The van der Waals equation (or van der Waals equation of state; named after Johannes Diderik van der Waals) is based on plausible reasons that real gases do not follow the ideal gas law. The ideal gas law treats gas molecules as point particles that do not interact except in elastic collisions. In other words, they do not take up any space, and are not attracted or repelled by other gas molecules. [1] To account for the volume that a real gas molecule takes up, the van der Waals equation replaces V in the ideal gas law with (V-b), where b is the volume per mole that is occupied by the molecules. This leads to;[2] P ( V m − b ) = R T displaystyle P(V_ m -b)=RT [3] The second modification made to the ideal gas law accounts for the fact that gas molecules do in fact attract each other and that real gases are therefore more compressible than ideal gases. Van der Waals provided for intermolecular attraction by adding to the observed pressure P in the equation of state a term a / V m 2 displaystyle a/V_ m ^ 2 , where a is a constant whose value depends on the gas. The van der Waals equation is therefore written as;[4] ( P + a / V m 2 ) ( V m − b ) = R T displaystyle (P+a/V_ m ^ 2 )(V_ m -b)=RT , and can also be written as ( P + a n 2 / V 2 ) ( V − n b ) = n R T displaystyle (P+an^ 2 /V^ 2 )(V-nb)=nRT ,[5] where Vm is the molar volume of the gas, R is the universal gas
constant, T is temperature, P is pressure, and V is volume. When the
molar volume Vm is large, b becomes negligible in comparison with Vm,
a/Vm2 becomes negligible with respect to P, and the van der Waals
equation reduces to the ideal gas law, PVm=RT.[6]
It is available via its traditional derivation (a mechanical equation
of state), or via a derivation based in statistical thermodynamics,
the latter of which provides the partition function of the system and
allows thermodynamic functions to be specified. It successfully
approximates the behavior of real fluids above their critical
temperatures and is qualitatively reasonable for their liquid and
low-pressure gaseous states at low temperatures. However, near the
transitions between gas and liquid, in the range of p, V, and T where
the liquid phase and the gas phase are in equilibrium, the van der
Waals equation fails to accurately model observed experimental
behaviour, in particular that p is a constant function of V at given
temperatures. As such, the van der Waals model is not useful only for
calculations intended to predict real behavior in regions near the
critical point. Empirical corrections to address these predictive
deficiencies have been inserted into the van der Waals model, e.g., by
Contents 1 Overview and history 2 Equation 2.1 Reduced form 3 Validity 4 Derivation 4.1 Conventional derivation
4.2
5 Maxwell equal area rule 5.1 From chemical potential 6 Other parameters, forms and applications 6.1 Other thermodynamic parameters 6.2 Reduced form 6.3 Cubic equation 6.4 Application to compressible fluids 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Overview and history[edit] This section needs expansion with: a proper lay explanation of the equation and the history and context of its discovery. You can help by adding to it. (June 2015) The van der Waals equation is a thermodynamic equation of state based
on the theory that fluids are composed of particles with non-zero
volumes, and subject to a (not necessarily pairwise) inter-particle
attractive force.[citation needed] It was based on work in theoretical
physical chemistry performed in the late 19th century by Johannes
Diderik van der Waals, who did related work on the attractive force
that also bears his name.[citation needed] The equation is known to be
based on a traditional set of derivations deriving from van der Waals'
and related efforts,[citation needed] as well as a set of derivation
based in statistical thermodynamics,[citation needed] see below.
