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Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
Limited was a British engineering conglomerate formed by the merger of the assets of Vickers
Vickers
Limited and Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth
Armstrong Whitworth
& Company in 1927. The majority of the company was nationalised in the 1960s and 1970s, with the remainder being divested as Vickers
Vickers
plc in 1977.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Break-up

2 Businesses

2.1 Armaments 2.2 Shipbuilding 2.3 Military vehicles 2.4 Aviation

2.4.1 Military aircraft 2.4.2 Vickers
Vickers
Canada 2.4.3 Missiles and other weapons 2.4.4 Civilian aircraft

2.5 Marine engines

3 In fiction 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links

History[edit] Vickers
Vickers
merged with the Tyneside-based engineering company Armstrong Whitworth, founded by W. G. Armstrong, to become Vickers-Armstrongs, Ltd. Armstrong Whitworth
Armstrong Whitworth
and Vickers
Vickers
had developed along similar lines, expanding into various military sectors and produced a whole suite of military products. Armstrong Whitworth
Armstrong Whitworth
were notable for their artillery manufacture at Elswick and shipbuilding at a yard at High Walker on the River Tyne. 1929 saw the merger of the acquired railway business with those of Cammell Laird
Cammell Laird
to form Metropolitan Cammell Carriage and Wagon (MCCW); Metro Cammell. In 1935, before rearmament began, Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
was the third-largest manufacturing employer in Britain, behind Unilever
Unilever
and ICI.[1] Break-up[edit] In 1960 the aircraft interests were merged with those of Bristol, English Electric
English Electric
and Hunting Aircraft
Hunting Aircraft
to form the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC). This was owned by Vickers, English Electric
English Electric
and Bristol (holding 40%, 40% and 20% respectively). BAC in turn owned 70% of Hunting. The Supermarine
Supermarine
operation was closed in 1963 and the Vickers
Vickers
brand name for aircraft was dropped by BAC in 1965. Under the terms of the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977
Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977
BAC was nationalised to become part of British Aerospace
British Aerospace
(later BAE Systems). The Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act also led to the nationalisation of Vickers' shipbuilding division as part of British Shipbuilders. This division was privatised as Vickers
Vickers
Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd (VSEL) in 1986, later passing to the GEC group as part of Marconi Marine and survives to this day as part of BAE Systems; BAE Systems Submarines. Vickers
Vickers
Container and Packaging Machinery Division, including the Vickers
Vickers
Stitcher and Vickers
Vickers
Hardness Machine business, was bought by Fords Industrial Products, part of Barry Wehmiller in 1986. In 1991 the Vickers
Vickers
Hardness Machinery business was bought by the then field engineers, and continues today as UK Calibrations Limited based in Kidderminster. The Vickers
Vickers
Stitcher was still being manufactured in India as recently as 2005. The steelmaking division became part of British Steel Corporation
British Steel Corporation
and the remaining interests were divested as the public company Vickers plc, whose various components were later split. The Vickers
Vickers
name ceased to exist in 2003 when Rolls-Royce renamed its acquisitions Vinters plc. Businesses[edit] Armaments[edit] Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
inherited the Vickers
Vickers
machine gun of 1912 used in World War I from Vickers
Vickers
Limited. There were other Vickers
Vickers
machine guns aside from the regular water-cooled model (known universally as the "Vickers"): the Vickers-Berthier
Vickers-Berthier
(VB) machine gun used by the Indian Army, the Vickers
Vickers
"K" .303 aircraft machine gun developed from it, and the Vickers
Vickers
"S" 40 mm aircraft gun. An unusual machine gun also made was the Vickers
Vickers
Higson.[2] Vickers
Vickers
produced larger weapons such as the Ordnance QF 2-pounder
Ordnance QF 2-pounder
gun used on tanks. In 1948 Vickers
Vickers
bought the Australian business of Charles Ruwolt Ltd for £750,000 following Ruwolt's death in 1946. During World War II
World War II
Ruwolt's firm produced armaments for the Australian Government, including field artillery such as mortars and howitzer cannon.[3] Shipbuilding[edit] After the 1927 merger, the company possessed a major yard on each coast of Britain; the Naval Construction Yard of Vickers
Vickers
at Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
in Cumbria and the Naval Yard of Armstrong Whitworth at High Walker
High Walker
on the River Tyne. Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
was one of the most important warship manufacturers in the world. These interests were renamed as Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
Shipbuilders in 1955, changing again to Vickers
Vickers
Limited Shipbuilding Group in 1968. The Barrow yard was nationalised and became part of British Shipbuilders in 1977, was privatised as VSEL in 1986 and remains in operation to this day as BAE Systems Submarines. Meanwhile, the Naval Yard at High Walker
High Walker
on the River Tyne
River Tyne
passed to Swan Hunter
Swan Hunter
in 1968,[4] was nationalised and became part of British Shipbuilders in 1977, was privatised still as Swan Hunter
Swan Hunter
in 1986 but closed down during the 1980s.[5] Vickers-Armstrong also made the VA-3 hovercraft. Military vehicles[edit] The company was also known for its tank designs, starting with the widely used Vickers
Vickers
6-Ton. It also produced the influential, if never actually produced, Independent A1E1 tank. One of the company's most important designs was the Valentine Infantry Tank, produced in the thousands in World War II. The military vehicle manufacturing interests were divested into Vickers
Vickers
plc, and would later pass to Alvis Vickers, now part of BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Land and Armaments. Notable Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
military vehicles include;

