Vaudeville (/ˈvɔːdvɪl, -dəvɪl/; French: [vodvil]) is a
theatrical genre of variety entertainment. It was especially popular
United States and
Canada from the early 1880s until the early
1930s. A typical vaudeville performance was made up of a series of
separate, unrelated acts grouped together on a common bill. Types of
acts have included popular and classical musicians, singers, dancers,
comedians, trained animals, magicians, strongmen, female and male
impersonators, acrobats, illustrated songs, jugglers, one-act plays or
scenes from plays, athletes, lecturing celebrities, minstrels, and
movies. A vaudeville performer is often referred to as a
Vaudeville developed from many sources, including the concert saloon,
minstrelsy, freak shows, dime museums, and literary American
burlesque. Called "the heart of American show business", vaudeville
was one of the most popular types of entertainment in North America
for several decades.
4 Selected vaudeville artists
5 Immigrant America
8 Vaudeville's cultural influence and legacy
10 See also
12 External links
The origin of this term is obscure, but is often explained as being
derived from the French expression voix de ville ("voice of the
city"). A second speculation is that it comes from the
fifteenth-century songs on satire by poet Olivier Basselin, "Vaux de
Vire". In his Connections television series, science historian
James Burke argues that the term is a corruption of the French "Vau de
Vire" ("Vire River Valley", in English), an area known for its bawdy
drinking songs and where Basselin lived; Jean le Houx circa 1610
collected these works as Le Livre des Chants nouveaux de Vaudevire,
which is probably the direct origin of the word. Some, however,
preferred the earlier term "variety" to what manager Tony Pastor
called its "sissy and Frenchified" successor. Thus, vaudeville was
marketed as "variety" well into the 20th century.
See also: Comédie en vaudevilles
From newspaper promotional for vaudeville character actor Charles
Grapewin, circa 1900
With its first subtle appearances within the early 1860s, vaudeville
was not initially a common form of entertainment. The form gradually
evolved from the concert saloon and variety hall into its mature form
throughout the 1870s and 1880s. This more gentle form was known as
In the years before the American Civil War, entertainment existed on a
different scale. Certainly, variety theatre existed before 1860 in
Europe and elsewhere. In the US, as early as the first decades of the
19th century, theatregoers could enjoy a performance consisting of
Shakespeare plays, acrobatics, singing, dancing, and comedy.[citation
needed] As the years progressed, people seeking diversified amusement
found an increasing number of ways to be entertained.
characterized by traveling companies touring through cities and
towns. A handful of circuses regularly toured the country; dime
museums appealed to the curious; amusement parks, riverboats, and town
halls often featured "cleaner" presentations of variety entertainment;
compared to saloons, music halls, and burlesque houses, which catered
to those with a taste for the risqué. In the 1840s, the minstrel
show, another type of variety performance, and "the first emanation of
a pervasive and purely American mass culture", grew to enormous
popularity and formed what
Nick Tosches called "the heart of
19th-century show business". A significant influence also came from
Dutch minstrels and comedians. Medicine shows traveled the
countryside offering programs of comedy, music, jugglers, and other
novelties along with displays of tonics, salves, and miracle elixirs,
while "Wild West" shows provided romantic vistas of the disappearing
frontier, complete with trick riding, music and drama. Vaudeville
incorporated these various itinerant amusements into a stable,
institutionalized form centered in America's growing urban hubs.
In the early 1880s, impresario Tony Pastor, a circus ringmaster turned
theatre manager, capitalized on middle class sensibilities and
spending power when he began to feature "polite" variety programs in
several of his
New York City
New York City theatres. The usual date given for the
"birth" of vaudeville is October 24, 1881 at New York's Fourteenth
Street Theater, when Pastor famously staged the first bill of
self-proclaimed "clean" vaudeville in New York City. Hoping to draw
a potential audience from female and family-based shopping traffic
uptown, Pastor barred the sale of liquor in his theatres, eliminated
bawdy material from his shows, and offered gifts of coal and hams to
attendees. Pastor's experiment proved successful, and other managers
soon followed suit.
