HOME
The Info List - Vorarlberg


--- Advertisement ---



Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
(German pronunciation: [ˈfoːɐ̯ʔaʁlbɛʁk]) is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria. It has the second-smallest area after Vienna, and although it has the second-smallest population, it also has the second-highest population density (also after Vienna). It borders three countries: Germany ( Bavaria
Bavaria
and Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
via Lake
Lake
Constance), Switzerland ( Graubünden
Graubünden
and St. Gallen) and Liechtenstein. The only Austrian state that shares a border with Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is Tyrol to the east. The capital of Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is Bregenz
Bregenz
(29,500 inhabitants), although Dornbirn
Dornbirn
(48,700 inhabitants) and Feldkirch (33,000 inhabitants) have larger populations. Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is also the only state in Austria
Austria
where the local dialect is not Austro-Bavarian, but rather an Alemannic dialect; it therefore has much more in common culturally with its (historically) Alemannic-speaking German-speaking Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Swabia
Swabia
and Alsace
Alsace
than with southeastern Bavaria, rest of Austria
Austria
and South Tyrol. Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is almost completely mountainous and has been nicknamed the ‘Ländle’ meaning ‘small land’.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Administrative divisions

2 Economy

2.1 Location 2.2 Agriculture 2.3 Architecture 2.4 Tourism

3 Demographics 4 Religion 5 Language 6 History 7 Notes 8 External links

Geography[edit] The main rivers in Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
are the Ill (running through the Montafon
Montafon
and Walgau valleys into the Rhine), the Rhine
Rhine
(forming the border with Switzerland), the Bregenzer Ache
Bregenzer Ache
and the Dornbirner Ach. One of the shortest rivers is the Galina. Important lakes, apart from Lake Constance
Lake Constance
are Lüner Lake, Silvretta
Silvretta
Lake, Vermunt Lake, Spuller Lake, the Kops Basin and Formarin Lake; the first four were created for the production of hydroelectric energy. However, even before the dam for the power plant was built, Lüner Lake
Lake
was the largest mountain lake in the Alps. Most of this hydroelectric energy is exported to Germany
Germany
at peak times. At night, energy from power plants in Germany
Germany
is used to pump water back into some of the lakes.

Districts of Vorarlberg. Clockwise from north: Bregenz, Bludenz, Feldkirch, Dornbirn.

As there are several notable mountain ranges in Vorarlberg, such as the Silvretta, the Rätikon, the Verwall and the Arlberg, there are many well-known skiing regions (Arlberg, Montafon, Bregenzerwald) and ski resorts (Lech, Zürs, Schruns, Warth, Damüls, Brand and many more). Lech is an exclusive ski resort on the banks of the river Lech. In recent years Lech has grown to become one of the world's premier ski destinations and the home of a number of world and Olympic ski champions. With some other neighbouring villages Lech created the largest connected ski area in Austria
Austria
and one of the largest in Europe. Together these villages form the Arlberg
Arlberg
region, the birthplace of the modern Alpine skiing technique and the seat of the Ski Club Arlberg. Lech is a popular holiday destination for Royal families and celebrities, for example Jason Biggs, Tom Cruise, Diana - Princess of Wales, and the former Queen Beatrix and the Dutch Royal family. Damüls
Damüls
is also recognized as the municipality with the most annual snowfall worldwide: on average 9.30 metres (30.5 ft). The highest mountain is Piz Buin, whose rocky peak of 3,312 m (10,866 ft) is surrounded by glaciers. Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is supposed to enjoy the greatest scenic diversity within limited confines in the entire Eastern Alps; it adjoins the Western Alps. The distance from Lake Constance
Lake Constance
and the plains of the Alpine Rhine
Rhine
valley across the medium altitude and high Alpine zones to the glaciers of the Silvretta range is a mere 90 km (56 mi). Administrative divisions[edit] Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is divided into four large districts, from north to south: Bregenz, Dornbirn, Feldkirch and Bludenz. These districts appear on the automobile license plates in form of abbreviations: B, DO, FK and BZ. Economy[edit] Location[edit] For several years, the Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
economy has been performing well above the Austrian average. While the overall Austrian GDP in 2004 rose by 2.0% in real terms, Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
recorded an increase of 2.9%. This came as a surprise, particularly as the major trading partners in Germany
Germany
and Italy did not fare well. Owing to this robust economic performance, Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
was able to boost its gross regional product in 2014 to 15.2 billion EUR according to the Economic Policy Department of the Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
Chamber of Trade. This translates into a nominal increase of 3.4% (cf Austria
Austria
as a whole +5.2%).[1] The regional product per inhabitant in Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is 41,000 EUR, exceeding the Austrian national average by 8%. Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
and especially the Rhine
Rhine
Valley is one of the wealthiest areas in the world, with a very high standard of living. By far the biggest company in Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is Alpla, followed by Blum, Grass, Gebrüder Weiss, Zumtobel Group, Doppelmayr, Rauch and Wolford The economic expansion of Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is "very positive and for the future rated more dynamic than for the other federal states" Agriculture[edit]

Retrieving cattle from high pastures in the Alps is a social highlight for tourists and residents.

