Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is
1 History 2 Geographic distribution 3 Classification 4 Regional variants 5 Grammar
5.1 Redundant subject pronouns 5.2 Interrogative inflection 5.3 Auxiliary verbs 5.4 Continuing action 5.5 Subordinate clauses
6 Phonology 7 Sample etymological lexicon 8 Spelling systems
8.1 Traditional system 8.2 Proposed systems
9 Sample texts
9.1 Ruzante returning from war 9.2 Discorso de Perasto 9.3 Francesco Artico
10 English cognates with Venetian 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links
See also: Venetian literature
Like all Italian dialects in the
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Venetian is spoken mainly in the Italian regions of
Central (Padua, Vicenza, Polesine), with about 1,500,000 speakers. Eastern/Coastal (Venice, Trieste (see), Grado, Istria, Fiume). Western (Verona, Trentino). North-Central Destra Piave of the Province of Treviso, most of the Province of Pordenone). Northern Sinistra Piave of the Province of Treviso, (Belluno, comprising Feltre, Agordo, Cadore, Zoldo Alto).
All these variants are mutually intelligible, with a minimum 92% between the most diverging ones (Central and Western). Modern speakers reportedly can still understand Venetian texts from the 14th century to some extent. Other noteworthy variants are:
the variety spoken in Chioggia
the variety spoken in the Pontine Marshes
the variety spoken in Dalmatia
Talian dialect of Antônio Prado,
Entre Rios, Santa Catarina
Grammar Main article: Venetian grammar
A street sign (nizioléto) in Venice using the Venetian calle, as opposed to the Italian via.
Lasa pur dir (Let them speak), an inscription on the Venetian House in Piran, southwestern Slovenia.
Like most Romance languages, Venetian has mostly abandoned the Latin
case system, in favor of prepositions and a more rigid
subject–verb–object sentence structure. It has thus become more
analytic, if not quite as much as English. Venetian also has the
Romance articles, both definite (derived from the
el gato graso, the fat (male) cat. ła gata grasa, the fat (female) cat. i gati grasi, the fat (male) cats. łe gate grase, the fat (female) cats.
In conservative Venetian, the article alone may convey the gender:
i gat gras, the fat (all males or males and females) cats. łe gat gras, the fat (female) cats. el gatòn graso, the fat big (male) cat. ła gatòna grasa, the fat big (female) cat. un bel gateło, a nice small (male) cat. na beła gateła, a nice small (female) cat.
No native Venetic words seem to have survived in present Venetian, but there may be some traces left in the morphology, such as the morpheme -esto/asto/isto for the past participle, which can be found in Venetic inscriptions from about 500 BC:
Venetian: Mi go fazesto ("I have done") Venetian Italian: Mi go fato Standard Italian: Io ho fatto
Redundant subject pronouns
A peculiarity of
Venetian grammar is a "semi-analytical" verbal
flexion, with a compulsory "clitic subject pronoun" before the verb in
many sentences, "echoing" the subject as an ending or a weak pronoun.
Independent/emphatic pronouns (e.g. ti), on the contrary, are
optional. The clitic subject pronoun (te, el/ła, i/łe) is used with
the 2nd and 3rd person singular, and with the 3rd person plural. This
feature may have arisen as a compensation for the fact that the 2nd-
and 3rd-person inflections for most verbs, which are still distinct in
Italian and many other Romance languages, are identical in Venetian.
(Tu) eri sporco? ("Were you dirty?") (Ti) jèristu onto? or (Ti) xèrito spazo? (lit. "You were-you dirty?")
Il cane era sporco? ("Was the dog dirty?") El can jèreło onto? (lit. "The dog was-he dirty?") or Jèreło onto el can ? (lit. "Was-he dirty the dog ?")
(Tu) ti sei domandato? ("Have you asked yourself?") (Ti) te seto domandà? (lit. "You to-yourself have-you asked?")