Carden Loyd tankette Cruiser Mk I Cruiser Mk II Vickers
Vickers
6-ton Light Tank
Tank
Mk VI Valentine Vickers
Vickers
MBT (and under licence in India as Vijayanta)

Aviation[edit] Vickers
Vickers
formed its Aviation Department in 1911. The aircraft interests of Armstrong Whitworth
Armstrong Whitworth
were not acquired in the merger and later passed to the Hawker Aircraft
Hawker Aircraft
group. In 1928 the Aviation Department became Vickers
Vickers
(Aviation) Ltd and soon after acquired Supermarine Aviation Works, which became the Supermarine
Supermarine
Aviation Works (Vickers) Ltd and was responsible for producing the revolutionary Spitfire fighter. In 1938, both companies were re-organised as Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
(Aircraft) Ltd, and a new 'art deco' headquarters designed by architect C. Howard Crane
C. Howard Crane
was built at its Brooklands factory in Surrey although the former Supermarine
Supermarine
and Vickers
Vickers
works continued to brand their products under their former names. In 1960 the aircraft interests were one of the founding companies merged to form BAC. The hovercraft activities of Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
were merged with those of the Westland Aircraft
Westland Aircraft
company (including those of Saunders-Roe) to form the British Hovercraft
Hovercraft
Corporation in 1966 with Vickers
Vickers
holding 25% of the new company. Westland bought out Vickers interest along with other partners in 1970. Vickers
Vickers
formed a subsidiary, the Airship Guarantee Company, under the direction of Cdr Dennis Burney
Dennis Burney
solely for the purpose of producing the R100
R100
airship for the government. Between 1911 and 1970, just over 16,000 aircraft were built under the Vickers
Vickers
name; together the 11,462 Wellington and 846 Warwick aircraft (which were structurally similar) make up over 75% of this total.[6] Military aircraft[edit] Vickers
Vickers
became renowned as a manufacturer of large aircraft at its main factory at Brooklands
Brooklands
in Surrey. In the interwar period, the company produced the Wellesley, designed by Rex Pierson
Rex Pierson
using the geodetic airframe principle of structural engineer Barnes Wallis. This would later evolve into the famous Wellington bomber, a mainstay of RAF
RAF
Bomber
Bomber
Command and RAF Coastal Command
RAF Coastal Command
during World War II. The Cold War-era Valiant V bomber
V bomber
was another Vickers
Vickers
product. Military aircraft with the Vickers
Vickers
brand:

Vickers
Vickers
R.E.P. Type Monoplane Vickers
Vickers
E.F.B.1 Vickers
Vickers
F.B.5 Vickers
Vickers
E.S.1 Vickers
Vickers
E.F.B.7 Vickers
Vickers
E.F.B.8 Vickers
Vickers
F.B.11 Vickers
Vickers
F.B.12 Vickers
Vickers
F.B.14 Vickers
Vickers
F.B.16 Vickers
Vickers
F.B.19 Vickers
Vickers
F.B.24 Vickers
Vickers
F.B.25 Vickers
Vickers
Vampire Vickers
Vickers
Vimy Vickers
Vickers
VIM Vickers
Vickers
Viking Vickers
Vickers
Vagabond Vickers
Vickers
Vendace Vickers
Vickers
Vixen Vickers
Vickers
Viget Vickers
Vickers
Valparaiso Vickers
Vickers
Venture Vickers
Vickers
Type 131 Valiant Vickers
Vickers
Type 123 Vickers
Vickers
Type 141 Vickers
Vickers
Type 143 – a.k.a. Bolivian Scout Vickers
Vickers
Jockey Vickers
Vickers
Type 161 Vickers
Vickers
Type 163 Vickers
Vickers
Type 177 Vickers
Vickers
Vespa Type 121 Wibault Scout Vickers
Vickers
Vireo Vickers
Vickers
Vellore Vickers
Vickers
Virginia Vickers
Vickers
Vanox Vickers
Vickers
Valentia – 1918 flying boat Vickers
Vickers
Type 264 Valentia – 1934 cargo aircraft Vickers
Vickers
Vernon Vickers
Vickers
Victoria Vickers
Vickers
Vildebeest Vickers
Vickers
Vincent Vickers
Vickers
Type 207 Vickers
Vickers
Type 253 Vickers
Vickers
Wellesley Vickers
Vickers
Venom Vickers
Vickers
Wellington Vickers
Vickers
Wellington LN514 Vickers
Vickers
Warwick Vickers
Vickers
Type 432 – WWII high altitude interceptor Vickers
Vickers
Windsor Vickers
Vickers
Valetta Vickers
Vickers
Varsity Vickers
Vickers
Valiant

Vickers
Vickers
also competed for contracts with designs such as:

Victory Bomber Vickers
Vickers
Type 559 – 1950s high altitude supersonic interceptor

Vickers
Vickers
Canada[edit]

Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Vancouver Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Vanessa Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Varuna Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Vedette Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Velos Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Vigil Canadian Vickers
Vickers
Vista

Missiles and other weapons[edit]

"Upkeep" and "Highball" bouncing bombs Tallboy bomb Grand Slam bomb UB.109T – Company designation was Vickers
Vickers
825. Blue Boar – Air-to Surface television-guided glider bomb from the 1950s. Green lizard – Surface-to-air missile project from the 1950s. Orange William – Anti-tank missile project from the late 1950s. Red Dean
Red Dean
– Air-to-air missile project. Red Hebe – Air-to-air missile project. Vickers
Vickers
Vigilant R.A.E. - Vickers
Vickers
Transonic Research Rocket

Civilian aircraft[edit] Vickers
Vickers
was a pioneer in producing airliners, early examples being converted from Vimy bombers. Post-WWII, Vickers
Vickers
went on to manufacture the piston-engined Vickers
Vickers
VC.1 Viking airliner, the Viscount and Vanguard turboprop airliners and (as part of BAC) the VC10 jet airliner, which was used in RAF
RAF
service as an aerial refuelling tanker until 2013.

Vickers
Vickers
Vimy Commercial Vickers
Vickers
Vulcan (1920s) Vickers
Vickers
Type 170 Vanguard (1923) Vickers
Vickers
Viastra Vickers
Vickers
Vellox Vickers
Vickers
VC.1 Viking Vickers
Vickers
Viscount

Vickers
Vickers
Viscount variants

Vickers
Vickers
Vanguard Vickers
Vickers
V-1000 – not completed Vickers
Vickers
VC10

Marine engines[edit] Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
was one of the few British manufacturers of marine diesel engines, notably for Royal Navy
Royal Navy
S, T-class and Estonian Kalev class submarines during World War II. In fiction[edit] In The Adventures of Tintin
The Adventures of Tintin
comic The Broken Ear, the role of Vickers-Armstrongs
Vickers-Armstrongs
in the Chaco War
Chaco War
is parodied as "Viking Arms Co. Limited".[citation needed] A handgun described in a trial of Walter Mitty's alter ego is a 50 caliber Webley- Vickers
Vickers
revolver.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom Basil Zaharoff

References[edit]

^ David Edgerton (8 December 2005). Warfare State: Britain, 1920–1970. Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-139-44874-1.  ^ Double-barreled automatic gun – VICKERS ARMSTRONGS LTD. Freepatentsonline.com (1950-05-30). Retrieved on 2013-09-07. ^ G. Hayes. "Australian Dictionary of Biography". Adb.online.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ "Tyne & Wear Archives" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ 3.30 pm (1993-05-12). "Hansard 1993". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 2014-06-02.  ^ Iain Murray (2012). Vickers
Vickers
Wellington Manual. Haynes. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-85733-230-1. 

