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Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III, Albanian: Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy
King of Italy
from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946. In addition, he claimed the thrones of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Albania
Albania
as Emperor of Ethiopia
Emperor of Ethiopia
(1936–41) and King of the Albanians
King of the Albanians
(1939–43), claims not recognised by the other great powers. During his reign of nearly 46 years, which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two world wars. His reign also encompassed the birth, rise, and fall of Italian Fascism. Victor Emmanuel abdicated his throne in 1946 in favour of his son Umberto II, hoping to strengthen support for the monarchy against an ultimately successful referendum to abolish it. He then went into exile to Alexandria, Egypt, where he died and was buried the following year. His remains were returned in 2017 to rest in Italy. He was called by the Italians Il Re soldato (The Soldier King) for having led his country during both the world wars; and, after Italy's victory in the First World War
First World War
Il Re vittorioso[1] (The Victorious King). He was also nicknamed Sciaboletta[1] ("little saber") due to his height of 1.53 m (5 ft 0 in).

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early years 1.2 Accession to the throne 1.3 Support to Mussolini

1.3.1 March on Rome 1.3.2 Lateran Treaty

1.4 Loss of popular support

1.4.1 Emperor of Ethiopia 1.4.2 King of the Albanians

1.5 Final efforts to save crown

1.5.1 Coup d'état against Mussolini 1.5.2 Armistice with the Allies 1.5.3 1946 referendum 1.5.4 2017 Repatriation

2 Legacy 3 Titles, styles and honours

3.1 Titles and styles 3.2 Honours

3.2.1 Italian 3.2.2 Foreign

4 Titles of the Crown of Italy 5 Ancestors 6 Family 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Biography[edit] Early years[edit]

Young Victor Emmanuel with his mother, Margherita of Savoy, 1876.

Victor Emmanuel as a teenager, 1886.

Victor Emmanuel in 1895.

Victor Emmanuel was born in Naples, Italy. He was the only child of Umberto I, King of Italy, and his consort (his first cousin through descent from his grandfather Charles Albert of Sardinia), Princess Margherita of Savoy. Margherita was the daughter of the Duke of Genoa.

Victor Emmanuel III by Vanity Fair artist Libero Prosperi, 1902.

Unlike his paternal first cousin's son, the 1.98 m (6-foot 6") tall Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta, Victor Emmanuel was short of stature even by 19th-century standards, to the point that today he would appear diminutive. He was just 1.53 m tall (just over 5 feet).[2] From birth until his accession, Victor Emmanuel was known by the title of the Prince of Naples. On 24 October 1896, Prince Victor Emmanuel married Princess Elena of Montenegro. Accession to the throne[edit] On 29 July 1900, at the age of 30, Victor Emmanuel acceded to the throne upon his father's assassination. The only advice that his father Umberto ever gave his heir was "Remember: to be a king, all you need to know is how to sign your name, read a newspaper, and mount a horse".[citation needed] His early years showed evidence that, by the standards of the Savoy monarchy, he was a man committed to constitutional government. Indeed, even though his father was killed by an anarchist, the new King showed a commitment to constitutional freedoms. Though parliamentary rule had been firmly established in Italy, the Statuto Albertino, or constitution, granted the king considerable residual powers. For instance, he had the right to appoint the Prime Minister even if the individual in question did not command majority support in the Chamber of Deputies. A shy and somewhat withdrawn individual, the King hated the day-to-day stresses of Italian politics, though the country's chronic political instability forced him to intervene on no fewer than ten occasions between 1900 and 1922 to solve parliamentary crises. When World War I
World War I
began, Italy
Italy
at first remained neutral, despite being part of the Triple Alliance (albeit it was signed on defensive terms and Italy
Italy
objected that the Sarajevo assassination did not qualify as aggression). However, in 1915, Italy
Italy
signed several secret treaties committing her to enter the war on the side of the Triple Entente. Most of the politicians opposed war, however, and the Italian Chamber of Deputies forced Prime Minister Antonio Salandra
Antonio Salandra
to resign. At this juncture, Victor Emmanuel declined Salandra's resignation and personally made the decision for Italy
Italy
to enter the war. He was well within his rights to do so under the Statuto, which stipulated that ultimate authority for declaring war rested with the crown. Popular[citation needed] demonstrations in favor of the war were staged in Rome, with 200,000 gathering on 16 May 1915,[3] in the Piazza del Popolo. However, the corrupt and disorganised war effort, the stunning loss of life suffered by the Italian army, especially at the great defeat of Caporetto, and the Post– World War I
World War I
recession turned the King against what he perceived as an inefficient political bourgeoisie. Nevertheless, the King visited the various areas of northern Italy
Italy
suffering repeated strikes and mortar hits from elements of the fighting there, and demonstrated considerable courage and concern in personally visiting many people, his wife the queen taking turns with nurses in caring for Italy's wounded. It was at this time, the period of World War I, that the King enjoyed the genuine affection of the majority of his people.[citation needed] Still, during the war he received about 400 threatening letters from people of every social background, mostly working class.[4] Support to Mussolini[edit] The economic depression which followed World War I
World War I
gave rise to much extremism among Italy's sorely tried working classes. This caused the country as a whole to become politically unstable. Benito Mussolini, soon to be Italy's Fascist dictator, took advantage of this instability for his rise to power. March on Rome[edit]

King Victor Emmanuel III (right) with King Albert I of the Belgians (left). This photograph shows Victor Emmanuel's small physical stature.