Auxiliary verbs Reflexive tenses use the auxiliary verb avér ("to have"), as in English, Scandinavian, and Spanish; instead of èssar ("to be"), which would be normal in Italian. The past participle is invariable, unlike Italian:
(Tu) ti sei lavato (lit. "(You) yourself are washed") (Ti) te te à/gà/ghè lavà (lit. "(You) you yourself have washed")
(Loro) si sono svegliati (lit. "(They) themselves are awakened") (Lori) i se gà/à svejà (lit. "(They) they themselves have awakened")
Continuing action Another peculiarity of the language is the use of the phrase eser drìo (literally, "to be behind") to indicate continuing action:
Italian: Mio padre sta parlando ("My father is speaking"). Venetian: Mé pare 'l xe drìo(invià) parlàr (lit. "My father he is busy speaking").
Indeed, the word drio ("busy" or "engaged") also appears in other sentences:
Venetian: So' drio far i mistieri lit. means "I am busy doing the housework" ("I'm doing it") Venetian: Vo drio i mistieri lit. means "I go busy with the housework" ("I'm going to do it") Venetian: Mé pare l'è in leto drio (invià) dormir lit. means "My father is in bed, busy sleeping" ("My father is sleeping in bed")
Another progressive form uses the construction essar là che (lit. "to be there that"):
Venetian: Me pàre 'l è là che 'l parla (lit. "My father he is there that he speaks").
The use of progressive tenses is more pervasive than in Italian; E.g.
English: "He wouldn't possibly have been speaking to you". Venetian: No 'l sarìa mìa stat/stà drìo parlarte (lit. "Not-he would possibly have been behind to speak-to-you").
That construction does not occur in Italian: *Non sarebbe mica stato parlandoti is not syntactically valid. Subordinate clauses Subordinate clauses have double introduction ("whom that", "when that", "which that", "how that"), as in Old English:
Italian: So di chi parli ("(I) know about whom (you) speak"). Venetian: So de chi che te parla (lit. "(I) know about whom that you-speak").
As in other Romance languages, the subjunctive mood is widely used in subordinate clauses (although not always). Remarkably, although the use of subjunctive is weakening in many colloquial varieties of Italian, the Venetian subjunctive seems to be more resisting. For example, many Italian speakers often hesitate between subjunctive che fosse "that...were" and indicative che era "that...was" (though this phenomenon is generally sanctioned in the standard form), whereas almost no Venetian speaker would use the indicative in the following examples. Notice that it is hardly possible to distinguish a colloquial and a standard form, Venetian being used especially in the spoken form.
Standard Italian: Credevo che fosse... ("I thought that he were...") Colloquial Ital.: Credevo che era... ("I thought that he was...") Venetian: Credéa/évo che 'l fuse... ("I thought that he were...") Venetian: Credéa/évo che 'l *xera...
For the same reasons, although Italian speakers may accept both vada and vado 'I go-subj/indic.' in the colloquial style, nearly everybody would reject the Venetian indicative *vo in the following context.
Standard Italian: E' meglio che vada ("I'd better go", lit. "it is better that I go" subj.) Standard Italian: E' meglio che vado ("I'd better go", lit. "it is better that I go" indic.) Venetian: Xe mejo che vaga/vae ("I'd better go"-subj.) Venetian: Xe mejo che *vo
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering
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Venetian consonant phonemes
Labial Dental/ Alveolar Post alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive/ Affricate voiceless p t t͡ʃ
voiced b d d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s
voiced v z
Some dialects of Venetian have certain sounds not present in Italian,
such as the interdental voiceless fricative [θ], often spelled with
⟨ç⟩, ⟨z⟩, ⟨zh⟩, or ⟨ž⟩, and similar to English th in
thing and thought. This sound occurs, for example, in çéna
("supper", also written zhena, žena), which is pronounced the same as
Castilian Spanish cena (which has the same meaning). The voiceless
interdental fricative occurs in Bellunese, north-Trevisan, and in some
Central Venetian rural areas around Padua, Vicenza and the mouth of
the river Po.