In addition to the flourishing textile, clothing, electronics, machinery and packing materials industries of the Alpine Rhine
Rhine
Valley, there is also a broad agricultural base, especially in the Bregenz Forest (Bregenzerwald), which is noted for its dairy products (especially due to the "KäseStrasse Bregenzerwald",[2] an association of farmers, restaurateurs, craftspeople and traders promoting the Bregenz
Bregenz
Forest agriculture and its local products) and tourism. Another important economical and cultural factor is the three-level agricultural structure of the mountain-regions in Vorarlberg. It is also known as Alpine transhumance
Alpine transhumance
and describes a seasonal droving of grazing livestock between the valleys in winter and the high mountain pastures in summer. Many cultural habits like Yodel, Alphorn
Alphorn
or Schwingen
Schwingen
were developed during this time. This seasonal nomadism led to the rich culture, architecture and love for the nature in Vorarlberg. Moving the cattle to the high pasture and also retrieving them is always a big social highlight as the animals are richly decorated with flowers. Architecture[edit] The architectural curriculum in Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
has a strong reputation all over Europe. It has made a label for a demanding architecture of a fruitful confrontation between traditional construction and modern interpretation with the new Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
school "Vorarlberg". The Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
school is regarded as one of the most important pioneers of the New Alpine architecture.

"Bregenzerwälderhaus" in Stübing, Austria, Europe

The independent architecture of the Bregenzerwaldhaus and the Montafonerhaus are particularly relevant to historical architecture.[3] Tourism[edit] The tourist industry employs a considerable number of Vorarlbergers. There are around 12.000 employees working in this industry which represent approximately 11% of the total workforce (107.575 in 2015)[4] Arrivals are slightly higher in Winter (1.23 Mio in 2015) than in Summer (1.14 Mio in 2015). The real difference lies in overnight-stays indicating that Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is a strong winter destination. Overnight-stays in Winter reach as high 5.11 Mio which is quite high when compared to Summer with 3.7 Mio overnight stays. The greatest tourist attractions are the mountains and the numerous ski resorts. In the cold season, winter sports enthusiasts will find ideal conditions for their favourite sport: skiing, cross country skiing, freeriding, snowboarding, ice skating, sled dog rides, carriage rides, tobogganing, snow and fun parks. Due to its unique location in the mountains it is also possible to cross Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
on skis. "Ski Ride Vorarlberg"[5] is a combination of skiing, touring and freeriding and takes tourists from the Kleinwalsertal
Kleinwalsertal
in the north to the Montafon
Montafon
in the south. The tour takes place in a small group and is accompanied by a guide. The route takes them through open terrain and on-piste ski areas – whatever is available.

Music Festival in Bregenz
Bregenz
2012 (André Chénier)

In the summer all mountain sports are in the foreground: hiking, mountain biking, trail-running, but also resting and boating on Lake Constance. Above all, Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
stands for cultural offers of all kinds: the Bregenzer Seefestspiele with its own lake-stage are the best known and for many years a cultural highlight. In addition, there are many museums and attractions such as the Kunsthaus Bregenz, the Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
Museum and the Jewish Museum. The largest (and best-known) touristic regions are:

the Bregenz
Bregenz
Forest, the Bludenz-District the Arlberg
Arlberg
region (including the high-class ski resorts Lech and Zürs), the Brandnertal the Montafon the Kleinwalsertal
Kleinwalsertal
and the Großwalsertal