Performance bill for Temple Theatre, Detroit, December 1, 1902
The manager's comments, sent back to the circuit's central office
weekly, follow each act's description. The bill illustrates the
typical pattern of opening the show with a "dumb" act to allow patrons
to find their seats, placing strong acts in second and penultimate
positions, and leaving the weakest act for the end, to clear the
As well, note that in this bill, as in many vaudeville shows, acts
often associated with "lowbrow" or popular entertainment (acrobats, a
trained mule) shared a stage with acts more usually regarded as
"highbrow" or classical entertainment (opera vocalists, classical
(1) Burt Jordan and Rosa Crouch. "Sensational, grotesque and 'buck'
dancers. A good act..."
(2) The White Tscherkess Trio. "A man and two women who do a singing
turn of the operatic order. They carry special scenery which is very
artistic and their costumes are original and neat. Their voices are
good and blend exceedingly well. The act goes big with the audience."
(3) Sarah Midgely and Gertie Carlisle. "Presenting the sketch 'After
School.' ... they are a 'knockout.'"
(4) Theodor F. Smith and Jenny St. George-Fuller. "Refined
(5) Milly Capell. "European equestrienne. This is her second week. On
account of the very pretty picture that she makes she goes as strong
as she did last week."
(6) R. J. Jose. "Tenor singer. The very best of them all."
(7) The Nelson Family of Acrobats. "This act is composed of three men,
two young women, three boys and two small girls. The greatest
acrobatic act extant."
(8) James Thornton. "Monologist and vocalist. He goes like a cyclone.
It is a case of continuous laughter from his entrance to his exit."
(9) Burk and Andrus and Their Trained Mule. "This act, if it can be so
classed, was closed after the evening performance."
Typical provincial venue on the circuit: "The Opera" in Kirksville,
B. F. Keith took the next step, starting in Boston, where he built an
empire of theatres and brought vaudeville to the US and Canada. Later,
E. F. Albee, adoptive grandfather of the Pulitzer Prize-winning
playwright Edward Albee, managed the chain to its greatest success.
Circuits such as those managed by Keith-Albee provided vaudeville's
greatest economic innovation and the principal source of its
industrial strength. They enabled a chain of allied vaudeville houses
that remedied the chaos of the single-theatre booking system by
contracting acts for regional and national tours. These could easily
be lengthened from a few weeks to two years.
Albee also gave national prominence to vaudeville's trumpeting
"polite" entertainment, a commitment to entertainment equally
inoffensive to men, women and children. Acts that violated this ethos
(e.g., those that used words such as "hell") were admonished and
threatened with expulsion from the week's remaining performances or
were canceled altogether. In spite of such threats, performers
routinely flouted this censorship, often to the delight of the very
audience members whose sensibilities were supposedly endangered. He
eventually instituted a set of guidelines to be an audience member at
his show, and these were reinforced by the ushers working in the
This "polite entertainment" also extended to Keith's company members.
He went to extreme measures to maintain this level of modesty. Keith
even went as far as posting warnings backstage such as this: "Don't
say 'slob' or 'son of a gun' or 'hully gee' on the stage unless you
want to be canceled peremptorily ... if you are guilty of
uttering anything sacrilegious or even suggestive you will be
immediately closed and will never again be allowed in a theater where
Mr. Keith is in authority." Along these same lines of discipline,
Keith's theater managers would occasionally send out blue envelopes
with orders to omit certain suggestive lines of songs and possible
substitutions for those words. If actors chose to ignore these orders
or quit, they would get "a black mark" on their name and would never
again be allowed to work on the Keith Circuit. Thus, actors learned to
follow the instructions given them by B. F. Keith for fear of
losing their careers forever.
By the late 1890s, vaudeville had large circuits, houses (small and
large) in almost every sizable location, standardized booking, broad
pools of skilled acts, and a loyal national following. One of the
biggest circuits was Martin Beck's Orpheum Circuit. It incorporated in
1919 and brought together 45 vaudeville theaters in 36 cities
throughout the US and
Canada and a large interest in two vaudeville
circuits. Another major circuit was that of Alexander Pantages. In his
heyday, Pantages owned more than 30 vaudeville theaters and
controlled, through management contracts, perhaps 60 more in both the
US and Canada.