In 1922, Mussolini led a force of his Fascist supporters on a March on Rome. Prime Minister Luigi Facta and his cabinet drafted a decree of martial law. After some hesitation the King refused to sign it, citing doubts about the ability of the army to contain the uprising. Fascist violence had been growing in intensity throughout the summer and autumn of 1922, climaxing in rumours of a possible coup. General Pietro Badoglio
Pietro Badoglio
told the King that the military would be able without difficulty to rout the rebels, who numbered no more than 10,000 men.[citation needed] The troops were loyal to the King. Even Cesare Maria De Vecchi, commander of the Blackshirts, and one of the organisers of the March on Rome, told Mussolini that he would not act against the wishes of the monarch. It was at this point that the Fascist leader considered leaving Italy
Italy
altogether. But then, minutes before midnight, he received a telegram from the King inviting him to Rome. By midday on 30 October, he had been appointed President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister), at the age of 39, with no previous experience of office, and with only 35 Fascist deputies in the Chamber.

Victor Emmanuel in Darfo Boario Terme after the Gleno Dam
Gleno Dam
disaster, 1923

The King failed to move against the Mussolini regime's abuses of power (including, as early as 1924, the assassination of Giacomo Matteotti and other opposition MPs) and remained silent during the winter of 1925–26 when Mussolini dropped all pretense of democracy. Later that year, Mussolini passed a law declaring that he was responsible to the King, not Parliament. Although under the Statuto Albertino
Statuto Albertino
Italian governments were formally answerable only to the monarch, it had been a strong constitutional convention since at least the 1860s that they were actually answerable to Parliament. By 1928, practically the only check on Mussolini's power was the King's prerogative of dismissing him from office, even if that prerogative could only be exercised on the advice of the Fascist Grand Council, a body that only Mussolini could convene.[citation needed] Though the King claimed in his memoirs that it was the fear of a civil war that motivated his actions, it would seem that he received some 'alternative' advice, possibly from the archconservative Antonio Salandra as well as General Armando Diaz, that it would be better to do a deal with Mussolini.[citation needed] Whatever the circumstances, Victor Emmanuel showed weakness from a position of strength, with dire future consequences for Italy
Italy
and for the monarchy itself. Fascism
Fascism
was a force of opposition to left-wing radicalism. This appealed to many people in Italy
Italy
at the time, and certainly to the King. In many ways, the events from 1922 to 1943 demonstrated that the monarchy and the moneyed class, for different reasons, felt Mussolini and his regime offered an option that, after years of political chaos, was more appealing than what they perceived as the alternative: socialism and anarchism. Both the spectre of the Russian Revolution and the tragedies of World War I
World War I
played a large part in these political decisions. At the same time, the Crown became so closely identified with Fascism
Fascism
that by the time Victor Emmanuel was able to shake himself loose from it, it was too late to save the monarchy.[citation needed] Lateran Treaty[edit] In 1929, Mussolini, on behalf of the King, signed the Lateran Treaty. The treaty was one of the three agreements made that year between the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
and the Holy See. On 7 June 1929, the Lateran Treaty was ratified and the "Roman Question" was settled. Loss of popular support[edit]

Victor Emmanuel, 1913 portrait.

The Italian monarchy enjoyed popular support for decades.[citation needed] Foreigners noted how even as late as the 1940s newsreel images of King Victor Emmanuel and Queen Elena, born Princess Elena of Montenegro, evoked applause, sometimes cheering, when played in cinemas, in contrast to the hostile silence shown toward images of Fascist leaders.[citation needed] On 30 March 1938, the Italian Parliament established the rank of First Marshal
Marshal
of the Empire for Victor Emmanuel and Mussolini. This new rank was the highest rank in the Italian military. His equivalence with Mussolini was seen by the king as offensive, and a clear sign that the ultimate goal of the fascist was to get rid of him. As popular[citation needed] as Victor Emmanuel was, several of his decisions proved fatal to the monarchy. Among these decisions were his assumption of the imperial crown of Ethiopia, his public silence when Mussolini's Fascist government issued its notorious racial purity laws, and his assumption of the crown of Albania. Emperor of Ethiopia[edit]

Victor Emmanuel III visiting Hungary - 1937

King Victor Emmanuel III in his uniform as Marshal
Marshal
of Italy
Italy
in 1936.

Prior to his government's invasion of Ethiopia, Victor Emmanuel travelled in 1934 to Italian Somaliland, where he celebrated his 65th birthday on November 11.[5][6] In 1936, Victor Emmanuel assumed the crown as Emperor of Ethiopia. His decision to do this was not universally accepted. Victor Emmanuel was only able to assume the crown after the Italian Army invaded Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(Abyssinia) and overthrew Emperor Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. The League of Nations
League of Nations
condemned Italy's participation in this war and the Italian claim by right of conquest to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
was rejected by some major powers, such as the United States and the Soviet Union, but was accepted by Great Britain and France in 1938. In 1941 Italy's possession of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
came to an end only after five years of its annexation to the Italian Empire. The term of the last acting Viceroy
Viceroy
of Italian East Africa, including Eritrea
Eritrea
and Italian Somaliland, ended on 27 November 1941 with surrender to the allies. In November 1943 Victor Emmanuel renounced his claims to the titles of Emperor of Ethiopia
Emperor of Ethiopia
and King of Albania,[7] recognizing the previous holders of those titles as legitimate. King of the Albanians[edit] The crown of the King of the Albanians
King of the Albanians
had been assumed by Victor Emmanuel in 1939 when Italian forces invaded the nearly defenseless monarchy across the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
and caused King Zog I to flee. The Italian invasion of Albania
Albania
was generally seen as the act of a stronger nation taking unfair advantage of a weaker neighbour.[citation needed] In 1941, while in Tirana, the monarch escaped an assassination attempt by the 19-year-old Albanian patriot Vasil Laçi.[8] Later, this attempt was cited by Communist Albania
Albania
as a sign of the general discontent among the oppressed Albanian population. A second attempt by Dimitri Mikhaliov in Albania
Albania
gave the Italians an excuse to affirm a possible connection with Greece
Greece
as a result of the monarch's assent to the Greco-Italian War.