Bibliography[edit]

Andrews, C.F. (1969). Vickers
Vickers
Aircraft since 1908. Putnam.  Johnston, Ian; Buxton, Ian (2013). The Battleship Builders - Constructing and Arming British Capital Ships (Hardback)format= requires url= (help). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-027-6.  Scott, J.D. (1962). Vickers: A History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 

External links[edit]

Vickers
Vickers
Golden Jubilee Flight 1961 Vickers
Vickers
Photographic Archive

v t e

Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom

Economy of the United Kingdom Manufacturing in the United Kingdom

Companies

Current

AD Aerospace AgustaWestland Airbus UK Alba Orbital Astrium Satellites

Surrey Satellite Technology

BAE Systems

Integrated System Technologies Military Air Solutions Eurofighter GmbH (33%) MBDA
MBDA
(37.5%)

BBA Aviation Boeing Defence UK British Airways Engineering Britten-Norman Chemring Group Cobham

Technical Services

Dunlop Aircraft Tyres Euravia GE Aviation Systems GFS Projects GKN Hants and Sussex Aviation Hybrid Air Vehicles IRVIN-GQ Lindstrand Technologies Lockheed Martin UK Marshall Aerospace Martin-Baker Meggitt Messier-Bugatti-Dowty Qinetiq Reaction Engines Rolls-Royce Selex ES Short Brothers Telespazio VEGA Thales Air Defence Thales Optronics Ultra Electronics

Defunct

ADC Aircraft AJEP Abbott-Baynes Sailplanes ABC Motors Air Navigation and Engineering Company Airco The Airscrew Company Airship Industries Airspeed Armstrong Whitworth
Armstrong Whitworth
Aircraft Arrow Aircraft Auster Austin Motor Company Aviation Traders Avro Beagle Aircraft William Beardmore and Company Blackburn Aircraft Boulton & Paul Boulton Paul Aircraft Bristol Aeroplane Company British Aerial Transport British Aerospace British Aircraft Company British Aircraft Corporation British Aircraft Manufacturing BTR Aerospace Central Aircraft Company Chilton Aircraft Chrislea Aircraft Clayton & Shuttleworth Comper Aircraft Company Cunliffe-Owen Aircraft Dart Aircraft de Havilland

Aeronautical Technical School Propellers

Desoutter Aircraft Company Dowty Group

Rotol

Dunlop Standard Aerospace ED Abbott Edgar Percival Aircraft Elliotts of Newbury English Electric Fairey Aviation Company Fane Aircraft Company Ferranti Folland Aircraft Foster, Wikner Aircraft Garland Aircraft Company General Aircraft General Electric Company Gloster Aircraft Company Grahame-White Handley Page Hawker Aircraft Hawker Siddeley Heston Aircraft Company Hewlett & Blondeau Hordern-Richmond Hunting Aircraft Lakes Flying Company Luton Aircraft M. B. Arpin & Co. Marconi Company

Electronic Systems

Martinsyde Matra Marconi Space Miles Aircraft Moss Brothers Aircraft D. Napier & Son Nash & Thomson National Aircraft Factory No. 2 Nieuport & General Aircraft Norman Thompson Flight Company Parnall Parnall
Parnall
& Sons Port Victoria Marine Experimental Aircraft Depot Lang Propellers Reid and Sigrist Rollason Aircraft and Engines Royal Aircraft Establishment Saunders-Roe Scottish Aviation Seaplane Experimental Station SELEX Galileo SELEX Sistemi Integrati Siddeley-Deasy Sopwith Aviation Company Spartan Aircraft Supermarine Vickers Vickers-Armstrongs Westland Aircraft Westland Helicopters J. Samuel White

Government and regulatory bodies

Civil Aviation Authority Defence Electronics and Components Agency Defence Science and Technology Laboratory European Aviation Safety Agency

Related topics

ADS Group Air International Air Service Training Farnborough Airshow Flight International NATS Holdings NDI UK ParcAberporth Royal Aeronautical Society Society of British Aerospace
British Aerospace
Companies

Category

v t e

Modern timeline of British shipbuilding companies, 1960-present

1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

Hawthorn Leslie & Company

Caledon Sh'b. & Eng. Co. Robb Caledon Shipbuilding

Henry Robb

Harland and Wolff Harland & Wolff Heavy Industries

Ailsa Shipbuilding Company

Ferguson Ailsa Ailsa & Perth

Ferguson Brothers

Ferguson Shipbuilders

Lithgows Scott Lithgow

Scott Lithgow

Scotts Sh'b. & Eng. Co.