At its height, vaudeville played across multiple strata of economic
class and auditorium size. On the vaudeville circuit, it was said that
if an act would succeed in Peoria, Illinois, it would work anywhere.
The question "Will it play in Peoria?" has now become a metaphor for
whether something appeals to the American mainstream public. The three
most common levels were the "small time" (lower-paying contracts for
more frequent performances in rougher, often converted theatres), the
"medium time" (moderate wages for two performances each day in
purpose-built theatres), and the "big time" (possible remuneration of
several thousand dollars per week in large, urban theatres largely
patronized by the middle and upper-middle classes). As performers rose
in renown and established regional and national followings, they
worked their way into the less arduous working conditions and better
pay of the big time. The capital of the big time was New York City's
Theatre (or just "The Palace" in the slang of vaudevillians),
built by Martin Beck in 1913 and operated by Keith. Featuring a bill
stocked with inventive novelty acts, national celebrities, and
acknowledged masters of vaudeville performance (such as comedian and
trick roper Will Rogers), the Palace provided what many vaudevillians
considered the apotheosis of remarkable careers. A standard show bill
would begin with a sketch, follow with a single (an individual male or
female performer); next would be an alley oop (an acrobatic act); then
another single, followed by yet another sketch such as a blackface
comedy. The acts that followed these for the rest of the show would
vary from musicals to jugglers to song-and-dance singles and end with
a final extravaganza – either musical or drama – with the full
company. These shows would feature such stars as ragtime and jazz
pianist Eubie Blake, the famous and magical Harry Houdini, and child
star Baby Rose Marie, adds Gilbert. In the New-York Tribune's
article about Vaudeville, it is said that at any given time,
Vaudeville was employing over twelve thousand different people
throughout its entire industry. Each entertainer would be on the road
42 weeks at a time while working a particular "Circuit" – or an
individual theatre chain of a major company.
This 1913 how-to booklet for would-be vaudevillians was recently
While the neighborhood character of vaudeville attendance had always
promoted a tendency to tailor fare to specific audiences, mature
vaudeville grew to feature houses and circuits specifically aimed at
certain demographic groups. Black patrons, often segregated into the
rear of the second gallery in white-oriented theatres, had their own
smaller circuits, as did speakers of Italian and Yiddish. (For a brief
discussion of Black vaudeville, see Theater Owners Booking
Association.) This foreign addition combined with comedy produced such
acts as "minstrel shows of antebellum America" and Yiddish theater.
PBS adds that many of these ethnic families joined in on this
entertainment business, and for them, this traveling lifestyle was
simply a continuation of the adventures that brought them to America.
Through these acts, they were able to assimilate themselves into their
new home while also bringing bits of their own culture into this new
world. White-oriented regional circuits, such as New England's
"Peanut Circuit", also provided essential training grounds for new
artists while allowing established acts to experiment with and polish
new material. At its height, vaudeville was rivaled only by churches
and public schools among the nation's premiere public gathering
Another slightly different aspect of
Vaudeville was an increasing
intrigue with the female figure. The previously mentioned ominous idea
of "the blue envelopes" led to the phrase "blue" material, which
described the provocative subject matter present in many Vaudeville
acts of the time. Many managers even saw this scandalous material
as a marketing strategy to attract many different audiences. As stated
in Andrew Erdman's book Blue Vaudeville, the
Vaudeville stage was even
marked with descriptions like, "a highly sexualized space ...
where unclad bodies, provocative dancers, and singers of 'blue' lyrics
all vied for attention." Such performances highlighted and objectified
the female body as a "sexual delight", a phenomenon that historians
believe emerged in the mid-19th century. But more than that, these
historians think that
Vaudeville marked a time in which the female
body became its own "sexual spectacle" more than it ever had before.
This sexual image began sprouting everywhere an American went: the
shops, a restaurant, the grocery store, etc. The more this image
brought in the highest revenue, the more
Vaudeville focused on acts
involving women. Even acts that were as innocent as a sister act were
higher sellers than a good brother act. Consequently, Erdman adds that
Vaudeville performers such as Julie Mackey and Gibson's Bathing
Girls began to focus less on talent and more on physical appeal
through their figure, tight gowns, and other revealing attire. It
eventually came as a surprise to audience members when such beautiful
women actually possessed talent in addition to their appealing looks.