Because the pronunciation variant [θ] is more typical of older
speakers and speakers living outside of major cities, it has come to
be socially stigmatized, and most speakers now use [s] or [ts] instead
of [θ]. In those dialects with the pronunciation [s], the sound has
fallen together with ordinary ⟨s⟩, and so it is not uncommon to
simply write ⟨s⟩ (or ⟨ss⟩ between vowels) instead of ⟨ç⟩
or ⟨zh⟩ (such as sena).
Similarly some dialects of Venetian also have a voiced interdental
fricative, often written ⟨z⟩ (as in el pianze 'he cries'); but in
most dialects this sound is now pronounced either as [dz] (Italian
voiced-Z), or more typically as [z] (Italian voiced-S, written
⟨x⟩, as in el pianxe); in a few dialects the sound appears as [d]
and may therefore be written instead with the letter ⟨d⟩, as in el
Some varieties of Venetian also distinguish an ordinary [l] vs. a
weakened or lenited ("evanescent") ⟨l⟩, which in some orthographic
norms is indicated with the letter ⟨ł⟩; in more conservative
dialects, however, both ⟨l⟩ and ⟨ł⟩ are merged as ordinary
[l]. In those dialects that have both types, the precise phonetic
realization of ⟨ł⟩ depends both on its phonological environment
and on the dialect of the speaker. Typical realizations in the region
of Venice include a voiced velar approximant or glide [ɰ] (usually
described as nearly like an "e" and so often spelled as ⟨e⟩), when
⟨ł⟩ is adjacent (only) to back vowels (⟨a o u⟩), vs. a null
realization when ⟨ł⟩ is adjacent to a front vowel (⟨i e⟩).
In dialects further inland ⟨ł⟩ may be realized as a partially
vocalised ⟨l⟩. Thus, for example, góndoła 'gondola' may sound
like góndoea, góndola or góndoa, [ˈɡondoɰa], [ˈɡondola],
[ˈɡondoa]. In dialects having a null realization of intervocalic
⟨ł⟩, although pairs of words such as scóła, "school" and scóa,
"broom" are homophonous (both being pronounced [ˈskoa]), they are
still distinguished orthographically.
Venetian, like Spanish, does not have the geminate consonants
characteristic of standard Italian, Tuscan, Neapolitan and other
languages of southern Italy; thus Italian fette ("slices"), palla
("ball") and penna ("pen") correspond to féte, bała, and péna in
Venetian. The masculine singular noun ending, corresponding to -o/-e
in Italian, is often unpronounced in Venetian, particularly in rural
varieties: Italian pieno ("full") corresponds to Venetian pien,
Italian altare to Venetian altar. The extent to which final vowels are
deleted varies by dialect: the central–southern varieties delete
vowels only after /n/, whereas the northern variety delete vowels also
after dental stops and velars; the eastern and western varieties are
in between these two extremes.
The velar nasal [ŋ] (the final sound in English "song") occurs
frequently in Venetian. A word-final /n/ is always velarized, which is
especially obvious in the pronunciation of many local Venetian
surnames that end in ⟨n⟩, such as Marin [maˈɾiŋ] and Manin
[maˈniŋ], as well as in common Venetian words such as man ([ˈmaŋ]
"hand"), piron ([piˈɾoŋ], "fork"). Moreover, Venetian always uses
[ŋ] in consonant clusters that start with a nasal, whereas Italian
only uses [ŋ] before velar stops: e.g. [kaŋˈtaɾ] "to sing",
[iŋˈvɛɾno] "winter", [ˈoŋzaɾ] "to anoint", [ɾaŋˈd͡ʒaɾse]
"to cope with".
Speakers of Italian generally lack this sound and usually substitute a
dental [n] for final Venetian [ŋ], changing for example [maˈniŋ] to
[maˈnin̪ː] and [maˈɾiŋ] to [maˈrin̪ː].
