Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author
, and civil
and military engineer
during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura
''. He originated the idea that all buildings should have three attributes: , , and ("strength", "utility", and "beauty"). These principles were later widely adopted in Roman architecture
. His discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body led to the famous Renaissance
drawing of the ''Vitruvian Man
'' by Leonardo da Vinci
Little is known about Vitruvius' life, but by his own description
[De Arch. Book 1, preface. section 2.]
he served as an artilleryman, the third class of arms in the Roman military offices. He probably served as a senior officer of artillery in charge of ''doctores ballistarum'' (artillery experts) and ''libratores'' who actually operated the machines. As an army engineer
he specialized in the construction of ''ballista
'' and ''scorpio
'' artillery war machines
s. It is possible that Vitruvius served with Julius Caesar
's chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus
Vitruvius' ''De architectura'' was widely copied and survives in many dozens of manuscripts throughout the Middle Ages,
though in 1414 it was "rediscovered" by the Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini
in the library of Saint Gall Abbey
. Leon Battista Alberti
published it in his seminal treatise on architecture, ''De re aedificatoria
'' (c. 1450). The first known Latin printed edition was by Fra Giovanni Sulpitius in Rome in 1486. Translations followed in Italian, French, English, German, Spanish, and several other languages. Though the original illustrations have been lost, the first illustrated edition was published in Venice
in 1511 by Fra Giovanni Giocondo
, with woodcut
illustrations based on descriptions in the text.
Life and career
Little is known about Vitruvius' life. Most inferences about him are extracted from his only surviving work ''De Architectura
''. Even his first name ''Marcus'' and his cognomen
'' are uncertain. Marcus Cetius Faventinus writes of "Vitruvius Polio aliique auctores"; this can be read as "Vitruvius Polio, and others" or, less likely, as "Vitruvius, Polio, and others". An inscription in Verona, which names a ''Lucius Vitruvius Cordo
'', and an inscription from Thilbilis
in North Africa, which names a ''Marcus Vitruvius Mamurra'' have been suggested as evidence that Vitruvius and Mamurra
(who was a military ''praefectus fabrum'' under Julius Caesar
) were from the same family; or were even the same individual. Neither association, however, is borne out by ''De Architectura'' (which Vitruvius dedicated to Augustus
), nor by the little that is known of Mamurra.
Vitruvius was a military engineer (''praefectus fabrum
''), or a ''praefect
architectus armamentarius'' of the ''apparitor
'' status group (a branch of the Roman civil service). He is mentioned in Pliny the Elder
's table of contents for ''Naturalis Historia
'' (Natural History), in the heading for mosaic
refers to "Vitruvius the architect" in his late 1st-century work ''De aquaeductu
Likely born a free Roman citizen, by his own account, Vitruvius served in the Roman army
under Caesar with the otherwise poorly identified Marcus Aurelius, Publius Minidius, and Gnaeus Cornelius. These names vary depending on the edition of ''De architectura''. Publius Minidius is also written as Publius Numidicus and Publius Numidius, speculated as the same Publius Numisius inscribed on the Roman Theatre at Heraclea
As an army engineer
he specialized in the construction of ''ballista
'' and ''scorpio
'' artillery war machines
s. It is speculated that Vitruvius served with Caesar's chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus
The locations where he served can be reconstructed from, for example, descriptions of the building methods of various "foreign tribes". Although he describes places throughout ''De Architectura'', he does not say he was present. His service likely included north Africa
) and Pontus
To place the role of Vitruvius the military engineer in context, a description of "The Prefect of the camp" or army engineer is quoted here as given by Flavius Vegetius Renatus
in ''The Military Institutions of the Romans'':
The Prefect of the camp, though inferior in rank to the refect had a post of no small importance. The position of the camp, the direction of the entrenchments, the inspection of the tents or huts of the soldiers and the baggage were comprehended in his province. His authority extended over the sick, and the physicians who had the care of them; and he regulated the expenses relative thereto. He had the charge of providing carriages, bathhouses and the proper tools for sawing and cutting wood, digging trenches, raising parapets, sinking wells and bringing water into the camp. He likewise had the care of furnishing the troops with wood and straw, as well as the rams, ''onagri,'' ''balistae'' and all the other engines of war under his direction. This post was always conferred on an officer of great skill, experience and long service, and who consequently was capable of instructing others in those branches of the profession in which he had distinguished himself.