Van der Waals' early, primary interests were in the field of
thermodynamics, where a first influence was the published work by
This section needs additional citations to secondary or tertiary sources such as review articles, monographs, or textbooks. Please add such references to provide context and establish the relevance of any primary research articles cited. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) van der Waals isotherms.[citation needed] The model correctly predicts a mostly incompressible liquid phase, but the oscillations in the phase transition zone do not fit experimental data. van der Waals isotherms and oscillations, temperatures, T, below and above TC.[citation needed] Shown in this PV diagram are a series of 5 isotherms for temperatures ranging from below (blue) to above (red) TC, where the upward arise and downward dip in the isotherm predicted by the van der Waals equation (the "oscillation," especially evident for the two isotherms for values of T < TC) is evident in the region of the gas-liquid phase transition. The equation relates four state variables: the pressure of the fluid p, the total volume of the fluid's container V, the number of particles N, and the absolute temperature of the system T. The intensive, microscopic form of the equation is: ( p + a ′ v 2 ) ( v − b ′ ) = k T displaystyle left(p+ frac a' v^ 2 right)left(v-b'right)=kT [7] where v = V / N displaystyle v=V/N is the volume of the container occupied by each particle (not the velocity of a particle), and k is the Boltzmann constant. It introduces two new parameters: a', a measure of the average attraction between particles, and b', the volume excluded from v by one particle. The equation can be also written in extensive, molar form: ( p + n 2 a V 2 ) ( V − n b ) = n R T displaystyle left(p+ frac n^ 2 a V^ 2 right)left(V-nbright)=nRT [12] where a = N A 2 a ′ displaystyle a=N_ A ^ 2 a' is a measure of the average attraction between particles, b = N A b ′ displaystyle b=N_ A b' is the volume excluded by a mole of particles, n = N / N A displaystyle n=N/N_ A is the number of moles, R = N A k displaystyle R=N_ A k is the universal gas constant, k is Boltzmann's constant, and NA is Avogadro's constant. A careful distinction must be drawn between the volume available to a particle and the volume of a particle.[according to whom?] In the intensive equation, v equals the total space available to each particle, while the parameter b' is proportional to the proper volume of a single particle - the volume bounded by the atomic radius. This is subtracted from v because of the space taken up by one particle.[citation needed] In van der Waals' original derivation, given below, b' is four times the proper volume of the particle. Observe further that the pressure p goes to infinity when the container is completely filled with particles so that there is no void space left for the particles to move; this occurs when V = nb.[13][self-published source?][better source needed] Reduced form[edit] The van der Waals equation can also be expressed in terms of reduced properties: ( P r + 3 V r 2 ) ( v r − 1 3 ) = 8 3 T displaystyle left(P_ r + frac 3 V_ r ^ 2 right)left(v_ r - frac 1 3 right)= frac 8 3 T This yields a critical compressibility factor of 3/8. Validity[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The van der Waals equation is mathematically simple, but it nevertheless predicts the experimentally observed transition between vapor and liquid, and predicts critical behaviour.[14]:289 Above the critical temperature, TC, the van der Waals equation is an improvement over the ideal gas law, and for lower temperatures, i.e., T < TC, the equation is also qualitatively reasonable for the liquid and low-pressure gaseous states; however, with respect to the first-order phase transition, i.e., the range of (p, V, T) where a liquid phase and a gas phase would be in equilibrium, the equation appears to fail to predict observed experimental behaviour, in the sense that p is typically observed to be constant as a function of V for a given temperature in the two-phase region. This apparent discrepancy is resolved in the context of vapour–liquid equilibrium: at a particular temperature, there exist two points on the van der Waals isotherm that have the same chemical potential, and thus a system in thermodynamic equilibrium will appear to traverse a straight line on the p–V diagram as the ratio of vapour to liquid changes. However, in such a system, there are really only two points present (the liquid and the vapour) rather than a series of states connected by a line, so connecting the locus of points is incorrect: it is not an equation of multiple states, but an equation of (a single) state. It is indeed possible to compress a gas beyond the point at which it would typically condense, given the right conditions, and it is also possible to expand a liquid beyond the point at which it would usually boil. Such states are called "metastable" states. Such behaviour is qualitatively (though perhaps not quantitatively) predicted by the van der Waals equation of state.