Sample etymological lexicon
As a direct descent of regional spoken Latin, the Venetian lexicon
derives its vocabulary substantially from
Venetian English Italian Venetian word origin
uncò, 'ncò, incò, ancò, ancùo, incoi
apotèca pharmacy farmacia from Ancient Greek ἀποθήκη (apothḗkē)
trincàr to drink bere from German trinken "to drink"
astiàr to bore dare noia, seccare from Gothic 𐌷𐌰𐌹𐍆𐍃𐍄, haifsts meaning "contest"
bagìgi peanuts arachidi from Arabic habb-ajiz
becàr to be spicy hot essere piccante from Italian beccare, literally "to peck"
bìsi peas piselli related to the Italian word
trar via to throw tirare local cognate of Italian tirare
find + take
trovare + prendere
from Venetian s-ciao "slave", from Medieval
to catch, to take
copàr to kill uccidere from Old Italian accoppare, originally "to behead"
carpéta miniskirt minigonna compare English carpet
fanèla T-shirt maglietta borrowing from Greek
massa too much troppo from Greek μᾶζα (mâza)
derverbal derivative, from
mustaci, mostaci moustaches baffi from Greek μουστάκι (moustaki)
munìn, gato, gatìn cat gatto perhaps onomatopoeic, from the sound of a cat's meow
meda big sheaf grosso covone from messe, mietere, compare English meadow
nòtoła, notol, barbastrìo, signàpoła bat pipistrello derived from not "night" (compare Italian notte)
pantegàna rat ratto from Slovene podgana
pinciàr beat, cheat, sexual intercourse imbrogliare, superare in gara, amplesso from French pincer (compare English pinch)
pirón fork forchetta from Greek πιρούνι (piroúni)
pisalet dandelion tarassaco from French pissenlit
plao far truant marinare scuola from German blau machen
sbregàr to break, to shred strappare from Gothic 𐌱𐍂𐌹𐌺𐌰𐌽 (brikan), related to English to break and German brechen
schèi money denaro soldi from German Scheidemünze
saltapaiusc grasshopper cavalletta from salta "hop" + paiusc "grass" (Italian paglia)
sghiràt, schirata, skirata squirrel scoiattolo Related to Italian word, probably from Greek σκίουρος (skíouros)
sgnapa spirit from grapes, brandy grappa acquavite from German Schnaps
sina rail rotaia from German Schiene
straco tired stanco from Lombard strak
strica line, streak, stroke, strip linea, striscia from the proto-Germanic root *strik, related to English streak, and stroke (of a pen). Example: Tirar na strica "to draw a line".
from proto-Germanic *þrukjaną ('to press, crowd') through the Gothic
or Langobardic language, related to
supiàr, subiàr, sficiàr, sifolàr
to pick up
técia, téia, tegia
tosàt(o) (toxato), fio lad, boy ragazzo from Italian tosare, "to cut someone's hair"
puto, putèło, putełeto, butèl
matelot lad, boy ragazzo perhaps from French matelot, "sailor"
s-ciop, s-ciòpo, s-ciopàr, s-ciopón
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Venetian does not have an official writing system, but it is
traditionally written using the
The letter ⟨x⟩ was often employed in words that nowadays have a voiced /z/-sound (compare English xylophone); for instance ⟨x⟩ appears in words such as raxon, Croxe, caxa ("reason", "(holy) Cross" and "house"). The precise phonetic value of ⟨x⟩ in Old Venetian texts remains unknown, however. The letter ⟨z⟩ often appeared in words that nowadays have a varying voiced pronunciation ranging from /z/ to /dz/ or /ð/ or even to /d/; even in contemporary spelling zo "down" may represent any of /zo, dzo, ðo/ or even /do/, depending on the dialect; similarly zovena "young woman" could be any of /ˈzovena/, /ˈdzovena/ or /ˈðovena/, and zero "zero" could be /ˈzɛro/, /ˈdzɛro/ or /ˈðɛro/. Likewise, ⟨ç⟩ was written for a voiceless sound which now varies, depending on the dialect spoken, from /s/ to /ts/ to /θ/, as in for example dolçe "sweet", now /ˈdolse ~ ˈdoltse ~ ˈdolθe/, dolçeça "sweetness", now /dolˈsesa ~ dolˈtsetsa ~ dolˈθeθa/, or sperança "hope", now /speˈransa ~ speˈrantsa ~ speˈranθa/.