At various locations described by Vitruvius, battles and sieges
occurred. He is the only source for the siege of Larignum
in 56 BC. Of the battlegrounds of the Gallic War
there are references to: the siege and massacre of the 40,000 residents at Avaricum
in 52 BC; Vercingetorix
commented that "the Romans did not conquer by valor nor in the field, but by a kind of art and skill in assault, with which they auls
themselves were unacquainted." The broken siege at Gergovia
in 52 BC. The circumvallation and Battle of Alesia
in 52 BC; the women and children of the encircled city were evicted to conserve food, where they starved to death between the opposing walls of the defenders and besiegers. And the siege of Uxellodunum
in 51 BC. These are all sieges of large Gallic ''oppida
''. Of the sites involved in Caesar's civil war
, we find the Siege of Massilia
in 49 BC, the Battle of Dyrrhachium
of 48 BC (modern Albania), the Battle of Pharsalus
in 48 BC (Hellas – Greece), the Battle of Zela
of 47 BC (modern Turkey) and the Battle of Thapsus
in 46 BC in Caesar's African
that fits the same sequence of locations is the Legio VI Ferrata
, of which ''ballista'' would be an auxiliary unit.
Mainly known for his writings, Vitruvius was himself an architect. In Roman times architecture was a broader subject than at present including the modern fields of architecture, construction management
, construction engineering
, chemical engineering
, civil engineering
, materials engineering
, mechanical engineering
, military engineering
and urban planning
; architectural engineers
consider him the first of their discipline, a specialization previously known as technical architecture.
In his work describing the construction of military installations, he also commented on the miasma theory
-- the idea that unhealthy air from wetlands was the cause of illness, saying:
"For fortified towns the following general principles are to be observed. First comes the choice of a very healthy site. Such a site will be high, neither misty nor frosty, and in a climate neither hot nor cold, but temperate; further, without marshes in the neighbourhood. For when the morning breezes blow toward the town at sunrise, if they bring with them mists from marshes and, mingled with the mist, the poisonous breath of the creatures of the marshes to be wafted into the bodies of the inhabitants, they will make the site unhealthy. Again, if the town is on the coast with a southern or western exposure, it will not be healthy, because in summer the southern sky grows hot at sunrise and is fiery at noon, while a western exposure grows warm after sunrise, is hot at noon, and at evening all aglow."
mentions Vitruvious in connection with the standard sizes of pipes
: the role he is most widely respected. He is often credited as father of architectural acoustics
for describing the technique of ''echea
s'' placement in theaters.
The only building, however, that we know Vitruvius to have worked on is one he tells us about, a ''basilica
'' completed in 19 BC. It was built at Fanum Fortunae, now the modern town of Fano
. The ''Basilica di Fano'' (to give the building its Italian name) has disappeared so completely that its very site is a matter of conjecture, although various attempts have been made to visualise it. The early Christian practice of converting Roman ''basilicae'' (public buildings) into cathedrals implies the ''basilica'' may be incorporated into the cathedral in Fano.
In later years the emperor Augustus, through his sister Octavia Minor
, sponsored Vitruvius, entitling him with what may have been a pension to guarantee financial independence.
Whether ''De architectura'' was written by one author or is a compilation completed by subsequent librarians and copyists, remains an open question. The date of his death is unknown, which suggests that he had enjoyed only little popularity during his lifetime.
, in his 1552 book ''De subtilitate rerum'', ranks Vitruvius as one of the 12 persons whom he supposes to have excelled all men in the force of genius and invention; and would not have scrupled to have given him the first place, if it could be imagined that he had delivered nothing but his own discoveries.