Greenock Dockyard Co.

Swan Hunter
Swan Hunter
& Wigham Richardson Swan Hunter
Swan Hunter
Group

Swan Hunter

Smiths Dock Co.

John Readhead & Sons

Hall Russell & Co.

Hall Russell A&P

Austin & Pickersgill

North East Shipbuilders Ltd. A&P Appledore International A&P Group

William Doxford & Sons

Appledore Shipbuilders

DML Appledore Babcock Marine Appledore

Cammell Laird
Cammell Laird
& Company

VSEL Coastline Cammell Laird A&P Shiprepair NWSL CLSS

Vickers-Armstrongs Vickers
Vickers
Ltd. Shipbuilding

Marconi Marine (VSEL) BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Marine BAE Sub. Solutions

Yarrow & Co. Y'w. Sh'b. Ltd. Upper Clyde Shipbuilders YSL

Marconi Marine (YSL) BAE Surf. Flt. Solutions BVT Surface Fleet BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Surface Ships

Fairfield Sh'b. & Eng. Co.

Govan Sh'b.

Kvaerner Govan

Charles Connell & Company Scotstoun Marine

John Brown & Company Marathon (Clydebank) UiE Scotland

Alexander Stephens & Sons

W. Denny & Bros.

A. & J. Inglis

Simons & Lobnitz

Barclay Curle

J. I. Thornycroft & Co. Vosper Thornycroft

Vosper Thornycroft VT Group

Vosper & Co.

British Hovercraft
Hovercraft
Corporation

Hoverwork Ltd. Griffon Hoverwork

Griffon Hovercraft
Hovercraft
Ltd.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

BSC = British Shipbuilders Corporation

v t e

Timeline of British aerospace companies since 1955

1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s

5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4

Short Brothers
Short Brothers
& Harland Limited Short Brothers
Short Brothers
Limited Short Brothers
Short Brothers
plc[7]

Handley Page

FG Miles Beagle Aircraft[1]

Auster

Scottish Aviation[2] British Aerospace
British Aerospace
(BAe) BAE Systems

Blackburn Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
Aviation Hawker Siddeley
Hawker Siddeley
Dynamics

Avro

de Havilland

Folland

Hawker Siddeley[3]

Vickers-Armstrongs British Aircraft Corporation
British Aircraft Corporation
(BAC)[5]

English Electric[4]

Bristol

Hunting

The General Electric Company
General Electric Company
(GEC) The Marconi Company GEC-Marconi/Marconi Electronic Systems

The English Electric
English Electric
Company[6] Marconi plc

Government owned from 1966 to liquidation Purchased rights for various Beagle and Handley-Page designs from the liquidator. Comprising Hawker Aircraft, Gloster Aircraft Company
Gloster Aircraft Company
and Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft. English Electric
English Electric
Aircraft, a subsidiary of the English Electric Company. BAC comprised the aviation interests of the companies that formed it, and wholly owned Hunting Aircraft. GEC purchased EE and with it The Marconi Company
Marconi Company
and EE's shareholding in BAC, through its subsidiary EE Aircraft. Part of Bombardier Inc.

v t e

Original companies of FT 30 in the United Kingdom

As of 1 July 1935

Associated Portland Cement Austin Motor Bass Bolsover Colliery Callenders Cables & Construction Coats Courtaulds Distillers Dorman Long Dunlop Rubber Electrical & Musical Industries Fine Spinners and Doublers General Electric Company Guest Keen & Nettlefolds Harrods Hawker Siddeley Imperial Chemical Industries Imperial Tobacco International Tea Co. Stores London Brick Murex Patons and Baldwins Pinchin Johnson & Associates Rolls-Royce Tate & Lyle Turner & Newall United Steel Companies Vickers-Armstrongs Watney Combe & Reid FW

.