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In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize. Volatility is directly related to a substance's vapor pressure. At a given temperature, a substance with higher vapor pressure vaporizes more readily than a substance with a lower vapor pressure.[1][2][3][4] The term is primarily written to be applied to liquids; however, it may be used to describe the process of sublimation which is associated with solid substances, such as dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) and osmium tetroxide (OsO4), which can change directly from the solid state to a vapor, without becoming liquid.

A log-lin vapor pressure chart for various liquids

Contents

1 Relations between vapor pressure, temperature, and boiling point 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Relations between vapor pressure, temperature, and boiling point[edit] Main article: Vapor
Vapor
pressure The vapor pressure of a substance is the pressure at which its gas phase is in equilibrium with its condensed phases (liquid or solid). It is a measure of the tendency of molecules and atoms to escape from a liquid or a solid. A liquid's atmospheric pressure boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which its vapor pressure is equal to the surrounding atmospheric pressure and it is often called the normal boiling point. The higher the vapor pressure of a liquid at a given temperature, the higher the volatility and the lower the normal boiling point of the liquid. The vapor pressure chart (right hand side) displays the vapor pressures dependency for a variety of liquids as a function of temperature.[5] For example, at any given temperature, chloromethane (methyl chloride) has the highest vapor pressure of any of the liquids in the chart. It also has the lowest normal boiling point (−24.2 °C), which is where the vapor pressure curve (the blue line) intersects the horizontal pressure line of one atmosphere (atm) of absolute vapor pressure. See also[edit]

Clausius–Clapeyron relation Distillation Fractional distillation Partial pressure Raoult's law Relative volatility Vapor–liquid equilibrium Volatile organic compound

References[edit]

^ Gases and Vapor
Vapor
( University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
website) ^ Definition of Terms ( University of Victoria
University of Victoria
website) ^ James G. Speight (2006). The Chemistry
Chemistry
and Technology of Petroleum (4th ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-9067-8.  ^ Kister, Henry Z. (1992-02-01). Distillation
Distillation
Design (1st ed.). McGraw-hill. ISBN 978-0-07-034909-4.  ^ Perry, R.H. and Green, D.W. (Editors); Don W. Green; James O. Maloney (1997). Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-049841-9. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Volatility from ilpi.com Definition of volatile from Wiktionary

v t e

States of matter (list)

State

Baryonic matter

Solid Liquid Gas
Gas
/ Vapor Plasma

Low energy

Bose–Einstein condensate Fermionic condensate Degenerate matter Quantum Hall Rydberg matter Rydberg polaron Strange matter Superfluid Supersolid Photonic matter

High energy

QCD matter Lattice QCD Quark–gluon plasma Color-glass condensate Supercritical fluid

Other states

Colloid Glass Crystal Liquid
Liquid
crystal Time crystal Quantum spin liquid Exotic matter Programmable matter Dark matter Antimatter Magnetically ordered

Antiferromagnet Ferrimagnet Ferromagnet

String-net liquid Superglass

Transitions

Boiling Boiling
Boiling
point Condensation Critical line Critical point Crystallization Deposition Evaporation Flash evaporation Freezing Chemical ionization Ionization Lambda point Melting Melting
Melting
point Recombination Regelation Saturated fluid Sublimation Supercooling Triple point Vaporization Vitrification

Quantities

Enthalpy of fusion Enthalpy of sublimation Enthalpy of vaporization Latent heat Latent internal energy Trouton's ratio Volatility

Concepts

Binodal Compressed fluid Cooling curve Equation of state Leidenfrost effect Macroscopic quantum phenomena Mpemba effect Order and disorder (physics) Spinodal Superconductivity Superheated vapor Superheating Thermo-diele

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