Vitruvius is the author of ''De architectura, libri decem'', known today as ''The Ten Books on Architecture'',
[Vitruvius, Pollio (transl. Morris Hicky Morgan, 1960), ''The Ten Books on Architecture''. Courier Dover Publications. .]
a treatise written in Latin
on architecture, dedicated to the emperor Augustus. In the preface of Book I, Vitruvius dedicates his writings so as to give personal knowledge of the quality of buildings to the emperor. Likely Vitruvius is referring to Marcus Agrippa
's campaign of public repairs and improvements. This work is the only surviving major book on architecture from classical antiquity
. According to Petri Liukkonen, this text "influenced deeply from the Early Renaissance
onwards artists, thinkers, and architects, among them Leon Battista Alberti
(1404–1472), Leonardo da Vinci
(1452–1519), and Michelangelo
The next major book on architecture, Alberti's
reformulation of ''Ten Books'', was not written until 1452.
Vitruvius is famous for asserting in his book ''De architectura'' that a structure must exhibit the three qualities of ''firmitatis, utilitatis, venustatis'' – that is, stability, utility, beauty. These are sometimes termed the Vitruvian virtues or the Vitruvian Triad. According to Vitruvius, architecture is an imitation of nature. As birds and bees built their nests, so humans constructed housing from natural materials, that gave them shelter against the elements. When perfecting this art of building, the Greeks invented the architectural orders: Doric
. It gave them a sense of proportion, culminating in understanding the proportions of the greatest work of art: the human body. This led Vitruvius in defining his Vitruvian Man
, as drawn later by Leonardo da Vinci
: the human body inscribed in the circle and the square (the fundamental geometric patterns of the cosmic order). In this book series, Vitruvius, also wrote about climate
in relation to housing architecture and how to choose locations for cities.
Vitruvius is sometimes loosely referred to as the first architect, but it is more accurate to describe him as the first Roman architect to have written surviving records of his field. He himself cites older but less complete works. He was less an original thinker or creative intellect than a codifier of existing architectural practice. Vitruvius had a much wider scope than modern architects. Roman architects
practised a wide variety of disciplines; in modern terms, they could be described as being engineers, architects, landscape architects
, surveyors, artists, and craftsmen
combined. Etymologically the word architect derives from Greek words meaning 'master' and 'builder'. The first of the ''Ten Books'' deals with many subjects which now come within the scope of landscape architecture
In Book I, Chapter 1, titled The Education of the Architect, Vitruvius instructs...
He goes on to say that the architect should be versed in drawing, geometry, optics (lighting), history, philosophy, music, theatre, medicine, and law.
In Book I, Chapter 3 (''The Departments of Architecture''), Vitruvius divides architecture into three branches, namely; building; the construction of sundial
s and water clocks
; and the design and use of machines in construction and warfare. He further divides building into public and private. Public building includes city planning, public security structures such as walls, gates and towers; the convenient placing of public facilities such as theatres, forums and markets, baths, roads and pavings; and the construction and position of shrines and temples for religious use.
Later books are devoted to the understanding, design and construction of each of these.
Proportions of man
In Book III, Chapter 1, Paragraph 3, Vitruvius writes about the proportions of man:
It was upon these writings that Renaissance engineers, architects and artists like Mariano di Jacopo Taccola
, Pellegrino Prisciani and Francesco di Giorgio Martini
and finally Leonardo da Vinci
based the illustration of the Vitruvian Man
Vitruvius described the human figure as being the principal source of proportion.
The drawing itself is often used as an implied symbol of the essential symmetry
of the human body, and by extension, of the universe
as a whole.
Lists of names given in Book VII Introduction
In the introduction to book seven, Vitruvius goes to great lengths to present why he is qualified to write ''De Architectura''. This is the only location in the work where Vitruvius specifically addresses his personal breadth of knowledge. Similar to a modern reference section, the author's position as one who is knowledgeable and educated is established. The topics range across many fields of expertise reflecting that in Roman times as today construction is a diverse field. Vitruvius is clearly a well-read man.
