaita
Advaita
like Moksha, specifically dealing with the concept of Jivanmukti (enlightenment while alive). Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
asks whether for an Advaitin, the body ceases to exist when the veil of illusion has been lifted and the unity with the Brahman
Brahman
has been attained. Nyayamruta caused a furore in the Advaita
Advaita
community resulting in a series of scholarly retaliation over centuries. Madhusudhana Saraswati, a scholar from Varanasi
Varanasi
composed a line by line refutation of Nyayamruta titled Advaitasiddhi. In response, Ramacharya rebutted with Nyayamruta Tarangini which was further criticised by Brahmananda Saraswati. Vanamali Mishra composed a refutation of the Bramhananda Saraswati's work and the controversy eventually died down. Vyasatirtha's disciple Vijayendra Tirtha
Vijayendra Tirtha
has authored a commentary on the Nyayamruta called Laghu Amoda. Tatparya Chandrika[edit] Tatparya Chandrika or Chandrika is a commentary on Tattva Prakasika by Jayatirtha, which in turn is a commentary on Madhva's Brahma
Brahma
Sutra Bhashya. It not only documents and analyses the commentaries of Shankara, Madhva
Madhva
and Ramanuja
Ramanuja
on the Brahma
Brahma
Sutra
Sutra
but also their respective sub-commentaries.[note 3] The goal of Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
here is to prove the supremacy of the Madhva
Madhva
bhashya by showing it to be in harmony with the original source compared to the other commentaries. The doxographical style of Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
is evident in his copious amounts of quotations from the main commentaries (of Advaita
Advaita
and Visistadvaita) and their respective sub-commentaries under every adhikarna or chapter.[28] Only the first two chapters of the Brahma Sutra
Sutra
are covered. The rest was completed by Raghunatha Tirtha in the 18th century. Tarka Tandava[edit] Tarka Tandava is a polemical tract targeted towards the Nyaya
Nyaya
school. Though Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
and his predecessors borrowed the technical language, logical tools and terminologies from the Nyaya
Nyaya
school of thought and there is much in common between the two schools, there were significant differences especially in epistemology. Jayatirtha's Nyaya
Nyaya
Sudha and Pramana
Pramana
Paddhati were the first reactions against the Nyaya
Nyaya
school.[26] The advent of Navya Nyaya
Nyaya
widened the differences between the two schools especially related to the acquisition of knowledge or pramanas, triggering a systematic response from Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
through Tarka Tandava. Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
refers to and critiques standard as well as contemporary works of Nyaya: Gangesha Upadhyaya's Tattvachintamani, Nyayalilavati by Sri Vallabha
Vallabha
and Udayana's Kusumanjali etc. and their commentaries. The work is divided into three chapters corresponding to the three pramanas and a number of topics are raised including a controversial claim arguing for the supremacy of the conclusion (upasamhara) as opposed to the opening statement (upakrama). Purva Mimamsa
Mimamsa
and Advaita
Advaita
adhere to the theory that the opening statement trumps the conclusion and base their statements accordingly. Vyasatirtha's claim put him at odds with the Vedanta
Vedanta
community with Appayya Dikshita
Appayya Dikshita
being his most vocal opponent. Vyasatirtha's claim was defended by Vijayendra Tirtha
Vijayendra Tirtha
in Upasamhara Vijaya. [29] Mandara Manjari[edit] Mandara Manjari is the collective name given to Vyasatirtha's glosses on three (Mayavada Khandana, Upadhi Khandana, Prapancha Mithyavada Khandana) out of Madhva's ten refutation treatises called Dasha Prakarna and one on Tattvaviveka of Jayatirtha. Sharma notes "It is a tough and keenly argumentative gloss, replete with logical niceties". [30] Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
here expands only on the obscure passages in the source text therefore the treatment is detailed and intricate. Bhedojjivana[edit] Bhedojjivana is the last work of Vyasatirtha
Vyasatirtha
as it quotes from his previous works. The main focus of this treatise is to emphasise the doctrine of difference (Bheda) in Dvaita
Dvaita
as is evident from the title, which can be transliterated to "Resuscitation of Bheda". Sarma notes "Within a short compass, he has covered the ground of the entire Monistic literature pushed into contemporary prominence and argued an unexpurgated case for the Realism of Madhva".[31] Legacy[edit] As B.N.K Sharma says, Vyasaraja is the prince of the dialecticians of the Dvaita
Dvaita
system. He carried forward the work of his distinguished predecessors: Madhvacharya, Jayatirtha
Jayatirtha
and Vishnudasa, explored and exhausted all the technical and Shastric possibilities of making the doctrines and interpretations of his school impregnable and invulnerable to attacks from any quarter. Surendranath Dasgupta
Surendranath Dasgupta
pays him the highest tribute a modern historian of Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
could pay when he says "the logical skill and depth of acute dialectical thinking shown by Vyasaraja, stands almost unrivaled in the whole of Indian thought" (p. viii, preface to vol. IV op. cit). He also follows the example of great dialecticians like Udayana, Shriharhsa and Chitsuka in summing up the discussion of the topic at the end of the sections in pithy samgrahashlokas. Vyasaraja has thus enlarged the scope and vision of Madhva
Madhva
Shastra
Shastra
and its commentaries (tika) with the exegetical apparatus of Nyaya, Vyakarana
Vyakarana
and Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Shastra
Shastra
and expanded the significance of the original texts of his school in light of their methodology. His Tatparya-chandrika is a commentary, only in name; in effect, it is a scintillating critical and comparative study of the interpretation of the Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
according to the Bhashyas of the three main schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
(together with their important commentaries). Its powerful flow of arguments and breathtaking points of criticism are such as to leave the modern scholar and critic, grappling with the Sutras and their commentaries, dumb with astonishment at the masterly way in which Vyasaraja has successfully probed the problem of the interpretation of Sutras. The tradition rightly regards him, with Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
and Jayatirtha
Jayatirtha
as constituting the 'trinity of authorities on Madhva
Madhva
siddhanta' (muni-traya) . He showed to the philosophical world that the system of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
was not just an effervescence of Puranic Hinduism
Hinduism
or merely revival of Bhakti
Bhakti
cult but a mighty philosophical movement of thought with a well laid metaphysical structure that could hold its own against other speculative systems in the field, for richness and depth of thought and fineness of the speculative content. The age of Vyasaraja was, thus, the most glorious epoch in the history of Dvaita
Dvaita
school and its literature and philosophy and has not been rivaled, either before or after him for so much all-round distinction, progress and development. The political influence of the Madhva
Madhva
school also rose to its highest level under Vyasaraja, as he enjoyed the closest affection, and commanded the highest esteem of the great Hindu emperor of South India, Krishnadevaraya. Notes[edit]