Image of Victor Emmanuel on a 1941 lira.

Final efforts to save crown[edit] On 10 June 1940, ignoring advice that the country was unprepared, Mussolini made the fatal decision to have Italy
Italy
enter World War II
World War II
on the side of Nazi Germany. Almost from the beginning, disaster followed disaster. In 1940 Italian armies in North Africa and in Greece suffered humiliating defeats. During the invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, Victor Emmanuel moved to a villa owned by the Pirzio Biroli family at Brazzacco
Brazzacco
in order to be close to the front.[9] In late 1941, Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
was lost. In 1942, Italian Libya
Italian Libya
was lost. Early in 1943, the ten divisions of the "Italian Army in Russia" (Armata Italiana in Russia, or ARMIR) were crushed in a side-action in the Battle of Stalingrad. Before the end of 1943, the last Italian forces in Tunisia
Tunisia
had surrendered and Sicily
Sicily
had been taken by the Allies. Hampered by lack of fuel as well as several serious defeats, the Italian Navy spent most of the war confined to port. As a result the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
was not in any real sense Italy's Mare Nostrum. While the Air Force generally did better than the Army or the Navy, it was chronically short of modern aircraft and had limitations sufficiently evident for it to be excluded by Italy's allies from a part in the Battle of Britain. As Italy's fortunes worsened, the popularity of the King suffered. One coffee-house ditty went as follows:

Quando Vittorio era soltanto re Si bevea del buon caffè. Poi divenne Imperatore Se ne sentì solo l’odore. Oggi che è anche Re d’Albania Anche l’odore l’ han portato via. E se avremo un’altra vittoria Ci mancherà anche la cicoria.

"When our Victor was plain King, Coffee was a common thing. When an Emperor he was made, Coffee's odour it did fade. Since he got Albania's throne, Even the odour has flown. And if we have another victory We're also going to lose our chicory."[10]

On 19 July 1943, Rome was bombed for the first time in the war, further cementing the Italian people's disillusionment with their once-popular[citation needed] King. Coup d'état against Mussolini[edit] Main article: 25 Luglio On the night of 25 July 1943, the Grand Council of Fascism
Grand Council of Fascism
voted to adopt an Ordine del Giorno (order of the day) proposed by Count
Count
Dino Grandi to ask Victor Emmanuel to resume his full constitutional powers under Article 5 of the Statuto. In effect, this was a motion of no confidence in Mussolini. The following afternoon, Mussolini asked for an audience with the king at Villa Savoia. When Mussolini tried to tell Victor Emmanuel about the Grand Council's vote, Victor Emmanuel abruptly cut him off and told him that he was dismissing him as Prime Minister in favour of Marshal
Marshal
Pietro Badoglio. He then ordered Mussolini's arrest and he proceeded to renounce the usurped Ethiopian and Albanian crowns in favour of the legitimate monarchs of those states. Victor Emmanuel had been planning this move to get rid of the dictator for some time.[citation needed] Publicly, Victor Emmanuel and Badoglio claimed that Italy
Italy
would continue the war as a member of the Axis. Privately, they both began negotiating with the Allies for an armistice. Court circles—including Crown Princess Marie-José—had already been putting out feelers to the Allies before Mussolini's ousting.[citation needed] Armistice with the Allies[edit] On 8 September 1943, Victor Emmanuel publicly announced an armistice with the Allies. Confusion reigned as Italian forces were left without orders, and the Germans, who had been expecting this move for some time, quickly disarmed and interned Italian troops and took control in the occupied Balkans, France and the Dodecanese, as well as in Italy itself. Many of the units that did not surrender joined forces with the Allies against the Germans. Fearing a German advance on Rome, Victor Emmanuel and his government fled south to Brindisi. This choice may have been necessary to protect his safety; indeed, Hitler had planned to arrest him shortly after Mussolini's overthrow. Nonetheless, it still came as a surprise to many observers inside and outside Italy. Unfavourable comparisons were drawn with King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, who refused to leave London during the Blitz, and of Pope Pius XII, who mixed with Rome's crowds and prayed with them after Rome's working-class neighborhood of Quartiere San Lorenzo had been destroyed by bombing. Ultimately, the Badoglio government in southern Italy
Italy
raised the Italian Co-Belligerent Army
Italian Co-Belligerent Army
(Esercito Cobelligerante del Sud), the Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force
Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force
(Aviazione Cobelligerante Italiana), and the Italian Co-Belligerent Navy (Marina Cobelligerante del Sud). All three forces were loyal to the King. On 12 September, the Germans launched Operation Eiche
Operation Eiche
and rescued Mussolini from captivity. In a short time, he established a new Fascist state in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana). This was never more than a German-dominated puppet state, but it did compete for the allegiance of the Italian people with Badoglio's government in the south. Realizing that he was too tainted by his earlier support of the Fascist regime, in April 1944 Victor Emmanuel transferred most of his powers to his son, Crown Prince Umberto. By so doing, Victor Emmanuel relinquished most of his power while retaining the title of king. This status was formalized shortly after Rome was liberated on 4 June, when he turned over his remaining powers to Umberto and named him Lieutenant General of the Realm. 1946 referendum[edit] Within a year, public opinion forced a referendum on whether to retain the monarchy or become a republic. In hopes of helping the monarchist cause, Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated on 9 May 1946. His son ascended to the throne as Umberto II. This move failed. In the referendum held a month later, 52 percent of voters favoured a republic, and the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
was no more. Some historians (such as Sir Charles Petrie) have speculated that the result might have been different if Victor Emmanuel had abdicated in favour of Umberto shortly after the Allied invasion of Sicily
Sicily
in 1943, or at the latest had abdicated outright in 1944 rather than simply transferring his powers to his son. Umberto had been widely praised for his performance as de facto head of state beginning in 1944, and his relative popularity might have saved the monarchy. The Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini declared that he would not come back to Italy
Italy
as a subject of the "degenerate king" and more generally as long as the house of Savoy was ruling;[11] Benedetto Croce
Benedetto Croce
had previously stated in 1944 that "as long as the present king remains head of state, we feel that Fascism
Fascism
has not ended, (...) that it will be reborn, more or less disguised".[12] In any event, once the referendum's result was certified, Victor Emmanuel and all other male members of the House of Savoy
House of Savoy
were required to leave the country. Taking refuge in Egypt, where he was welcomed with great honor by King Faruk, Victor Emmanuel died in Alexandria
Alexandria
a year later, of pulmonary congestion.[13] He was interred behind the altar of St Catherine's Cathedral. He was the last surviving grandchild of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. In 1948, Time magazine included an article about "The Little King".[10] 2017 Repatriation[edit] On December 17, 2017, an Italian air force military plane officially repatriated the remains of Victor Emmanuel III, which were transferred from Alexandria
Alexandria
to the sanctuary of Vicoforte, near Turin, and interred alongside those of Elena, that had been transferred two days earlier from Montpellier, France.[14]