[15] However, the values of physical quantities as predicted with the van der Waals equation of state "are in very poor agreement with experiment," so the model's utility is limited to qualitative rather than quantitative purposes.[14]:289 Empirically-based corrections can easily be inserted into the van der Waals model (see Maxwell's correction, below), but in so doing, the modified expression is no longer as simple an analytical model; in this regard, other models, such as those based on the principle of corresponding states, achieve a better fit with roughly the same work.[citation needed] Even with its acknowledged shortcomings, the pervasive use of the van der Waals equation in standard university physical chemistry textbooks makes clear its importance as a pedagogic tool to aid understanding fundamental physical chemistry ideas involved in developing theories of vapour–liquid behavior and equations of state.[16][17][18] In addition, other (more accurate) equations of state such as the Redlich–Kwong and Peng–Robinson equation of state are essentially modifications of the van der Waals equation of state. Derivation[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Textbooks in physical chemistry generally give two derivations of the title equation.[who?] One is the conventional derivation that goes back to van der Waals, a mechanical equation of state that cannot be used to specify all thermodynamic functions; the other is a statistical mechanics derivation that makes explicit the intermolecular potential neglected in the first derivation.[citation needed] A particular advantage of the statistical mechanical derivation is that it yields the partition function for the system, and allows all thermodynamic functions to be specified (including the mechanical equation of state).[citation needed] Conventional derivation[edit] Consider one mole of gas composed of non-interacting point particles that satisfy the ideal gas law:(see any standard Physical Chemistry text, op. cit.) p = R T V m = R T v . displaystyle p= frac RT V_ mathrm m = frac RT v . Next assume that all particles are hard spheres of the same finite radius r (the van der Waals radius). The effect of the finite volume of the particles is to decrease the available void space in which the particles are free to move. We must replace V by V − b, where b is called the excluded volume or "co-volume". The corrected equation becomes p = R T V m − b . displaystyle p= frac RT V_ mathrm m -b . The excluded volume b displaystyle b is not just equal to the volume occupied by the solid, finite-sized particles, but actually four times that volume. To see this, we must realize that a particle is surrounded by a sphere of radius 2r (two times the original radius) that is forbidden for the centers of the other particles. If the distance between two particle centers were to be smaller than 2r, it would mean that the two particles penetrate each other, which, by definition, hard spheres are unable to do. The excluded volume for the two particles (of average diameter d or radius r) is b 2 ′ = 4 π d 3 / 3 = 8 × ( 4 π r 3 / 3 ) displaystyle b'_ 2 =4pi d^ 3 /3=8times (4pi r^ 3 /3) , which divided by two (the number of colliding particles) gives the excluded volume per particle: b ′ = b 2 ′ / 2 → b ′ = 4 × ( 4 π r 3 / 3 ) displaystyle b'=b'_ 2 /2quad rightarrow quad b'=4times (4pi r^ 3 /3) , So b′ is four times the proper volume of the particle. It was a point of concern to van der Waals that the factor four yields an upper bound; empirical values for b′ are usually lower. Of course, molecules are not infinitely hard, as van der Waals thought, and are often fairly soft. Next, we introduce a (not necessarily pairwise) attractive force between the particles. van der Waals assumed that, notwithstanding the existence of this force, the density of the fluid is homogeneous; furthermore, he assumed that the range of the attractive force is so small that the great majority of the particles do not feel that the container is of finite size.[citation needed] Given the homogeneity of the fluid, the bulk of the particles do not experience a net force pulling them to the right or to the left. This is different for the particles in surface layers directly adjacent to the walls. They feel a net force from the bulk particles pulling them into the container, because this force is not compensated by particles on the side where the wall is (another assumption here is that there is no interaction between walls and particles, which is not true as can be seen from the phenomenon of droplet formation; most types of liquid show adhesion). This net force decreases the force exerted onto the wall by the particles in the surface layer. The net force on a surface particle, pulling it into the container, is proportional