^ Quote from Sastri: It was Vyasatirtha, who, for the first time took special pains to collect together from the vast range of Advaitic literature, all the crucial points for discussion and arrange them on a novel, yet thoroughly scientific and systematic plan[2] ^ Quote from Paes: Raya being washed by a Brahmin whom he held sacred and who was a great favourite of his. Sharma conjectures that the washing of the disciple by the guru is found only among the Madhva people (mentioned in Madhva's Tantrasara) [21] ^ Bhamati, Panchapadika, Vivarana and Kalpataru of the Advaita
Advaita
school, Srutaprakasha and Adhikaranasaravali of the Visistadvaita
Visistadvaita
school and Tattva Prakasika and Nyaya
Nyaya
Sudha of the Madhva
Madhva
school

References[edit]

^ Stoker 2016, p. 2. ^ Anantakrishna Sastri, Advaitasiddhi, Calcutta Oriental Series, pages 36 ^ Sharma 2000, p. 44. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 50. ^ Stoker 2016, p. 4. ^ Dasgupta 1991, p. viii. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 97. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 34. ^ a b c d Jackson 2000, p. 903. ^ Stoker 2000, p. 24. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 252-253. ^ Rao 1926, p. xviii. ^ Sarma 2007, p. 157. ^ a b Verghese 1997, p. 8. ^ Jackson 2000, p. 902. ^ a b Sharma, p. 26. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 27-28. ^ Sarma 2007, p. 156. ^ Stoker 2016, p. 29. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 29. ^ Robert Sewell, Forgotten Empire,p. 249-250 ^ Stoker 2016, p. 39-40. ^ Stoker 2016, p. 30. ^ a b Sharma 2000, p. 33. ^ Stoker 2016, p. 78. ^ a b Williams 2014. ^ McCrea 2015. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 45. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 53-54. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 57. ^ Sarma 1937, p. 15.

