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For the modern day New Zealand aircraft company see: Vickers
Vickers
Aircraft Company For other companies using the "Vickers" name, see Vickers
Vickers
.

Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
Limited

FATE Assets split and majority nationalised

SUCCESSOR Vickers
Vickers
plc British Aircraft Corporation (est.1960) British Shipbuilders British Steel Corporation
British Steel Corporation

FOUNDED 1927

DEFUNCT 1977

HEADQUARTERS Vickers
Vickers
House , Westminster , London

PARENT Vickers
Vickers
Limited Armstrong Whitworth

SUBSIDIARIES Metropolitan- Vickers
Vickers
Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Whitehead & Company John Brown & Company Sociedad Española de Construcción Naval Supermarine
Supermarine
Aviation Works (est.1928)

VICKERS-ARMSTRONGS LIMITED was a British engineering conglomerate formed by the merger of the assets of Vickers
Vickers
Limited and Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth Metro Cammell.

In 1935, before rearmament began, Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
was the third-largest manufacturing employer in Britain, behind Unilever
Unilever
and ICI .

BREAK-UP

In 1960 the aircraft interests were merged with those of Bristol , English Electric
English Electric
and Hunting Aircraft to form the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC). This was owned by Vickers, English Electric
English Electric
and Bristol (holding 40%, 40% and 20% respectively). BAC in turn owned 70% of Hunting. The Supermarine
Supermarine
operation was closed in 1963 and the Vickers
Vickers
brand name for aircraft was dropped by BAC in 1965. Under the terms of the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977 BAC was nationalised to become part of British Aerospace
British Aerospace
(later BAE Systems
BAE Systems
).

The Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act also led to the nationalisation of Vickers' shipbuilding division as part of British Shipbuilders . This division was privatised as VICKERS SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING LTD (VSEL) in 1986, later passing to the GEC group as part of Marconi Marine and survives to this day as part of BAE Systems; BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Submarines .

Vickers
Vickers
Container and Packaging Machinery Division, including the Vickers
Vickers
Stitcher and Vickers
Vickers
Hardness Machine business, was bought by Fords Industrial Products, part of Barry Wehmiller in 1986. In 1991 the Vickers
Vickers
Hardness Machinery business was bought by the then field engineers, and continues today as UK Calibrations Limited based in Kidderminster
Kidderminster
. The Vickers
Vickers
Stitcher was still being manufactured in India as recently as 2005.

The steelmaking division became part of British Steel Corporation
British Steel Corporation
and the remaining interests were divested as the public company Vickers plc , whose various components were later split. The Vickers
Vickers
name ceased to exist in 2003 when Rolls-Royce renamed its acquisitions Vinters plc .

BUSINESSES

ARMAMENTS

Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
inherited the Vickers
Vickers
machine gun of 1912 used in World War I from Vickers
Vickers
Limited. There were other Vickers
Vickers
machine guns aside from the regular water-cooled model (known universally as the "Vickers"): the Vickers-Berthier (VB) machine gun used by the Indian Army , the Vickers
Vickers
"K" .303 aircraft machine gun developed from it, and the Vickers
Vickers
"S" 40 mm aircraft gun. An unusual machine gun also made was the Vickers
Vickers
Higson .

Vickers
Vickers
produced larger weapons such as the Ordnance QF 2-pounder gun used on tanks. In 1948 Vickers
Vickers
bought the Australian business of Charles Ruwolt Ltd for £750,000 following Ruwolt's death in 1946. During WW2 Ruwolt's firm produced armaments for the Australian Government, including field artillery such as mortars and howitzer cannon.

SHIPBUILDING

After the 1927 merger, the company possessed a major yard on each coast of Britain; the NAVAL CONSTRUCTION YARD of Vickers
Vickers
at Barrow-in-Furness in Cumbria and the NAVAL YARD of Armstrong Whitworth at High Walker on the River Tyne
River Tyne
. Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
was one of the most important warship manufacturers in the world. These interests were renamed as VICKERS-ARMSTRONGS SHIPBUILDERS in 1955, changing again to VICKERS LIMITED SHIPBUILDING GROUP in 1968. The Barrow yard was nationalised and became part of British Shipbuilders in 1977, was privatised as VSEL in 1986 and remains in operation to this day as BAE Systems Submarines . Meanwhile, the Naval Yard at High Walker on the River Tyne
River Tyne
passed to Swan Hunter in 1968, was nationalised and became part of British Shipbuilders in 1977, was privatised still as Swan Hunter in 1986 but closed down during the 1980s.