to the number density C = N A / V m displaystyle C=N_ mathrm A /V_ mathrm m . The number of particles in the surface layers is, again by assuming homogeneity, also proportional to the density. In total, the force on the walls is decreased by a factor proportional to the square of the density, and the pressure (force per unit surface) is decreased by a ′ C 2 = a ′ ( N A V m ) 2 = a V m 2 displaystyle a'C^ 2 =a'left( frac N_ mathrm A V_ mathrm m right)^ 2 = frac a V_ mathrm m ^ 2 , so that p = R T V m − b − a V m 2 ⇒ ( p + a V m 2 ) ( V m − b ) = R T . displaystyle p= frac RT V_ mathrm m -b - frac a V_ mathrm m ^ 2 Rightarrow left(p+ frac a V_ mathrm m ^ 2 right)(V_ mathrm m -b)=RT. Upon writing n for the number of moles and nVm = V, the equation obtains the second form given above, ( p + n 2 a V 2 ) ( V − n b ) = n R T . displaystyle left(p+ frac n^ 2 a V^ 2 right)(V-nb)=nRT. It is of some historical interest to point out that van der Waals, in
his Nobel prize lecture, gave credit to
Z = z N N ! with z = V Λ 3 displaystyle Z= frac z^ N N! quad hbox with quad z= frac V Lambda ^ 3 where Λ displaystyle Lambda is the thermal de Broglie wavelength, Λ = h 2 2 π m k T displaystyle Lambda = sqrt frac h^ 2 2pi mkT with the usual definitions: h is Planck's constant, m the mass of a
particle, k
u ( r ) = ∞ when r < d , − ϵ ( d r ) 6 when r ≥ d , displaystyle u(r)= begin cases infty & hbox when quad r<d,\-epsilon left( frac d r right)^ 6 & hbox when quad rgeq d,end cases r is the distance between the centers of the spheres and d is the distance where the hard spheres touch each other (twice the van der Waals radius). The depth of the van der Waals well is ϵ displaystyle epsilon . Because the particles are not coupled under the mean field Hamiltonian, the mean field approximation of the total partition function still factorizes, Z = z N / N ! displaystyle Z=z^ N /N! , but the intermolecular potential necessitates two modifications to z. First, because of the finite size of the particles, not all of V is available, but only V − Nb', where (just as in the conventional derivation above) b ′ = 2 π d 3 / 3 displaystyle b'=2pi d^ 3 /3 . Second, we insert a Boltzmann factor exp[ - ϕ/2kT] to take care of the average intermolecular potential. We divide here the potential by two because this interaction energy is shared between two particles. Thus z = ( V − N b ′ ) e − ϕ / ( 2 k T ) Λ 3 . displaystyle z= frac (V-Nb'),e^ -phi /(2kT) Lambda ^ 3 . The total attraction felt by a single particle is ϕ = ∫ d ∞ u ( r ) N V 4 π r 2 d r , displaystyle phi =int _ d ^ infty u(r) frac N V 4pi r^ 2 dr, where we assumed that in a shell of thickness dr there are N/V 4π r2dr particles. This is a mean field approximation; the position of the particles is averaged. In reality the density close to the particle is different than far away as can be described by a pair correlation function. Furthermore, it is neglected that the fluid is enclosed between walls. Performing the integral we get ϕ = − 2 a ′ N V with a ′ = ϵ 2 π d 3 3 = ϵ b ′ . displaystyle phi =-2a' frac N V quad hbox with quad a'=epsilon frac 2pi d^ 3 3 =epsilon b'. Hence, we obtain, ln Z = N ln ( V − N b ′ ) + N 2 a ′ V k T − N ln ( Λ 3 ) − ln N ! displaystyle ln Z=Nln (V-Nb') + frac N^ 2 a' VkT -Nln (Lambda ^ 3 ) -ln N! From statistical thermodynamics we know that p = k T ∂ ln Z ∂ V displaystyle p=kT frac partial ln Z partial V , so that we only have to differentiate the terms containing V. We get p = N k T V − N b ′ − N 2 a ′ V 2 ⇒ ( p + N 2 a ′ V 2 ) ( V − N b ′ ) = N k T ⇒ ( p + n 2 a V 2 ) ( V − n b ) = n R T . displaystyle p= frac NkT V-Nb' - frac N^ 2 a' V^ 2 Rightarrow left(p+ frac N^ 2 a' V^ 2 right)(V-Nb')=NkTRightarrow left(p+ frac n^ 2 a V^ 2 right)(V-nb)=nRT. Maxwell equal area rule[edit] This section needs additional citations to secondary or tertiary sources such as review articles, monographs, or textbooks. Please add such references to provide context and establish the relevance of any primary research articles cited. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) Main article: Maxwell construction van der Waals isotherm oscillation and Maxwell's equal areas.[21] Maxwell's rule eliminates the oscillating behavior of the isotherm in the phase transition zone by defining it as a certain isobar in that zone. The above isotherm is for a reduced temperature of TR=0.9. The Maxwell correction is at a vapor pressure of pV≈0.64700 between the reduced volume of the pure liquid VL≈0.60340 and the pure gas VG≈2.3488 at the vapor pressure. Below the critical temperature, the van der Waals equation seems to predict qualitatively incorrect relationships. Unlike for ideal gases, the p-V isotherms oscillate with a relative minimum (d) and a relative maximum (e). Any pressure between pd and pe appears to have 3 stable volumes, contradicting the experimental observation that two state variables completely determine a one-component system's state.[21] Moreover, the isothermal compressibility is negative between d and e (equivalently ( ∂ P / ∂ V ) T , N > 0 displaystyle scriptstyle left( partial P / partial V right)_ T,N >0 ), which cannot describe a system at equilibrium.[22]