Tomb of Victor Emmanuel III at the sanctuary of Vicoforte.

Legacy[edit]

Busts of King Victor Emmanuel III and Queen Elena; forecourt of the Russian Orthodox Church (Church of Christ the Saviour, St. Catherine and St. Seraph), Sanremo, Italy.

The abdication prior to the referendum probably brought back to the minds of undecided voters the monarchy's role during the Fascist period and the King's own actions (or lack of them), at the very moment monarchists hoped voters would focus on the positive impression created by Umberto and his wife, Maria José, over the previous two years. The 'May' King and Queen, Umberto and Maria José, in Umberto's brief, month-long reign, were unable to shift the burden of recent history and opinion. Victor Emmanuel III was one of the most prolific coin collectors of all time, having amassed approximately 100,000 specimens dating from the fall of the Roman Empire up to the Unification of Italy. On his abdication, the collection was donated to the Italian people, except for the coins of the House of Savoy
House of Savoy
which he took with him to Egypt. On the death of Umberto II in 1983, the Savoy coins joined the rest of the collection in the National Museum of Rome. Between 1910 and 1943, Victor Emmanuel wrote the 20-volume Corpus Nummorum Italicorum, which catalogued each specimen in his collection.[15] He was awarded the medal of the Royal Numismatic Society in 1904. At one point, there was an avenue in Paris named Avenue Victor-Emmanuel III, but the fascist king's support of the Axis Powers led the road to be renamed Franklin D. Roosevelt Avenue following the end of World War II.[16] Titles, styles and honours[edit]

Styles of King Victor Emmanuel III

Reference style His Majesty

Spoken style Your Majesty

Alternative style Sir

Titles and styles[edit]

11 November 1869 – 29 July 1900: His Royal Highness The Prince of Naples 29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946: His Majesty The King of Italy

9 May 1936 – 5 May 1941: His Imperial Majesty The Emperor of Ethiopia 16 April 1939 – 8 September 1943: His Majesty The King of the Albanians

9 May 1946 – 28 December 1947 His Majesty King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

Honours[edit] Italian[edit]

He was Grand Master of the following orders:

Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus Military Order of Savoy Civil Order of Savoy Order of the Crown of Italy Colonial Order of the Star of Italy Order of Besa
Order of Besa
(Italian Albania) Order of Skanderbeg
Order of Skanderbeg
(Italian Albania) Order of the Roman Eagle

Mauritian Medal for military merit of 10 Lustrums War Merit Cross Commemorative Medal for the Italo-Austrian War 1915–1918 Commemorative Medal of Campaigns of Independence Wars Commemorative Medal of the Unity of Italy

Foreign[edit]

Knight of the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Lion Knight of the Order of the Elephant VR III/1 of the Cross of Liberty Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Lāčplēsis Bailiff
Bailiff
Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Malta Knight of the Order of Saint Peter of Cetinje :

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle Knight Grand Cross of the Virtuti Militari

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Lion and the Sun[17] Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Arrows Knight of the Order of the Seraphim Extra Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
(expelled in 1941 when Italy entered World War II
World War II
against the UK)

Titles of the Crown of Italy[edit]