This element of surprise colored much of the reaction to the female
entertainment of this time.
Selected vaudeville artists
List of vaudeville performers: A–K
List of vaudeville performers: L-Z
The racial relations of Irish and African Americans is showcased by
the cover art and lyrics of St. Patrick's Day is a Bad Day for Coons.
In addition to vaudeville's prominence as a form of American
entertainment, it reflected the newly evolving urban inner city
culture and interaction of its operators and audience. Making up a
large portion of immigration to the
United States in the mid-19th
century, Irish Americans interacted with established Americans, with
the Irish becoming subject to discrimination due to their ethnic
physical and cultural characteristics. The ethnic stereotypes of Irish
through their greenhorn depiction alluded to their newly arrived
status as immigrant Americans, with the stereotype portrayed in
avenues of entertainment.
Following the Irish immigration wave, several waves followed in which
new immigrants from different backgrounds came in contact with the
Irish in America's urban centers. Already settled and being native
English speakers, Irish Americans took hold of these advantages and
began to assert their positions in the immigrant racial hierarchy
based on skin tone and assimilation status, cementing job positions
that were previously unavailable to them as recently arrived
immigrants. As a result, Irish Americans became prominent in
vaudeville entertainment as curators and actors, creating a unique
ethnic interplay between Irish American use of self-deprecation as
humor and their diverse inner city surroundings.
The interactions between newly arrived immigrants and settled
immigrants within the backdrop of the unknown American urban landscape
allowed vaudeville to be utilized as an avenue for expression and
understanding. The often hostile immigrant experience in their new
country was now used for comic relief on the vaudeville stage, where
stereotypes of different ethnic groups were perpetuated. The crude
stereotypes that emerged were easily identifiable not only by their
distinct ethnic cultural attributes, but how those attributes differed
from the mainstream established American culture and identity.
Harry Houdini and Jennie, the Vanishing Elephant, January 7, 1918
Coupled with their historical presence on the English stage for comic
relief, and as operators and actors of the vaudeville stage, Irish
Americans became interpreters of immigrant cultural images in American
popular culture. New arrivals found their ethnic group status defined
within the immigrant population and in their new country as a whole by
the Irish on stage. Unfortunately, the same interactions between
ethnic groups within the close living conditions of cities also
created racial tensions which were reflected in vaudeville. Conflict
between Irish and African Americans saw the promotion of black-face
minstrelsy on the stage, purposefully used to place African Americans
beneath the Irish in the racial and social urban hierarchy.
Although the Irish had a strong Celtic presence in vaudeville and in
the promotion of ethnic stereotypes, the ethnic groups that they were
characterizing also utilized the same humor. As the Irish donned their
ethnic costumes, groups such as the Chinese, Italians, Germans and
Jews utilized ethnic caricatures to understand themselves as well as
the Irish. The urban diversity within the vaudeville stage and
audience also reflected their societal status, with the working class
constituting 2/3 of the typical vaudeville audience.
The ethnic caricatures that now comprised
American humor reflected the
positive and negative interactions between ethnic groups in America's
cities. The caricatures served as a method of understanding different
groups and their societal positions within their cities. The use
of the greenhorn immigrant for comedic effect showcased how immigrants
were viewed as new arrivals, but also what they could aspire to be. In
addition to interpreting visual ethnic caricatures, the Irish American
ideal of transitioning from the shanty to the lace curtain
became a model of economic upward mobility for immigrant groups.
Styles of Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon, as presented in a vaudeville circuit
pantomime and sketched by
Marguerite Martyn of the St. Louis
Post-Dispatch in April 1918
The continued growth of the lower-priced cinema in the early 1910s
dealt the heaviest blow to vaudeville. This was similar to the advent
of free broadcast television's diminishing the cultural and economic
strength of the cinema. Cinema was first regularly commercially
presented in the US in vaudeville halls. The first public showing of
movies projected on a screen took place at Koster and Bial's Music
Hall in 1896. Lured by greater salaries and less arduous working
conditions, many performers and personalities, such as Al Jolson, W.