MILITARY VEHICLES

The company was also known for its tank designs, starting with the widely used Vickers
Vickers
6-Ton . It also produced the influential, if never actually produced, Independent A1E1 tank. One of the company's most important designs was the Valentine Infantry Tank, produced in the thousands in World War II. The military vehicle manufacturing interests were divested into Vickers
Vickers
plc , and would later pass to Alvis Vickers
Vickers
, now part of BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Land and Armaments .

Notable Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
military vehicles include;

* Carden Loyd tankette * Cruiser Mk I * Cruiser Mk II * Vickers
Vickers
6-ton * Light Tank
Tank
Mk VI * Valentine * Vickers
Vickers
MBT (and under licence in India as Vijayanta
Vijayanta
)

AVIATION

Vickers
Vickers
formed their Aviation Department in 1911. The aircraft interests of Armstrong Whitworth were not acquired in the merger and later passed to the Hawker Aircraft group. In 1928 the Aviation Department became VICKERS (AVIATION) LTD and soon after acquired Supermarine
Supermarine
Aviation Works , which became the SUPERMARINE AVIATION WORKS (VICKERS) LTD and was responsible for producing the revolutionary Spitfire
Spitfire
fighter. In 1938, both companies were re-organised as VICKERS-ARMSTRONGS (AIRCRAFT) LTD, and a new 'art deco' headquarters designed by architect C. Howard Crane was built at its Brooklands factory in Surrey although the former Supermarine
Supermarine
and Vickers
Vickers
works continued to brand their products under their former names. In 1960 the aircraft interests were one of the founding companies merged to form BAC. The hovercraft activities of Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
were merged with those of the Westland Aircraft company (including those of Saunders-Roe
Saunders-Roe
) to form the British Hovercraft Corporation in 1966 with Vickers
Vickers
holding 25% of the new company. Westland bought out Vickers
Vickers
interest along with other partners in 1970.

Vickers
Vickers
formed a subsidiary, the Airship Guarantee Company, under the direction of Cdr Dennis Burney solely for the purpose of producing the R100
R100
airship for the government.

Between 1911 and 1970, just over 16,000 aircraft were built under the Vickers
Vickers
name; together the 11,462 Wellington and 846 Warwick aircraft (which were structurally similar) make up over 75% of this total.

Military Aircraft

Vickers
Vickers
became renowned as a manufacturer of large aircraft at its main factory at Brooklands in Surrey. In the interwar period , the company produced the Wellesley , designed by Rex Pierson using the geodetic airframe principle of structural engineer Barnes Wallis
Barnes Wallis
. This would later evolve into the famous Wellington bomber , a mainstay of RAF
RAF
Bomber
Bomber
Command and RAF Coastal Command during World War II
World War II
. The Cold War
Cold War
-era Valiant V bomber
V bomber
was another Vickers
Vickers
product.

Military aircraft with the Vickers
Vickers
brand:

* Vickers
Vickers
R.E.P. Type Monoplane * Vickers
Vickers
E.F.B.1 * Vickers
Vickers
F.B.5 * Vickers
Vickers
E.S.1 * Vickers
Vickers
E.F.B.7 * Vickers
Vickers
E.F.B.8 * Vickers
Vickers
F.B.11 * Vickers
Vickers
F.B.12 * Vickers
Vickers
F.B.14 * Vickers
Vickers
F.B.16 * Vickers
Vickers
F.B.19 * Vickers
Vickers
F.B.24 * Vickers
Vickers
F.B.25 * Vickers
Vickers
Vampire * Vickers
Vickers
Vimy * Vickers
Vickers
VIM * Vickers
Vickers
Viking * Vickers
Vickers
Vagabond * Vickers
Vickers
Vendace * Vickers
Vickers
Vixen * Vickers
Vickers
Viget * Vickers
Vickers
Valparaiso * Vickers
Vickers
Venture * Vickers
Vickers
Type 131 Valiant * Vickers
Vickers
Type 123 * Vickers
Vickers
Type 141 * Vickers
Vickers
Type 143 – a.k.a. Bolivian Scout * Vickers
Vickers
Jockey * Vickers
Vickers
Type 161 * Vickers
Vickers
Type 163 * Vickers
Vickers
Type 177 * Vickers
Vickers
Vespa * Type 121 Wibault Scout * Vickers
Vickers
Vireo * Vickers
Vickers
Vellore * Vickers
Vickers
Virginia * Vickers
Vickers
Vanox * Vickers
Vickers
Valentia – 1918 flying boat * Vickers
Vickers
Type 264 Valentia – 1934 cargo aircraft * Vickers
Vickers
Vernon * Vickers
Vickers
Victoria * Vickers
Vickers
Vildebeest * Vickers
Vickers
Vincent * Vickers
Vickers
Type 207 * Vickers
Vickers
Type 253 * Vickers
Vickers
Wellesley * Vickers
Vickers
Venom * Vickers
Vickers
Wellington * Vickers
Vickers
Wellington LN514 * Vickers
Vickers
Warwick * Vickers
Vickers
Type 432 – WWII high altitude interceptor * Vickers
Vickers
Windsor * Vickers
Vickers
Valetta * Vickers
Vickers
Varsity * Vickers
Vickers
Valiant