Relief of coat of arms of Victor Emmanuel III in Rhodes, Greece

From 1860 to 1946, the following titles were used by the King of Italy: Victor Emmanuel III, by the Grace of God and the Will of the Nation, King of Italy, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia, Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne, Marquis
Marquis
(of the Holy Roman Empire) in Italy; Prince of Piedmont, Carignano, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; Prince and Perpetual vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; prince of Carmagnola, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, prince bailliff of the Duchy of Aosta, Prince of Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri
Chieri
and Banna, Busca, Bene, Brà, Duke of Genoa, Monferrat, Aosta, Duke of Chablais, Genevois, Duke of Piacenza, Marquis
Marquis
of Saluzzo
Saluzzo
(Saluces), Ivrea, Susa, of Maro, Oristano, Cesana, Savona, Tarantasia, Borgomanero
Borgomanero
and Cureggio, Caselle, Rivoli, Pianezza, Govone, Salussola, Racconigi
Racconigi
with Tegerone, Migliabruna and Motturone, Cavallermaggiore, Marene, Modane
Modane
and Lanslebourg, Livorno Ferraris, Santhià
Santhià
Agliè, Centallo
Centallo
and Demonte, Desana, Ghemme, Vigone, Count of Barge, Villafranca, Ginevra, Nizza, Tenda, Romont, Asti, Alessandria, del Goceano, Novara, Tortona, Bobbio, Soissons, Sant'Antioco, Pollenzo, Roccabruna, Tricerro, Bairo, Ozegna, of Apertole, Baron
Baron
of Vaud
Vaud
and of Faucigni, Lord
Lord
of Vercelli, Pinerolo, of Lomellina, of Valle Sesia, of Ceva
Ceva
Marquisate, Overlord of Monaco, Roccabruna
Roccabruna
and 11/12th of Menton, Noble patrician of Venice, patrician of Ferrara. Ancestors[edit]

Ancestors of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

16. Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano

8. Charles Albert of Sardinia

17. Princess Maria Christina of Saxony

4. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

18. Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany

9. Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria

19. Princess Luisa of Naples
Naples
and Sicily

2. Umberto I of Italy

20. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor

10. Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria

21. Infanta Maria Louise of Spain

5. Archduchess Adelaide of Austria

22. Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano
Carignano
(= 16)

11. Princess Elisabeth of Savoy

23. Princess Maria Christina of Saxony (= 17)

1. Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

24. Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano
Carignano
(= 16, 22)

12. Charles Albert of Sardinia
Charles Albert of Sardinia
(= 8)

25. Princess Maria Christina of Saxony (= 17, 23)

6. Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Genoa

26. Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany
(= 18)

13. Maria Theresa of Austria (= 9)

27. Princess Luisa of Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
(= 19)

3. Princess Margherita of Savoy

28. Maximilian, Hereditary Prince of Saxony

14. John of Saxony

29. Princess Carolina of Parma

7. Princess Elisabeth of Saxony

30. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria

15. Princess Amalie Auguste of Bavaria

31. Princess Caroline of Baden

Family[edit]

Giovanna of Italy, Tsaritsa of Bulgaria, 1937.

In 1896 he married princess Elena of Montenegro
Elena of Montenegro
(1873–1952), daughter of Nicholas I, King of Montenegro. Their issue included:

Yolanda Margherita Milena Elisabetta Romana Maria (1901–1986), married to Giorgio Carlo Calvi, Count
Count
of Bergolo, (1887–1977); Mafalda Maria Elisabetta Anna Romana (1902–1944), married to Prince Philipp of Hesse (1896–1980) with issue; she died in the Nazi concentration camp at Buchenwald; Umberto Nicola Tommaso Giovanni Maria, later Umberto II, King of Italy (1904–1983) married to Princess Marie José of Belgium (1906–2001), with issue. Giovanna Elisabetta Antonia Romana Maria (1907–2000), married to King Boris III of Bulgaria
Boris III of Bulgaria
(1894–1943), and mother of Simeon II, King and later Prime Minister of Bulgaria. Maria Francesca Anna Romana (1914–2001), who married Prince Luigi of Bourbon–Parma
Bourbon–Parma
(1899–1967), with issue.

See also[edit]

Kingdom of Italy Italian Empire Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta, Viceroy
Viceroy
and Governor-General
Governor-General
of Italian East Africa Aimone, 4th Duke of Aosta, titular king Tomislav II of Croatia

Biography portal Italy
Italy
portal Albania
Albania
portal Africa portal Ethiopia
Ethiopia
portal Colonialism portal Monarchy portal World War I
World War I
portal World War II
World War II
portal

References[edit]

^ a b Angelo D'Orsi. "Vittorio Emanuele III, se questo è un re vittorioso…". Il Manifesto. Retrieved 31 January 2018.  ^ "Biography for King Victor Emmanuel III". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2013-09-16.  ^ 10 ^ Lettere al re (1914-1918). ^ American Philatelic Association. The American Philatelist, Volume 110, Issues 7-12. p. 618.  ^ Gufu Oba. Nomads in the Shadows of Empires: Contests, Conflicts and Legacies on the Southern Ethiopian-Northern Kenyan Frontier. p. 160.  ^ Indor Montanelli, Mario Cervi, Storia d'italia. L'Italia della guerra civile, RCS, 2003. ^ Owen Pearson, Albania
Albania
in Occupation and War: From Fascism
Fascism
to Communism 1940–1945, 2006, p.153, ISBN 1-84511-104-4 ^ Cervi, Mario (1972). The Hollow Legions. Mussolini’s Blunder in Greece, 1940–1941 [Storia della guerra di Grecia: ottobre 1940 – aprile 1941]. trans. Eric Mosbacher. London: Chatto and Windus. p. 279. ISBN 0-70111-351-0.  ^ a b The Little King TIME Magazine, 5 January 1948 ^ Arturo Toscanini ^ Vittorio Emanuele III ^ Paolo Griseri. "Il fascismo, le leggi razziali, la fuga". La Repubblica. Retrieved December 18, 2017.  ^ Nicole Winfield. "Remains of Exiled Italian King to be Returned after 70 years". ABC News. Retrieved December 17, 2017.  ^ "Great Collections - King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy" (PDF). Muenzgeschicte.ch. Retrieved 2013-09-16.  ^ Roland Pozzo di Borgo, Les Champs-Élysées: trois siècles d'histoire, 1997 ^ "Court Circular". The Times (36775). London. 23 May 1902. p. 7. 