C. Fields, Mae West, Buster Keaton, the Marx Brothers, Jimmy Durante,
Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, Edgar Bergen, Fanny Brice, Burns and Allen,
and Eddie Cantor, used the prominence gained in live variety
performance to vault into the new medium of cinema. In doing so, such
performers often exhausted in a few moments of screen time the novelty
of an act that might have kept them on tour for several years. Other
performers who entered in vaudeville's later years, including Jack
Benny, Abbott and Costello, Kate Smith, Cary Grant, Bob Hope, Milton
Berle, Judy Garland, Rose Marie, Sammy Davis, Jr., Red Skelton, and
The Three Stooges, used vaudeville only as a launching pad for later
careers. They left live performance before achieving the national
celebrity of earlier vaudeville stars, and found fame in new venues.
The line between live and filmed performances was blurred by the
number of vaudeville entrepreneurs who made more or less successful
forays into the movie business. For example, Alexander Pantages
quickly realized the importance of motion pictures as a form of
entertainment. He incorporated them in his shows as early as 1902.
Later, he entered into partnership with the Famous Players-Lasky, a
major Hollywood production company and an affiliate of Paramount
By the late 1920s, most vaudeville shows included a healthy selection
of cinema. Earlier in the century, many vaudevillians, cognizant of
the threat represented by cinema, held out hope that the silent nature
of the "flickering shadow sweethearts" would preclude their usurpation
of the paramount place in the public's affection. With the
introduction of talking pictures in 1926, the burgeoning film studios
removed what had remained the chief difference in favor of live
theatrical performance: spoken dialogue. Historian John Kenrick wrote:
Top vaudeville stars filmed their acts for one-time pay-offs,
inadvertently helping to speed the death of vaudeville. After all,
when "small time" theatres could offer "big time" performers on screen
at a nickel a seat, who could ask audiences to pay higher amounts for
less impressive live talent? The newly-formed RKO studios took over
the famed Orpheum vaudeville circuit and swiftly turned it into a
chain of full-time movie theaters. The half-century tradition of
vaudeville was effectively wiped out within less than four years.
Inevitably, managers further trimmed costs by eliminating the last of
the live performances.
Vaudeville also suffered due to the rise of
broadcast radio following the greater availability of inexpensive
receiver sets later in the decade. Even the hardiest in the vaudeville
industry realized the form was in decline; the perceptive understood
the condition to be terminal. The standardized film distribution and
talking pictures of the 1930s confirmed the end of vaudeville. By
1930, the vast majority of formerly live theatres had been wired for
sound, and none of the major studios were producing silent pictures.
For a time, the most luxurious theatres continued to offer live
entertainment, but most theatres were forced by the Great Depression
Some in the industry blamed cinema's drain of talent from the
vaudeville circuits for the medium's demise. Others argued that
vaudeville had allowed its performances to become too familiar to its
famously loyal, now seemingly fickle audiences.
There was no abrupt end to vaudeville, though the form was clearly
sagging by the late 1920s.
Joseph Kennedy, Sr.
Joseph Kennedy, Sr. in a hostile buyout,
acquired the Keith-Albee-Orpheum Theaters Corporation (KAO), which had
more than 700 vaudeville theaters across the
United States which had
begun showing movies. The shift of New York City's Palace Theatre,
vaudeville's epicenter, to an exclusively cinema presentation on
November 16, 1932 is often considered to have been the death knell of
vaudeville. No single event is more reflective of its gradual
Though talk of its resurrection was heard during the 1930s and later,
the demise of the supporting apparatus of the circuits and the higher
cost of live performance made any large-scale renewal of vaudeville
The most striking examples of
Gilded Age theater architecture were
commissioned by the big time vaudeville magnates and stood as
monuments of their wealth and ambition. Examples of such architecture
are the theaters built by impresario Alexander Pantages. Pantages
often used architect
B. Marcus Priteca
B. Marcus Priteca (1881–1971), who in turn
regularly worked with muralist Anthony Heinsbergen. Priteca devised an
exotic, neo-classical style that his employer called "Pantages Greek".