To address these problems,
p V ( V G − V L ) = ∫ V L V G p d V displaystyle p_ V (V_ G -V_ L )=int _ V_ L ^ V_ G p,dV where pV is the vapor pressure (flat portion of the curve), VL is the volume of the pure liquid phase at point a on the diagram, and VG is the volume of the pure gas phase at point c on the diagram.[citation needed] A two-phase mixture at pV will occupy a total volume between VL and VG, as determined by Maxwell's lever rule. Maxwell justified the rule based on the fact that the area on a pV diagram corresponds to mechanical work, saying that work done on the system in going from c to b should equal work released on going from a to b. This is because the change in free energy A(T,V) equals the work done during a reversible process, and, as a state variable, the free energy must be path-independent. In particular, the value of A at point b should be the same regardless of whether the path taken is from left or right across the horizontal isobar, or follows the original van der Waals isotherm.[citation needed] This derivation is not entirely rigorous, since it requires a reversible path through a region of thermodynamic instability, while b is unstable.[clarification needed][citation needed] Nevertheless, modern derivations from chemical potential reach the same conclusion, and it remains a necessary modification to the van der Waals and to any other analytic equation of state.[21] From chemical potential[edit] The Maxwell equal area rule can also be derived from an assumption of equal chemical potential μ of coexisting liquid and vapour phases.[25][non-primary source needed] On the isotherm shown in the above plot, points a and c are the only pair of points which fulfill the equilibrium condition of having equal pressure, temperature and chemical potential. It follows that systems with volumes intermediate between these two points will consist of a mixture of the pure liquid and gas with specific volumes equal to the pure liquid and gas phases at points a and c. The van der Waals equation may be solved for VG and VL as functions of the temperature and the vapor pressure pV.[citation needed] Since:[according to whom?] p = − ( ∂ A ∂ V ) T , N displaystyle p=-left( frac partial A partial V right)_ T,N where A is the Helmholtz free energy, it follows that the equal area rule can be expressed as: p V = A ( V L , T , N ) − A ( V G , T , N ) V G − V L displaystyle p_ V = frac A(V_ L ,T,N)-A(V_ G ,T,N) V_ G -V_ L is Since the gas and liquid volumes are functions of pV and T only, this equation is then solved numerically to obtain pV as a function of temperature (and number of particles N), which may then be used to determine the gas and liquid volumes.[citation needed] Locus of coexistence for two phases of van der Waals fluid A pseudo-3D plot of the locus of liquid and vapor volumes versus temperature and pressure is shown in the accompanying figure. One sees that the two locii meet at the critical point (1,1,1) smoothly. An isotherm of the van der Waals fluid taken at T r = 0.90 is also shown where the intersections of the isotherm with the loci illustrate the construct's requirement that the two areas (red and blue, shown) are equal. Other parameters, forms and applications[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Other thermodynamic parameters[edit]
We reiterate that the extensive volume V is related to the
volume per particle v=V/N where N = nNA is the number of
particles in the system. The equation of state does not give us all
the thermodynamic parameters of the system. We can take the equation
for the
A = − k T ln Q . displaystyle A=-kTln Q., From the equation derived above for lnQ, we find A ( T , V , N ) = − N k T [ 1 + ln ( ( V − N b ′ ) T 3 / 2 N Φ ) ] − a ′ N 2 V . displaystyle A(T,V,N)=-NkTleft[1+ln left( frac (V-Nb')T^ 3/2 NPhi right)right]- frac a'N^ 2 V . Where Φ is an undetermined constant, which may be taken from the
Φ = T 3 / 2 Λ 3 = ( h 2 π m k ) 3 displaystyle Phi =T^ 3/2 Lambda ^ 3 =left( frac h sqrt 2pi mk right)^ 3 This equation expresses A in terms of its natural variables V and T , and therefore gives us all thermodynamic information about the system. The mechanical equation of state was already derived above p = − ( ∂ A ∂ V ) T = N k T V − N b ′ − a ′ N 2 V 2 . displaystyle p=-left( frac partial A partial V right)_ T = frac NkT V-Nb' - frac a'N^ 2 V^ 2 . The entropy equation of state yields the entropy (S ) S = − ( ∂ A ∂ T ) V = N k [ ln ( ( V − N b ′ ) T 3 / 2 N Φ ) + 5 2 ] displaystyle S=-left( frac partial A partial T right)_ V =Nkleft[ln left( frac (V-Nb')T^ 3/2 NPhi right)+ frac 5 2 right] from which we can calculate the internal energy U = A + T S = 3 2 N k T − a ′ N 2 V . displaystyle U=A+TS= frac 3 2 ,NkT- frac a'N^ 2 V . Similar equations can be written for the other thermodynamic potential