Mack Smith, Denis (1989). Italy
Italy
and its Monarchy. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05132-8. 

Reference 4: James Rennell Rodd [British Ambassador to Italy
Italy
before and during the Great War]. Social and Diplomatic Memories. Third Series. 1902-1919. London, 1925. External links[edit]

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Encyclopædia Britannica
article Victor Emmanuel III..

Genealogy of recent members of the House of Savoy King Vittorio Emanuele III Newspaper clippings about Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Italy
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW).

Victor Emmanuel III of Italy House of Savoy Born: 11 November 1869 Died: 28 December 1947

Regnal titles

Preceded by Umberto I King of Italy 29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946 Succeeded by Umberto II

Preceded by Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I Emperor of Ethiopia (Not internationally recognised) ‌ 9 May 1936 – 5 May 1941 Succeeded by Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I

Preceded by Zog I King of the Albanians (Not internationally recognised) ‌ 16 April 1939 – 8 September 1943 Succeeded by Zog I

Military offices

New title First Marshal
Marshal
of the Empire 1938 – 1943 Served alongside: Benito Mussolini Succeeded by Title abolished

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Miguel Primo de Rivera Cover of Time Magazine 15 June 1925 Succeeded by Charles Horace Mayo

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Kings of Italy
Italy
between 1861 and 1946

Victor Emmanuel II (1861–1878) Umberto I (1878–1900) Victor Emmanuel III (1900–1946) Umberto II (1946)

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Heads of state of Albania

Independent Albania
Albania
(1912–14)

Qemali Alizoti

Principality of Albania
Albania
(1914–25)

Prince William Toptani none (1916–18) Përmeti Delvina High Council of Regency Noli*

Albanian Republic
Albanian Republic
(1925–28), President

Zogu

Albanian Kingdom (1928–39), King

Zog I

Italian Occupation (1939–43)

Victor Emmanuel III

German Occupation (1943–44)

Biçakçiu Frashëri

Communist Albania
Albania
(1944–91)

Nishani Lleshi Alia

Republic of Albania
Albania
(since 1991)

Alia Islami* Arbnori* Berisha Gjinushi* Meidani Moisiu Topi Nishani Meta

* Acting head of state

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Emperors of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(1270–1974)

Family tree

Solomonic dynasty

Yekuno Amlak Yagbe'u Seyon
Yagbe'u Seyon
(Salomon I) Senfa Ared IV Hezba Asgad Qedma Asgad Jin Asgad Saba Asgad Wedem Arad Amda Seyon I Newaya Krestos Newaya Maryam Dawit I Tewodros I Yeshaq I Andreyas Takla Maryam Sarwe Iyasus Amda Iyasus Zara Yaqob (Kwestantinos I) Baeda Maryam I Eskender (Kwestantinos II) Amda Seyon II Na'od Dawit II Gelawdewos Menas Sarsa Dengel Yaqob Za Dengel Yaqob Susenyos I Fasilides Yohannes I Iyasu the Great Tekle Haymanot I Tewoflos Yostos Dawit III Bakaffa Iyasu II

Age of the Princes

Iyoas I Yohannes II Tekle Haymanot II Susenyos II Tekle Haymanot II Salomon II Tekle Giyorgis I Iyasu III Tekle Giyorgis I Hezqeyas Tekle Giyorgis I Baeda Maryam II Tekle Giyorgis I Salomon III Yonas Tekle Giyorgis I Salomon III Demetros Tekle Giyorgis I Demetros Egwale Seyon Iyoas II Gigar Baeda Maryam III Gigar Iyasu IV Gebre Krestos Sahle Dengel Gebre Krestos Sahle Dengel Yohannes III Sahle Dengel Yohannes III Sahle Dengel Yohannes III Sahle Dengel

Tewodros dynasty

Tewodros II

Zagwe restoration

Tekle Giyorgis II

Tigray dynasty

Yohannes IV

Solomonic dynasty

Menelik II Iyasu V Zewditu I Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I

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Fascism

Theory

Core tenets

Nationalism Imperialism Authoritarianism One-party state Dictatorship Social Darwinism Social interventionism Proletarian nation Propaganda Eugenics Heroism Militarism Economic interventionism Anti-communism

Topics

Definitions Economics Fascism
Fascism
and ideology Fascism
Fascism
worldwide Symbolism

Ideas

Actual Idealism Class collaboration Corporatism Heroic capitalism National Socialism National syndicalism State capitalism Supercapitalism Third Position Totalitarianism Social order