Though classic vaudeville reached a zenith of capitalization and
sophistication in urban areas dominated by national chains and
commodious theatres, small-time vaudeville included countless more
intimate and locally controlled houses. Small-time houses were often
converted saloons, rough-hewn theatres, or multi-purpose halls,
together catering to a wide range of clientele. Many small towns had
Vaudeville's cultural influence and legacy
As the genre declined, most performers left the theatre. The kid tap
dancer Ray Wollbrinck, once called "the cleverest buckdancer on the
vaudeville stage", later became a bandleader and ended his days as a
Some of the most prominent vaudevillians successfully made the
transition to cinema, though others were not as successful. Some
performers such as
Bert Lahr fashioned careers out of combining live
performance with radio and film roles. Many others later appeared in
the Catskill resorts that constituted the "Borscht Belt".
Vaudeville was instrumental in the success of the newer media of film,
radio, and television. Comedies of the new era adopted many of the
dramatic and musical tropes of classic vaudeville acts.
of the 1920s through the 1940s used talent from the vaudeville stage
and followed a vaudeville aesthetic of variety entertainment, both in
Hollywood and in Asia, including China.
The rich repertoire of the vaudeville tradition was mined for
prominent prime-time radio variety shows such as The Rudy Vallée
Show. The structure of a single host introducing a series of acts
became a popular television style and can be seen consistently in the
development of television, from The
Milton Berle Show in 1948 to Late
Night With David Letterman in the 1980s. The multi-act format had
renewed success in shows such as
Your Show of Shows
Your Show of Shows with Sid Caesar
and The Ed Sullivan Show. Today, performers such as Bill Irwin, a
MacArthur Fellow and Tony Award-winning actor, are frequently lauded
as "New Vaudevillians".
References to vaudeville and the use of its distinctive argot continue
throughout Western popular culture. Words such as "flop" and "gag"
were terms created from the vaudeville era and have entered the
American idiom. Though not credited often, vaudevillian techniques can
commonly be witnessed on television and in movies.
The records of the Tivoli
Theatre are housed at the State Library of
Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, with additional personal papers of
vaudevillian performers from the Tivoli Theatre, including extensive
costume and set design holdings, held by the Performing Arts
Collection, Arts Centre Melbourne.
Vaudeville Museum, one of the largest collection of
vaudeville memorabilia, is located at the University of Arizona.
Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres
Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres in
Toronto houses the world's
largest collection of vaudeville props and scenery.
Benjamin Franklin Keith
Benjamin Franklin Keith and
Edward F. Albee
Edward F. Albee Collection housed at
University of Iowa
University of Iowa includes a large collection of managers' report
books recording and commenting on the lineup and quality of the acts
How can they tell that I'm Irish?
Edison Records recording of vaudeville performer Edward M.
Favor's rendition of Clarence Wainwright Murphy's song How can they
tell that I'm Irish?
Problems playing this file? See media help.
Concert party (entertainment)
For Me and My Gal (film)
^ Trav, S.D. (October 31, 2006). No Applause-Just Throw Money: The
Book That Made
Vaudeville Famous. Faber & Faber.
ISBN 978-0865479586. (Subscription required (help)).
^ a b c d e Kenrick, John. "A History of The Musical: Vaudeville".
^ Burke, James (September 2, 2003). An Invisible Object (Connections3
DVD). Ambrose Video Publishing, Inc.
^ Cullen, Frank; Hackman, Florence; McNeilly, Donald (October 8,
Vaudeville History". Vaudeville, Old & New: An
Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America. London: Routledge.
^ Thompson, Robert J. (February 4, 2014). "
Television in the United
States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
^ Tosches, Nick (2002). Where Dead Voices Gather. Boston: Back Bay
Books. p. 11. ISBN 0-316-89537-7.
^ Grosch, Nils; Widmaier, Tobias, eds. (2010). Lied und populäre
Kultur/ Song and Popular Culture (in German). Münster: Waxman Verlag
GmbH. p. 233. ISBN 978-383092395-4. ... the widespread
influence Dutch minstrels and comedians had with their musical and
dramaturgical idiom on vaudeville, the circuit of traveling tent
shows. ... The Black Crook of 1866 ... already displayed a
mixture of "ersatz German romanticism" (Gerald Bordman) and burlesque
elements inherited from the Dutch character shows ...