Vickers
Vickers
also competed for contracts with designs such as:

* Victory Bomber
Bomber
* Vickers
Vickers
Type 559 – 1950s high altitude supersonic interceptor

Vickers
Vickers
Canada

* Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Vancouver * Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Vanessa * Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Varuna * Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Vedette * Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Velos * Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Vigil * Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Vista

Missiles And Other Weapons

* "Upkeep" and "Highball" bouncing bombs * Tallboy bomb * Grand Slam bomb
Grand Slam bomb
* UB.109T – Company designation was Vickers
Vickers
825. * Blue Boar – Air-to Surface television-guided glider bomb from the 1950s. * Green lizard – Surface-to-air missile project from the 1950s. * Orange William – Anti-tank missile project from the late 1950s. * Red Dean – Air-to-air missile project. * Red Hebe – Air-to-air missile project. * Vickers
Vickers
Vigilant * R.A.E. - Vickers
Vickers
Transonic Research Rocket

Civilian Aircraft

Vickers
Vickers
was a pioneer in producing airliners , early examples being converted from Vimy bombers. Post-WWII, Vickers
Vickers
went on to manufacture the piston-engined Vickers
Vickers
VC.1 Viking airliner, the Viscount and Vanguard turboprop airliners and (as part of BAC) the VC10 jet airliner, which was used in RAF
RAF
service as an aerial refuelling tanker until 2013.

* Vickers
Vickers
Vimy Commercial * Vickers
Vickers
Vulcan (1920s) * Vickers
Vickers
Type 170 Vanguard (1923) * Vickers
Vickers
Viastra * Vickers
Vickers
Vellox * Vickers
Vickers
VC.1 Viking

* Vickers
Vickers
Viscount

* Vickers
Vickers
Viscount variants

* Vickers
Vickers
Vanguard * Vickers
Vickers
V-1000 – not completed * Vickers
Vickers
VC10

MARINE ENGINES

Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
was one of the few British manufacturers of marine diesel engines , notably for Royal Navy
Royal Navy
S , T-class and Estonian Kalev class submarines during World War II.

IN FICTION

In The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin
comic The Broken Ear , the role of Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
in the Chaco War
Chaco War
is parodied as "Viking Arms Co. Limited". A handgun described in a trial of Walter Mitty's alter ego is a 50 caliber Webley- Vickers
Vickers
revolver.

SEE ALSO

* Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom * Basil Zaharoff

REFERENCES

* ^ David Edgerton (8 December 2005). Warfare State: Britain, 1920–1970. Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-139-44874-1 . * ^ Double-barreled automatic gun – VICKERS ARMSTRONGS LTD. Freepatentsonline.com (1950-05-30). Retrieved on 2013-09-07. * ^ G. Hayes. "Australian Dictionary of Biography". Adb.online.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 2014-06-02. * ^ "Tyne ">(PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-02. * ^ 3.30 pm (1993-05-12). "Hansard 1993". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 2014-06-02. * ^ Iain Murray (2012). Vickers
Vickers
Wellington Manual. Haynes. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-85733-230-1 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Andrews, C.F. (1969). Vickers
Vickers
Aircraft since 1908. Putnam. * Johnston, Ian; Buxton, Ian (2013). The Battleship Builders - Constructing and Arming British Capital Ships (Hardback)format= requires url= (help ). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-027-6 . * Scott, J.D. (1962). Vickers: A History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Vickers