The usage of letters in medieval and early modern texts was not,
however, entirely consistent. In particular, as in other northern
Italian languages, the letters ⟨z⟩ and ⟨ç⟩ were often used
interchangeably for both voiced and voiceless sounds. Differences
between earlier and modern pronunciation, divergences in pronunciation
within the modern Venetian-speaking region, differing attitudes about
how closely to model spelling on Italian norms, as well as personal
preferences, some of which reflect sub-regional identities, have all
hindered the adoption of a single unified spelling system.
Nevertheless, in practice, most spelling conventions are the same as
in Italian. In some early modern texts letter ⟨x⟩ becomes limited
to word-initial position, as in xe ("is"), where its use was
unavoidable because Italian spelling cannot represent /z/ there. In
between vowels, the distinction between /s/ and /z/ was ordinarily
indicated by doubled ⟨ss⟩ for the former and single ⟨s⟩ for
the latter. For example, basa was used to represent /ˈbaza/ ("he/she
kisses"), whereas bassa represented /ˈbasa/ ("low"). (Before
consonants there is no contrast between /s/ and /z/, as in Italian, so
a single ⟨s⟩ is always used in this circumstance, it being
understood that the ⟨s⟩ will agree in voicing with the following
consonant. For example, ⟨st⟩ represents only /st/, but ⟨sn⟩
Traditionally the letter ⟨z⟩ was ambiguous, having the same values
as in Italian (both voiced and voiceless affricates /dz/ and /ts/).
Nevertheless, in some books the two pronunciations are sometimes
distinguished (in between vowels at least) by using doubled ⟨zz⟩
to indicate /ts/ (or in some dialects /θ/) but a single ⟨z⟩ for
/dz/ (or /ð/, /d/).
In more recent practice the use of ⟨x⟩ to represent /z/, both in
word-initial as well as in intervocalic contexts, has become
increasingly common, but no entirely uniform convention has emerged
for the representation of the voiced vs. voiceless affricates (or
interdental fricatives), although a return to using ⟨ç⟩ and
⟨z⟩ remains an option under consideration.
Regarding the spelling of the vowel sounds, because in Venetian, as in
Italian, there is no contrast between tense and lax vowels in
unstressed syllables, the orthographic grave and acute accents can be
used to mark both stress and vowel quality at the same time: à /a/,
á /ɐ/, è /ɛ/, é /e/, ò /ɔ/, ó /o/, ù /u/. Different
orthographic norms prescribe slightly different rules for when
stressed vowels must be written with accents or may be left unmarked,
and no single system has been accepted by all speakers.
Venetian allows the consonant cluster /stʃ/ (not present in Italian),
which is sometimes written ⟨s-c⟩ or ⟨s'c⟩ before i or e, and
⟨s-ci⟩ or ⟨s'ci⟩ before other vowels. Examples include
s-ciarir (Italian schiarire, "to clear up"), s-cèt (schietto, "plain
clear"), s-ciòp (schioppo, "gun") and s-ciao (schiavo, "[your]
servant", ciao, "hello", "goodbye"). The hyphen or apostrophe is used
because the combination ⟨sc(i)⟩ is conventionally used for the
/ʃ/ sound, as in Italian spelling; e.g. scèmo (scemo, "stupid");
whereas ⟨sc⟩ before a, o and u represents /sk/: scàtoła
(scatola, "box"), scóndar (nascondere, "to hide"), scusàr (scusare,
Recently there have been attempts to standardize and simplify the
script by reusing older letters, e.g. by using ⟨x⟩ for [z] and a
single ⟨s⟩ for [s]; then one would write baxa for [ˈbaza]
("[third person singular] kisses") and basa for [ˈbasa] ("low"). Some
authors have continued or resumed the use of ⟨ç⟩, but only when
the resulting word is not too different from the Italian orthography:
in modern Venetian writings, it is then easier to find words as çima
and çento, rather than força and sperança, even though all these
four words display the same phonological variation in the position
marked by the letter ⟨ç⟩. Another recent convention is to use
⟨ł⟩ for the "soft" l, to allow a more unified orthography for all
variants of the language. However, in spite of their theoretical
advantages, these proposals have not been very successful outside of
academic circles, because of regional variations in pronunciation and
incompatibility with existing literature.