In addition to providing his qualification, Vitruvius summarizes a recurring theme throughout the 10 books, a non-trivial and core contribution of his treatise beyond simply being a construction book. Vitruvius makes the point that the work of some of the most talented are unknown, while many of those of lesser talent but greater political position are famous.
This theme runs through Vitruvius’s ten books repeatedly – echoing an implicit prediction that he and his works will also be forgotten.
Vitruvius illustrates this point by naming what he considers are the most talented individuals in history.
Implicitly challenging the reader that they have never heard of some of these people, Vitruvius goes on and predicts that some of these individuals will be forgotten and their works lost
, while other, less deserving political characters of history will be forever remembered with pageantry.
*''List of physicists:'' Thales
*''List of philosophers:'' Socrates
*''List of kings:'' Croesus
, Alexander the Great
*''On plagiarism:'' Aristophanes
, Ptolemy I Soter
, a person named Attalus
*''On abusing dead authors:'' Zoilus Homeromastix
, Ptolemy II Philadelphus
*''On divergence of the visual rays:'' Agatharchus
*''List of writers on temples:'' Silenus, ''Theodorus'', Chersiphron
, ''Theodorus the Phocian'', Hermogenes
and a person named Pytheos
*''List of artists:'' Leochares
*''List of writers on laws of symmetry:'' ''Nexaris'', ''Theocydes'', a person named Demophilus
, ''Pollis'', a person named Leonidas
, ''Sarnacus'', Euphranor
*''List of writers on machinery:'' Diades of Pella
'', Philo of Byzantium
, ''Charias'', Polyidus of Thessaly
*''List of writers on architecture:'' ''Fuficius'', Terentius Varro
, ''Publius Septimius (writer)''
*''List of architects:'' ''Antistates'', ''Callaeschrus'', ''Antimachides'', ''Pormus'', ''Cossutius''
*''List of greatest temple architects:'' ''Chersiphron of Gnosus'', Metagenes
, ''Paeonius the Milesian'', ''Ephesian Daphnis'', Ictinus
, ''Cossutius'', ''Gaius Mucianus''
Vitruvius' ''De architectura
'' was "rediscovered" in 1414 by the Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini
in the library of Saint Gall Abbey
. Leon Battista Alberti
(1404–1472) publicised it in his seminal treatise on architecture, ''De re aedificatoria
'' (c. 1450). The first known Latin printed edition was by Fra Giovanni Sulpitius in Rome, 1486. Translations followed in Italian (Cesare Cesariano
, 1521), French (Jean Martin, 1547), English, German (Walther H. Ryff
, 1543) and Spanish and several other languages. The original illustrations had been lost and the first illustrated edition was published in Venice
in 1511 by Fra Giovanni Giocondo
, with woodcut
illustrations based on descriptions in the text. Later in the 16th-century Andrea Palladio
provided illustrations for Daniele Barbaro
's commentary on Vitruvius, published in Italian and Latin versions. The most famous illustration is probably Da Vinci's ''Vitruvian Man
The surviving ruins of Roman antiquity, the Roman Forum
, temples, theatres, triumphal arches and their reliefs and statues offered visual examples of the descriptions in the Vitruvian text. Printed and illustrated editions of ''De Architectura'' inspired Renaissance
and Neoclassical architecture
. Filippo Brunelleschi
, for example, invented a new type of hoist
to lift the large stones for the dome of the cathedral in Florence
and was inspired by ''De Architectura'' as well as surviving Roman monuments such as the Pantheon
and the Baths of Diocletian
* 1800 Augustus Rode, Berlin
* 1857 Teubner
Edition by Valentin Rose
* 1899 Teubner
* 1912 Teubner
edition at The Latin Library
* Bill Thayer, transcription of the 1912 Teubner
* Cesare Cesariano
, 1521, Como, Italy
, includes illustrations by Cesare Cesariano
* Danielle Barbaro, includes illustration by Andrea Palladio
* Jean Martin, 1547
* Claude Perrault
* Auguste Choisy
* Henry Wotton
* Joseph Gwilt
* Bill Thayer transcription of the Gwilt 1826 Edition
* Morris H. Morgan
Morris Hickey Morgan, with illustrations prepared by Herbert Langford Warren
, 1914, Harvard University Press
* Frank Granger, Loeb
* Ingrid Rowland
* Thomas Gordon Smith, The Monacelli Press (January 5, 2004)
Books VIII, IX and X form the basis of much of what we know about Roman technology, now augmented by archaeological studies of extant remains, such as the water mill
s at Barbegal
in France. The other major source of information is the ''Naturalis Historia
'' compiled by Pliny the Elder
much later in c. 75 AD.