Variants

Italian National Socialism Japanese fascism Islamofascism Falangism British Austrian Metaxism National Radicalism Rexism Clerical Legionarism Integralism

Movements

Africa

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging Greyshirts Ossewabrandwag

Asia

Brit HaBirionim Ganap Party Sakurakai Tōhōkai Blue Shirts Society

Northern / Northwestern Europe

Ailtirí na hAiséirghe Black Front (Netherlands) Blueshirts Breton Social-National Workers' Movement British Fascists British People's Party (1939) British Union of Fascists La Cagoule Clerical People's Party Faisceau Flemish National Union French Popular Party General Dutch Fascist League Imperial Fascist League Lapua Movement Nasjonal Samling National Corporate Party
National Corporate Party
(Greenshirts) National Fascisti Nationalist Party (Iceland) National Socialist Bloc National Socialist Dutch Workers Party National Socialist League National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands National Socialist Movement of Norway National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden) New Party (UK) Patriotic People's Movement (Finland) Pērkonkrusts Rexism

Central Europe

Arrow Cross Party Austrian National Socialism Fatherland Front (Austria) Hungarian National Socialist Party National Front (Switzerland) Nazism Nazi Party Sudeten German Party

Southern Europe

Albanian Fascist Party Democratic Fascist Party Falange Greek National Socialist Party Italian Fascism Italian Social Republic Metaxism National Fascist Party National Union (Portugal) Republican Fascist Party Sammarinese Fascist Party Ustaše ZBOR

Eastern and Southeastern Europe

Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party Crusade of Romanianism Iron Guard National Fascist Community National Fascist Movement National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement National Social Movement (Bulgaria) National Radical Camp Falanga National Romanian Fascio National Renaissance Front Ratniks
Ratniks
(Bulgaria) Romanian Front Russian Fascist Party Russian Women's Fascist Movement Slovak People's Party Union of Bulgarian National Legions Vlajka

North America

Fascism
Fascism
in Canada

Canadian Union of Fascists Parti national social chrétien

Gold shirts German American Bund Silver Legion of America

South America

Falangism
Falangism
in Latin America Brazilian Integralism Bolivian Socialist Falange National Socialist Movement of Chile Revolutionary Union

People

Abba Ahimeir Nimio de Anquín Sadao Araki Marc Augier Maurice Bardèche Jacques Benoist-Méchin Henri Béraud Zoltán Böszörmény Giuseppe Bottai Robert Brasillach Alphonse de Châteaubriant Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Gustavs Celmiņš Enrico Corradini Carlo Costamagna Richard Walther Darré Marcel Déat Léon Degrelle Pierre Drieu La Rochelle Gottfried Feder Giovanni Gentile Joseph Goebbels Hans F. K. Günther Heinrich Himmler Adolf Hitler Ikki Kita Fumimaro Konoe Vihtori Kosola Agostino Lanzillo Dimitrije Ljotić Leopoldo Lugones Curzio Malaparte Ioannis Metaxas Robert Michels Oswald Mosley Benito Mussolini Eoin O'Duffy Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin Sergio Panunzio Giovanni Papini Ante Pavelić William Dudley Pelley Alfred Ploetz Robert Poulet Vidkun Quisling José Antonio Primo de Rivera Lucien Rebatet Dionisio Ridruejo Alfredo Rocco Konstantin Rodzaevsky Alfred Rosenberg Plínio Salgado Rafael Sánchez Mazas Margherita Sarfatti Carl Schmitt Ardengo Soffici Othmar Spann Ugo Spirito Ferenc Szálasi Hideki Tojo Gonzalo Torrente Ballester Georges Valois Anastasy Vonsyatsky

Works

Literature

The Doctrine of Fascism Fascist Manifesto Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals Mein Kampf My Life The Myth of the Twentieth Century Zweites Buch Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

Periodicals

La Conquista del Estado Das Reich Der Angriff Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden Figli d'Italia Fronten Gândirea Gioventù Fascista Je suis partout La France au travail Münchener Beobachter Novopress NS Månedshefte Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift Das Schwarze Korps Der Stürmer Il Popolo d'Italia Sfarmă-Piatră Signal Vlajka Völkischer Beobachter Nash Put' Fashist l'Alba

Film

Der Sieg des Glaubens Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht Triumph of the Will

Sculpture

Allach

Related topics

Art of the Third Reich Fascist architecture Heroic realism Nazi architecture Nazism
Nazism
and cinema Nazi plunder Syndicalism Conservatism

Organizations

Institutional

Ahnenerbe Chamber of Fasci and Corporations Grand Council of Fascism Imperial Way Faction Italian Nationalist Association Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Quadrumvirs

Activist

Fascist Union of Youth German American Bund National Youth Organisation (Greece) Russian Fascist Organization Union of Fascist Little Ones Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

Paramilitary

Albanian Militia Black Brigades Blackshirts Blueshirts Einsatzgruppen Gold shirts Greenshirts Greyshirts Hitler Youth Heimwehr Iron Wolf (organization) Lăncieri Makapili Silver Legion of America Schutzstaffel Sturmabteilung Waffen-SS Werwolf

International

Axis powers NSDAP/AO ODESSA

History

1910s

Arditi Fascio

1920s

Aventine Secession Acerbo Law Corfu incident March on Rome Beer Hall Putsch Italian economic battles

1930s

March of the Iron Will German federal election, November 1932 German federal election, March 1933 Enabling Act 6 February 1934 crisis 1934 Montreux Fascist conference Spanish Civil War 4th of August Regime Anti-Comintern Pact