The Venetian speakers of
Orbéntena, el no serae mal star in campo per sto robare, se 'l no foesse che el se ha pur de gran paure. Càncaro ala roba! A' son chialò mi, ala segura, e squase che no a' no cherzo esserghe gnan. [...] Se mi mo' no foesse mi? E che a foesse stò amazò in campo? E che a foesse el me spirito? Lo sarae ben bela. No, càncaro, spiriti no magna.
"Really, it would not be that bad to be in the battlefield looting, were it not that one gets also big scares. Damn the loot! I am right here, in safety, and almost can't believe I am. [...] And if I were not me? And if I had been killed in battle? And if I were my ghost? That would be just great. No, damn, ghosts don't eat."
Discorso de Perasto The following sample is taken from the Perasto Speech (Discorso de Perasto), given on August 23, 1797 at Perasto, by Venetian Captain Giuseppe Viscovich, at the last lowering of the flag of the Venetian Republic (nicknamed the "Republic of Saint Mark").
Par trezentosetantasete ani le nostre sostanse, el nostro sangue, le nostre vite le xè sempre stàe par Ti, S. Marco; e fedelisimi senpre se gavemo reputà, Ti co nu, nu co Ti, e sempre co Ti sul mar semo stài lustri e virtuosi. Nisun co Ti ne gà visto scanpar, nisun co Ti ne gà visto vinti e spaurosi!
"For three hundred and seventy seven years our bodies, our blood our lives have always been for You, St. Mark; and very faithful we have always thought ourselves, You with us, we with You, And always with You on the sea we have been illustrious and virtuous. No one has seen us with You flee, No one has seen us with You defeated and fearful!"
Francesco Artico The following is a contemporary text by Francesco Artico. The elderly narrator is recalling the church choir singers of his youth, who, needless to say, sang much better than those of today:
Sti cantori vèci da na volta, co i cioéa su le profezie, in mezo al coro, davanti al restèl, co'a ose i 'ndéa a cior volta no so 'ndove e ghe voéa un bèl tóc prima che i tornésse in qua e che i rivésse in cao, màssima se i jèra pareciàdi onti co mezo litro de quel bon tant par farse coràjo.
"These old singers of the past, when they picked up the Prophecies, in the middle of the choir, in front of the gate, with their voice they went off who knows where, and it was a long time before they came back and landed on the ground, especially if they had been previously 'oiled' with half a litre of the good one [wine] just to make courage."
English cognates with Venetian
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Venetian source English loanword Notes
arsenàl arsenal via Italian; from Arabic دار الصناعة dār al-ṣināʻah "house of manufacture, factory"
artichioco / articiòco artichoke from Arabic الخرشوف al-kharshūf
balòta ballot ball used in Venetian elections; cf. English to "black-ball"
casìn casino "little house"; adopted in Italianized form
s'ciào ciao cognate with Italian schiavo "slave"; used originally in Venetian to mean "your servant", "at your service"
gazéta gazette a small Venetian coin; from the phrase gazeta de la novità "a pennysworth of news"
g(h)èto ghetto hypothesized as from either (bor)ghetto "little city", or from the Venetian term for "foundry"
ziro giro "circle, turn, spin"; adopted in Italianized form; from the name of the bank Banco del Ziro
gnòco, -chi gnocchi lump, bump, gnocchi; from Germanic *knokk- 'knuckle, joint'
góndoła gondola possibly related to dondolare "to rock"
lazaréto Lazaretto, lazaret a quarantine station for maritime travellers, ultimately from the Biblical Lazarus of Bethany, who was raised from the dead
lò(t)to lotto from Germanic *lot- "destiny, fate"
ultimately from the name Monemvasia, a small Greek island off the
Peloponnese once owned by the
from the name for the porcelain container in which marzipan was
transported, from Arabic موثبان mawthabān, or from Mataban
Bay of Bengal
Greek island called
Montenégro Montenegro "black mountain"; country on the Eastern side of the Adriatic Sea
Pantalón pantaloon a character in the Commedia dell'arte
pestàcio / pistàcio
quaranténa quarantine "forty", referring to the number of days a ship with plague victims must remain isolated
regata regatta originally "fight, contest"
scampo, -i scampi from Greek κάμπη "caterpillar", lit. "curved (animal)"
zechìn sequin Venetian gold ducat; from Arabic سكّة sikkah "coin, minting die"
Zanni zany "Johnny"; a character in the Commedia dell'arte
^ a b c United Nations (1991). Fifth United Nations Conference on the
Standardization of Geographical Names: Vol.2. Montreal.