and the chemical potential, but expressing any potential as a function
of pressure p will require the solution of a third-order
polynomial, which yields a complicated expression. Therefore,
expressing the enthalpy and the
p R = p p C , v R = v v C , and T R = T T C displaystyle p_ R = frac p p_ C ,qquad v_ R = frac v v_ C ,quad hbox and quad T_ R = frac T T_ C , where p C = a ′ 27 b ′ 2 , v C = 3 b ′ , and k T C = 8 a ′ 27 b ′ displaystyle p_ C = frac a' 27b'^ 2 ,qquad displaystyle v_ C =3b' ,quad hbox and quad kT_ C = frac 8a' 27b' as shown by Salzman.[27][self-published source?][better source needed] The first form of the van der Waals equation of state given above can be recast in the following reduced form: ( p R + 3 v R 2 ) ( v R − 1 / 3 ) = ( 8 / 3 ) T R displaystyle left(p_ R + frac 3 v_ R ^ 2 right)(v_ R -1/3)=(8/3)T_ R This equation is invariant for all fluids; that is, the same reduced form equation of state applies, no matter what a and b may be for the particular fluid. This invariance may also be understood in terms of the principle of corresponding states. If two fluids have the same reduced pressure, reduced volume, and reduced temperature, we say that their states are corresponding. The states of two fluids may be corresponding even if their measured pressure, volume, and temperature are very different. If the two fluids' states are corresponding, they exist in the same regime of the reduced form equation of state. Therefore, they will respond to changes in roughly the same way, even though their measurable physical characteristics may differ significantly. Cubic equation[edit] The van der Waals equation is a cubic equation of state; in the reduced formulation the cubic equation is: v R 3 − 1 3 ( 1 + 8 T R p R ) v R 2 + 3 p R v R − 1 p R = 0 displaystyle v_ R ^ 3 - frac 1 3 left( 1+ frac 8T_ R p_ R right) v_ R ^ 2 + frac 3 p_ R v_ R - frac 1 p_ R =0 At the critical temperature, where T R = p R = 1 displaystyle T_ R =p_ R =1 we get as expected v R 3 − 3 v R 2 + 3 v R − 1 = ( v R − 1 ) 3 = 0 ⟺ v R = 1 displaystyle v_ R ^ 3 -3v_ R ^ 2 +3v_ R -1=left(v_ R -1right)^ 3 =0quad Longleftrightarrow quad v_ R =1 For TR < 1, there are 3 values for vR. For TR > 1, there is 1 real value for vR. The solution of this equation for the case where there are three separate roots may be found at Maxwell construction Application to compressible fluids[edit] The equation is also usable as a PVT equation for compressible fluids (e.g. polymers). In this case specific volume changes are small and it can be written in a simplified form: ( p + A ) ( V − B ) = C T , displaystyle (p+A)(V-B)=CT,, where p is the pressure, V is specific volume, T is the temperature and A, B, C are parameters. See also[edit]
References[edit] ^ Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi.
Physical Chemistry. 4th ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
^ Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi.
Physical Chemistry. 4th ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
^ Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi.
Physical Chemistry. 4th ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
^ Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi.
Physical Chemistry. 4th ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
^ Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi.
Physical Chemistry. 4th ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
^ Silbey, Robert J., Robert A. Alberty, and Moungi G. Bawendi.
Physical Chemistry. 4th ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
^ a b c "J. D. van der Waals, The equation of state for gases and
liquids". Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921 (PDF). Amsterdam: Elsevier
Publishing Company. 1967. pp. 254–265.
^ Andrews, T. (1869). "The Bakerian Lecture: On the Gaseous State of
Matter". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
159: 575–590. doi:10.1098/rstl.1869.0021. [non-primary source
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^ van der Waals; J. D. (1873). Over de Continuiteit van den Gas- en
Vloeistoftoestand. University of Leiden.
^ Maxwell, J.C. (1874). "Over de Continuïteit van den Gas-en
Vloeistof[-]toestand, Academisch Proefschrift". Nature. 10 (259):
477–480. Bibcode:1874Natur..10..477C. doi:10.1038/010477a0.
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^ Maxwell, J.C. (1890). "LXIX. Van der Waals on the Continuity of the
Gaseous and Liquid States". In Niven, W. D. The scientific papers of
James Clerk Maxwell, vol II. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 407–415.
^ Chang, Raymond (2014). Physical Chemistry for the Chemical Sciences.
University Science Books. p. 14.
ISBN 978-1-891389-69-6.
^ "Deviations from Idal
Further reading[edit] Terrell L. Hill, 2012 [1960], An Introduction to Statistical
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