1940s

World War II The Holocaust End in Italy Denazification Nuremberg Trials

Lists

Anti-fascists Books about Hitler British fascist parties Fascist movements by country (A-F G-M N-T U-Z) Nazi ideologues Nazi leaders Speeches by Hitler SS personnel

Related topics

Alt-right Anti-fascism Anti-Nazi League Christofascism Clerical fascism Cryptofascism Esoteric Nazism Fascist (epithet) Fascist mysticism Germanisation Glossary of Nazi Germany Hitler salute Italianization Italianization
Italianization
of South Tyrol Islamofascism Japanization Ku Klux Klan Neo-fascism Neo-Nazism Roman salute Social fascism Synarchism Unite Against Fascism Völkisch movement Women in Nazi Germany

Category Portal

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Princes of Piedmont

Charles (1456–1471) Emmanuel Philibert (1536–1553) Charles Emmanuel I (1562–1580) Philip Emmanuel (1586–1605) Victor Amadeus I (1587–1630) Francis Hyacinth (1632–1637) Victor Amadeus II (1666–1675) Victor Amadeus (1699–1715) Charles Emmanuel III (1715–1730) Charles Emmanuel IV (1751–1796) Umberto I (1844–1878) Victor Emmanuel III (1878–1900) Umberto II (1904–1947)

Held in pretense:

Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
Naples
(*1937) Umberto of Savoy- Aosta
Aosta
(*2009)

*denotes titular Prince      †dispute over succession

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Princes of Savoy

1st Generation

None

2nd Generation

Prince Anthony Prince Anthony Louis, Duke of Savoy Amadeus, Prince of Piemont Philip, Prince of Achaea

3rd Generation

Amadeus, Duke of Savoy Louis, Count
Count
of Geneva Prince Giovanni Philip, Duke of Savoy Giano, Count
Count
of Faucigny
Faucigny
and Geneva Pietro, Bishop of Geneva Prince Aimone Prince Giacomo Giovanni Ludovico, Bishop of Geneva Jacques, Count
Count
of Romont

4th Generation

Prince Luigi Carlo, Prince of Piedmont Philibert, Duke of Savoy Prince Bernardo Charles, Duke of Savoy James Louis, Count
Count
of Genevois Prince Gian Claudio Galeazzo Prince Girolamo Philibert, Duke of Savoy Charles, Duke of Savoy Prince Louis Philippe, Duke of Nemours Prince Assolone Prince Giovanni Amedeo Prince Emanuele Filiberto Adriano Prince Louis Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy

5th Generation

Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy Jacques, Duke of Nemours

6th Generation

Filippo Emanuele, Prince of Piedmont Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Nemours Henri, Prince de Genevois Prince Louis Prince François Paul Henri, Duke of Nemours Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano Maurice, Cardinal of Savoy Prince Emmanuel Filibert

7th Generation

Prince Louis Amadeus Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy Emmanuel Philibert, Prince of Carignano Joseph Emmanuel, Count
Count
of Soissons Eugene Maurice, Count
Count
of Soissons

8th Generation

Victor Amadeus II, King of Sardinia Victor Amadeus, Prince of Carignano Louis Thomas, Count
Count
of Soissons Emanuel Philibert, Count
Count
of Dreux Prince Philippe Prince Eugene Prince Louis Jules

9th Generation

Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont Charles Emmanuel III, King of Sardinia Emanuele Philibert, Duke of Chablais Louis Victor, Prince of Carignano Eugenio, Count
Count
of Villafranca Prince Tommaso Emmanuel Thomas, Count
Count
of Soissons

10th Generation

Victor Amadeus, Duke of Aosta Victor Amadeus III, King of Sardinia Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta Carlo, Duke of Chablais Carlo, Duke of Aosta Benedetto, Duke of Chablais Victor Amadeus II, Prince of Carignano Prince Tommaso Eugene Jean, Count
Count
of Soissons Giuseppe Maria, Count
Count
of Villafranca

11th Generation

Charles Emmanuel IV, King of Sardinia Amedeus Alexander, Duke of Montferrat Victor Emmanuel I, King of Sardinia Maurizio, Duke of Montferrat Charles Felix, King of Sardinia Giuseppe, Count
Count
of Asti Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano Eugenio, Duke of Carignano

12th Generation

Charles Albert, King of Sardinia

13th Generation

King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy Ferdinand, Duke of Genoa

14th Generation

King Umberto I of Italy King Amadeo I of Spain Oddone, Duke of Montferrat Tommaso, Duke of Genoa**

15th Generation

King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta*** Vittorio Emanuele, Count
Count
of Turin*** Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi*** Umberto, Count
Count
of Salemi*** Ferdinando, Duke of Genoa** Filiberto, Duke of Genoa** Adalberto, Duke of Bergamo** Eugenio, Duke of Genoa**

16th Generation

King Umberto II of Italy Amedeo, Duke of Aosta*** Aimone, Duke of Aosta***

17th Generation

Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples Amedeo, Duke of Aosta***

18th Generation

Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice
Venice
and Piedmont Aimone, Duke of Apulia***

19th generation

Prince Umberto of Savoy-Aosta, Prince of Piedmont*** Prince Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi***

* member of a cadet branch of the House of Savoy ** Prince of Savoy-Genoa *** Prince of Savoy-Aosta

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 13103888 LCCN: n80103764 ISNI: 0000 0000 8092 8191 GND: 118804545 SUDOC: 027487474 BNF:

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