The work is important for its descriptions of the many different machines used for engineering structures such as hoists
s, as well as war machines such as catapult
,'' and siege engine
s. As a practising engineer, Vitruvius must be speaking from personal experience rather than simply describing the works of others. He also describes the construction of sundials
and water clocks
, and the use of an aeolipile
(the first steam engine
) as an experiment to demonstrate the nature of atmospheric air movements (wind).
His description of aqueduct
construction includes the way they are surveyed, and the careful choice of materials needed, although Frontinus
(a general who was appointed in the late 1st century AD to administer the many aqueducts of Rome), writing a century later, gives much more detail of the practical problems involved in their construction and maintenance. Surely Vitruvius' book would have been of great assistance in this. Vitruvius was writing in the 1st century BC when many of the finest Roman aqueducts
were built, and survive to this day, such as those at Segovia
and the Pont du Gard
. The use of the inverted siphon
is described in detail, together with the problems of high pressures developed in the pipe at the base of the siphon, a practical problem with which he seems to be acquainted.
He describes many different construction material
s used for a wide variety of different structures, as well as such details as stucco
painting. Concrete and lime
receive in-depth descriptions.
Vitruvius is cited as one of the earliest sources to connect lead mining and manufacture, its use in drinking water pipes, and its adverse effects on health. For this reason, he recommended the use of clay pipes and masonry channels in the provision of piped drinking-water.
Vitruvius is the source for the anecdote that credits Archimedes
with the discovery of the mass-to-volume ratio
while relaxing in his bath. Having been asked to investigate the suspected adulteration of the gold used to make a crown, Archimedes realised that the crown's volume could be measured exactly by its displacement of water, and ran into the street with the cry of'' Eureka!
He describes the construction of Archimedes' screw
in Chapter X (without mentioning Archimedes by name). It was a device widely used for raising water to irrigate fields and drain mines. Other lifting machines he mentions include the endless chain of buckets and the reverse overshot water-wheel
. Remains of the water wheels used for lifting water were discovered when old mines were re-opened at Rio Tinto
in Spain, Rosia Montana
in Romania and Dolaucothi
in west Wales
. The Rio Tinto wheel is now shown in the British Museum
, and the Dolaucothi specimen in the National Museum of Wales
That he must have been well practised in surveying is shown by his descriptions of surveying instruments, especially the water level or ''chorobates
,'' which he compares favourably with the ''groma
,'' a device using plumb line
s. They were essential in all building operations, but especially in aqueduct construction, where a uniform gradient was important to the provision of a regular supply of water without damage to the walls of the channel. He also developed one of the first odometer
s, consisting of a wheel of known circumference that dropped a pebble into a container on every rotation.
He describes the many innovations made in building design to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants. Foremost among them is the development of the ''hypocaust
,'' a type of central heating
where hot air developed by a fire was channelled under the floor and inside the walls of public bath
s and villa
s. He gives explicit instructions how to design such buildings so that fuel efficiency
is maximised, so that for example, the ''caldarium
'' is next to the ''tepidarium
'' followed by the ''frigidarium
''. He also advises on using a type of regulator to control the heat in the hot rooms, a bronze
disc set into the roof under a circular aperture which could be raised or lowered by a pulley
to adjust the ventilation. Although he does not suggest it himself, it is likely that his dewatering devices such as the reverse overshot water-wheel
were used in the larger baths to lift water to header tanks at the top of the larger ''thermae'', such as the Baths of Diocletian
. The one which was used in Bath of Caracalla for grinding flour.