Bibliography[edit]

Sharma, B.N.K (2000) [1961]. History of Dvaita
Dvaita
school of Vedanta
Vedanta
and its Literature. 2 (3rd ed.). Bombay: Motilal Banarasidass. ISBN 81-208-1575-0.  Dasgupta, Surendranath (1991). A History of Indian Philosophy, Vol 4. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-8120804159.  Dalal, Roshen (2010). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0143414216.  Jackson, William (2000). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopaedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781576073551.  Stoker, Valerie (2016). Polemics and Patronage in the City of Victory. Univ of California Press. ISBN 9780520291836.  Sarma, R. Nagaraja (1937). Reign of realism in Indian philosophy. National Press.  Sarma, Deepak (2007). Madhvacarya and Vyasatirtha: Biographical sketches of a Systematizer and his Successors. Journal of Vaishnava Studies. pp. 145–168.  Verghese, Anila (1995). Religious Traditions at Vijayanagara: As Revealed Through Its Monuments. Manohar. pp. 145–168. ISBN 9788173040863.  Rao, Venkoba (1926). Śrī Vyāsayogicaritam: Life of Śrī Vyāsarāja, a Champū Kāvya in Sanskrit by Somanātha. Bangalore: Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
Studies and Research Foundation.  McCrea, Lawrence (2015). Freed by the weight of history: polemic and doxography in sixteenth century Vedānta. South Asian History and Culture, Vol 6. pp. 87–101.  Williams, Michael (2014). Mådhva Vedånta at the Turn of the Early Modern Period: Vyåsat rtha and the Navya-Naiyåyikas. International Journal of Hindu Studies. doi:10.1007/s11407-014-9157-7. 

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Biography of Vyasatirtha

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Matsya Kurma Varaha Krishna Balarama Rama Narasimha Vamana Buddha Parashurama Kalki Dhanvantari Kapila

Holy texts

Vedanta
Vedanta
( Dvaitadvaita * Dvaita
Dvaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
* Achintya Bheda Abheda) Bhagavad Gita Shrimad Bhagavatam Vedas Chaitanya Charitamrita Ramayana Mahabharata Puranas Upanishads Chaitanya Bhagavata

Organizations

Gaudiya Math ISKCON

Sampradayas

Sri Sampradaya
Sampradaya
( Laxmi
Laxmi
- Ramanuja) Brahma
Brahma
Sampradaya
Sampradaya
( Brahmā
Brahmā
- Madhvacharya) Rudra
Rudra
Sampradaya
Sampradaya
( Rudra
Rudra
- Vishnuswami) Nimbarka
Nimbarka
Sampradaya
Sampradaya
(Four Kumāras - Nimbarka) Chaitanya Vaisnava sampradaya

Spiritual abodes

Goloka Vrindavana Vaikuntha Ayodhya

Holy attributes

Lotus Sudarshana Chakra Narayanastra Kaumodaki Nandaki Sharangam Shankha

Famous bhaktas

Hanuman Arjuna Prahlada Narada Haridasa Six Goswamis of Vrindavana

Holy days

Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Gaura-purnima Ekadashi

Writers

Vrindavana
Vrindavana
Dasa Thakura Vyasa Valmiki

Pancha-tattva

Nitai Advaita
Advaita
Acharya Gadadhara Pandita Srivasa Thakura

Names of Godhead

Sahasranama Rama
Rama
sahasranama Vishnu
Vishnu
sahasranama List of names of Vishnu List of titles and names of Krishna Hari

Worship

Karatalas Mridangam Harmonium Incense of India Om Hindu temple Japamala

Comparative study

Nastika Advaita Adevism Anti-Hinduism Criticism of Hinduism Persecution of Hindus Asura Hinduism
Hinduism
and other religions ( Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism
Hinduism
* Gautama Buddha in Hinduism Jainism
Jainism
and Hinduism Rama
Rama
in Jainism Hindu–Islamic relations Hinduism
Hinduism
and Judaism Hinduism
Hinduism
and Sikhism Ayyavazhi and Hinduism Bahá'í Faith and Hinduism Christianity in India) Reincarnation Karma Diet in Hinduism God
God
in Hinduism Moksha Samsara Vegetarianism Astika

Other

Jagannatha Narayana Brahman Paramatma Bhagavan Tulasi Devis list Tridevi Radharani Sita Deva Demigods list Trimurti Indian philosophy Dharma Artha Arthashastra Kama Indian idealism Varna Ashrama Swami Goswami Krishnology Vaishnava theology Hinduism
Hinduism
by country Hindu cosmology Hindu units of time Hindu views on evolution Hindu calendar Hindu astrology List of numbers in Hindu scriptures Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 495031

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