Prominent skiers from these regions include Anita Wachter, Egon Zimmermann, Gerhard Nenning, Mario Reiter, Hubert Strolz, and Hannes Schneider, as well as the ski-jumper Toni Innauer.[6] Demographics[edit] The population of Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
is 388,711 (2017). The majority (86%) of residents are of Austrian-Germanic stock with a cultural connection with Switzerland
Switzerland
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the west and Germany
Germany
to the north. A sizable proportion of the population's ancestors came from the Swiss canton of Valais
Valais
in migrations of "Walsers", including the Swiss French
Swiss French
in the 19th century by invitation during the days of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[citation needed]. There has been a sizable minority of Turkish descent since the 1960s. Religion[edit] 78% of the population are Roman Catholic, which puts Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
in line with the national Austrian average of 73.6%. The second-largest denomination, with a share of 8.4%, is Islam. 7,817 (or 2.2%) of Vorarlberg's inhabitants are Protestants. Language[edit] Owing to their location isolated from the rest of Austria, most people in Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
speak a very distinct German dialect that other Austrians might have difficulty understanding, since the dialects in the rest of Austria
Austria
form part of the Bavarian-Austrian language group, whereas the Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
dialect is part of the Alemannic dialect continuum. Alemannic dialects
Alemannic dialects
are also spoken in Liechtenstein, Switzerland
Switzerland
(as Swiss German), Baden-Württemberg, the south west of Bavaria
Bavaria
and the Alsace
Alsace
region of France. The Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
dialect is further divided into a number of regional sub-dialects (e.g. that of the Montafon, the Bregenz
Bregenz
Forest and Lustenau are some of the most distinct) which tend to differ considerably from each other. In fact even within these regions the dialects may vary from one town or village to the next. History[edit]

"Confederates, help your brothers in peril!" Swiss poster of the Pro Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
movement advocating for an accession of Vorarlberg, 1919.

Before the Romans conquered Vorarlberg, there were two Celtic tribes settled in this area: the Raeti in the highlands, and the Vindelici in the lowlands, i.e. the Lake Constance
Lake Constance
region and the Rhine
Rhine
Valley. One of the important settlements of the Vindelici was Brigantion (modern Bregenz), founded around 500 BC. The first settlements in and around Bregenz
Bregenz
date from 1500 BC. A Celtic tribe named "Brigantii" is mentioned by Strabo as a sub-tribe in these region of the Alps.[7] The area of Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
was conquered by the Romans in 15 BC and it became part of the Roman province
Roman province
of Raetia. It was later conquered by Allemanic tribes in c. 450 AD. It then fell under the rule of the Bavarians
Bavarians
and was subsequently settled by the Bavarians
Bavarians
and the Lombards. It later fell under the rule of the Counts of Bregenz
Bregenz
until 1160 and then to the Counts of Montfort until 1525, when the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
took control.[6] The historically-Germanic province, which was a gathering-together of former bishoprics, was still ruled in part by a few semi-autonomous counts and surviving prince-bishops until the start of World War I. Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
was a part of Further Austria, and parts of the area were ruled by the Counts Montfort of Vorarlberg. Following World War I
World War I
there was a desire by many in Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
to join Switzerland.[8] In a referendum held in Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
on 11 May 1919, over 80% of those voting supported a proposal for the state to join the Swiss Confederation. However this was prevented by the opposition of the Austrian government, the Allies, Swiss liberals, the Swiss-Italians
Swiss-Italians
and the Swiss-French.[6][9] Following the Second World War
Second World War
Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
found itself occupied by French troops from 1945 to 1955, along with most of the federal state of Tyrol. Notes[edit]

^ Chamber of Commerce Vorarlberg. " Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
in Figures 2016 Edition" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-02-24.  ^ KäseStrasse Bregenzerwald (in German) ^ "Designer Hotels Modern Architecture
Architecture
Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
Tourism, Austria". Retrieved 2017-02-24.  ^ WKO Vorarlberg. " Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
in Figures 2016 Edition" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-02-24.  ^ "Ski Ride Vorarlberg". Retrieved 2017-02-24.  ^ a b c The Free Dictionary by Farlex: Vorarlberg ^ Strabo, Geographia Book IV Chap. 6 ^ 1982 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, "History of Austria" ^ C2D - Centre d'études et de documentation sur la démocratie directe

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vorarlberg.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Vorarlberg.

Official website

v t e

States of Austria

  Burgenland
Burgenland
•   Vienna
Vienna
•  Lower Austria
Austria
•   Carinthia
Carinthia
•   Styria
Styria
•  Upper Austria
Austria
•  Salzburg •  Tyrol •  Vorarlberg

v t e

Districts (Bezirke) of Vorarlberg

Bludenz Bregenz Dornbirn Feldkirch

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 124343663 LCCN: n81054176 ISNI: 0000 0001 0657 0969 GND: 4063944-7 SUDOC: 030352177 BNF:

.