^ "vaudeville entertainment". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved
^ Gilbert, Douglas (1940). American Vaudeville: Its Life and Times.
^ Webwerks. "The New York Tribune: Vaudeville". Oldnewsads.com.
Retrieved January 17, 2012.
^ "Vaudeville: About Vaudeville".
PBS American Masters.
^ Erdman, Andrew L. (January 20, 2007). Blue Vaudeville. McFarland
& Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786431151.
^ Williams, William H. A. (2002). "Green Again: Irish-American
Lace-Curtain Satire". New Hibernia Review. JSTOR 20557792.
^ Barrett, James (2012). The Irish Way: Becoming American in the
Multi-Ethnic City. New York: The Penguin Press. p. 107.
^ a b Barrett, James (2012). The Irish Way: Becoming American in the
Multi-Ethnic City. New York: The Penguin Press.
^ "Sign In". doi:10.2307/467640. Retrieved 2016-03-01.
^ a b Wittke, Carl (1952). "The Immigrant Theme on the American
Stage". The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. doi:10.2307/1892181.
^ Bayor, Ronald (1996). The New York Irish. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns
Hopkins University Press. pp. 143–145.
^ Barrett, James (2012). The Irish Way: Becoming American in the
Multi-Ethnic City. New York: The Penguin Press. p. 159.
^ a b c Barrett, James (2012). The Irish Way: Becoming American in the
Multi-Ethnic City. New York: The Penguin Press.
^ Barrett, James (2012). The Irish Way: Becoming American in the
Multi-Ethnic City. New York: The Penguin Press. p. 108.
^ Kenrick, John. "History of Musical Film, 1927-30: Part II".
Musicals101.com, 2004, accessed May 17, 2010
^ Senelick, Laurence (October 22, 2007). Wilmeth, Don B., ed.
Cambridge Guide to American
Theatre (Second ed.). Cambridge University
Press. p. 480. ISBN 978-0521835381. (Subscription required
^ "The Ancient Art of Falling Down
Vaudeville Cinema between Hollywood
and China". MCLC Resource Center. 2017-08-29. Retrieved
^ Hilmes, Michele (February 12, 2010). Only Connect: A Cultural
History of Broadcasting in the United States. Cengage Learning.
p. 97. ISBN 978-0495570516. [...] it is in the form of the
variety show itself, network radio's offspring, that we can see the
influence of vaudeville on radio most clearly. From The Rudy Vallee
Jack Benny and Bing Crosby to TV programs like The Ed
Sullivan Show, The Smothers Brothers, Saturday Night Live, In Living
Color, and Late Night with David Letterman, we can see strong remnants
of vaudeville's typical variety act structure. Combining a
host/announcer with comedy sketches, musical performances, dance,
monologues, and satiric banter--sometimes even animal acts--the
variety show takes myriad forms today. The vaudeville circuit of
touring companies and local theaters is gone, but it lives on
^ Henry, William A., III (1989-05-15). "Theater: Bowing Out with a
Flourish". TIME. Retrieved 2010-05-27.
^ "Bill Irwin: Clown Prince". Great Performances. Season 32. December
15, 2004. PBS. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
Vaudeville Lives: The world's largest
collection has been donated to the UA". UA News. February 25,
^ Kibler, M. Alison (April 1992). "The Keith/Albee Collection: The
Vaudeville Industry, 1894-1935". From Books at Iowa 56.
Find more aboutVaudevilleat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Data from Wikidata
Vaudeville and Variety Collections, held in the Performing Arts
Collection, Arts Centre Melbourne.
Modern day vaudeville theatre in Austin TX
University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – J. Willis
University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Prior and
Norris Troupe Photographs
University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections - 19th Century
University of Iowa
University of Iowa Libraries
Special Collections - Keith/Albee
Vaudeville Theater Collection
Ruckus! American Entertainments at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
From the collection of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
at Yale University
Hear Gary Stephens on Vaudeville, ICA 1988
Illinois Digital Newspaper Collections:
Vaudeville News (1920-1929)
Vaudeville Cinema in Hollywood and China