^ a b c Holmes, Douglas R. (1989). Cultural disenchantments: worker
peasantries in northeast Italy. Princeton University Press.
^ Minahan, James (1998). Miniature empires: a historical dictionary of
the newly independent states. Westport.
^ Kalsbeek, Janneke (1998). The Čakavian dialect of Orbanići near
Žminj in Istria: Vol.25. Atlanta.
^ Venetian at
Artico, Francesco (1976). Tornén un pas indrìo: raccolta di conversazioni in dialetto. Brescia: Paideia Editrice. Ferguson, Ronnie (2007). A Linguistic History Of Venice. Leo S. Olschki. ISBN 978-88-222-5645-4. McKay, Carolyn Joyce. Il dialetto veneto di Segusino e Chipilo: fonologia, grammatica, lessico veneto, spagnolo, italiano, inglese.
Venetian edition of, the free encyclopedia
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Venetian language.
General grammar; comparison to other Romance languages; description of the Mexican dialect Tornén un pas indrìo!—samples of written and spoken Venetian by Francesco Artico Text and audio of some works by Ruzante
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Barese Irpinian Molisan Cosentino Tarantino
Salentino Southern Calabrese
Dalmatian Castelmezzano[a] Manduriano Judaeo-Italian Vastese
Valdôtain Faetar Savoyard
Brigasc Genoese Intemelio Monégasque Royasc
Bustocco and Legnanese Comasco-Lecchese dialects
Comasco Laghée Vallassinese Lecchese
Varesino Southwestern Lombard
Pavese Novarese Cremunés
Gallo-Italic of Basilicata Gallo-Italic of Sicily
Fornes Friulian Ladin
Arbëresh Vaccarizzo Albanian
Brda Gail Valley Inner Carniolan Istrian Karst Natisone Valley Resian Torre Valley
Calabrian Greek Griko
Cimbrian Mòcheno Southern Bavarian
Austrian German Walser Yiddish
^ Castelmezzano may also be defined as an Eastern Romance language,
though the Italo-Dalmation group may itself be defined as a
subdivision of Eastern
v t e
dialects European Brazilian Uruguayan African Asian Creoles
Asturian Cantabrian Extremaduran Leonese Mirandese
Old Spanish Judaeo-Spanish Caló
dialects Eastern Catalan Alguerese Balearic Central Northern Western Catalan North-Western Valencian
Languedocien Limousin Provençal
Vivaro-Alpine Old Provençal Judaeo-Provençal Caló
Burgundian Champenois Franc-Comtois French
dialects Standard African Aostan Belgian Cambodian Canadian Indian Laotian Swiss Vietnamese Old French Middle French Judaeo-French Creoles
Gallo Lorrain Norman
Picard Poitevin Saintongeais Walloon Moselle Romance British Latin
North Italian dialects
Brigasc Genoese Intemelio Monégasque
Gallo-Italic of Sicily Gallo-Italic of Basilicata
Fiuman Talian Triestine
Friulian Ladin Romansh
Central, Sardinian and Eastern
Aromanian Istro-Romanian Megleno-Romanian
Italics indicate extinct languages Bold indicates languages with more than 5 million speakers Languages between parentheses are varieties of the language on their left.