– a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci
– 18th century work on British architecture named after Vitruvius.
*''Den Danske Vitruvius
'' – 18th century work on Danish architecture – inspired by Vitruvius Britannicus.
* ''The American Vitruvius'' – 20th century work on civil architecture by Werner Hegemann
*William Vitruvius Morrison
(1794–1838), the son of Irish architect Sir Richard Morrison
and himself a noted architect of great houses, bridges, court houses and prisons.
*A small lunar crater
has been named after Vitruvius and also an elongated lunar mountain Mons Vitruvius
*The Design Quality Indicator
(DQI) tool for buildings uses Vitruvius's principles.
In popular culture
*The leader of the Master Builders in ''The Lego Movie
'' is named Vitruvius.
*Vitruvius appears as a non-player character
in the 2017 video game ''Assassin's Creed Origins
*Vitruvius' work appears in ''The Rule of Four
'', a 2004 novel by Ian Caldwell
and Dustin Thomason
*Pliny the Elder
*Lucius Vitruvius Cordo
* Indra Kagis McEwen, ''Vitruvius: Writing the Body of Architecture''. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.
* B. Baldwin, "The Date, Identity, and Career of Vitruvius". In ''Latomus'' 49 (1990), 425–34.
* Kai Brodersen
& Christiane Brodersen: Cetius Faventinus. Das römische Eigenheim / De architectura privata, Latin and German. Wiesbaden: Marix 2015,
* Clarke, Georgia. 2002. "Vitruvian Paradigms". ''Papers of the British School at Rome'' 70:319–346.
* De Angelis, Francesco. 2015. "Greek and Roman Specialized Writing on Art and Architecture". In ''The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Art and Architecture''. Edited by Clemente Marconi, 41–69. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
* König, Alice. 2009. "From Architect to Imperator: Vitruvius and his Addressee in the De Architectura". In ''Authorial Voices in Greco-Roman Technical Writing''. Edited by Liba Chaia Taub and Aude Doody, 31–52. Trier, Germany: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.
* Milnor, Kristina L. 2005. "Other Men’s Wives". In ''Gender, Domesticity and the Age of Augustus: Inventing Private Life''. By Kristina L. Milnor, 94–139. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
* Nichols, Marden Fitzpatrick. 2017".Author and Audience in Vitruvius’ De Architectura". Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
* Rowland, Ingrid D. 2014. "Vitruvius and His Influence". In ''A Companion to Roman Architecture''. Edited by Roger B. Ulrich and Caroline K. Quenemoen, 412–425. Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell.
* Sear, Frank B. 1990. "Vitruvius and Roman Theater Design". ''American Journal of Archaeology'' 94.2: 249–258.
* Smith, Thomas Gordon. 2004. ''Vitruvius on Architecture''. New York: Monacelli Press.
* Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. 1994. "The Articulation of the House". In ''Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum''. By Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, 38–61. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
* Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. 2008. "Vitruvius: Building Roman Identity". In ''Rome’s Cultural Revolution''. By Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, 144–210. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
''The Ten Books on Architecture''
online: cross-linked Latin text and English translation
''The Ten Books on Architecture''
at the Perseus Classics Collection. Latin and English text. Latin text has hyperlinks to pop-up dictionary.
An Abridgment of the Architecture of Vitruvius
(Morris Hicky Morgan translation with illustrations)
* ttp://www.bl.uk/learning/cult/bodies/vitruvius/proportion.html Vitruvius' theories of beauty
– a learning resource from the British Library
Animation: The Odometer of VitruvOnline Galleries, History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries
High resolution images of works by Vitruvius in .jpg and .tiff format.
digital scans in high resolution of 73 editions of Vitruvius from 1497 to 1909
from thWerner Oechslin Library, Einsiedeln, Switzerland
* VITRUVII, M''De architectura''
Naples, (c. 1480). ASomni
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