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Valletta
Valletta
(/vəˈlɛtə/; Maltese pronunciation: [ˈvɐlɛ.tɐ]) is the capital city of Malta, colloquially known as Il-Belt (IPA: [ˈil.bɛlt]; lit. "The City") in Maltese. Geographically, it is located in the South Eastern Region, in the central-eastern portion of the main island of Malta
Malta
having its western coast with access to the Marsamxett Harbour
Marsamxett Harbour
and its eastern coast in the Grand Harbour. The historical city has a population of 6,444 (as of March 2014),[4] while the metropolitan area around it has a population of 393,938.[2] Valletta
Valletta
is the southernmost capital of Europe
Europe
and the second southernmost capital of the European Union
European Union
after Nicosia. Valletta
Valletta
contains buildings from the 16th century onwards, built during the rule of the Order of St. John also known as Knights Hospitaller. The city is essentially Baroque
Baroque
in character, with elements of Mannerist, Neo-Classical and Modern architecture
Modern architecture
in selected areas, though the Second World War
Second World War
left major scars on the city, particularly the destruction of the Royal Opera House. The City of Valletta
Valletta
was officially recognised as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1980.[5] The official name given by the Order of Saint John was Humilissima Civitas Valletta—The Most Humble City of Valletta, or Città Umilissima in Italian.[6] The city's fortifications, consisting of bastions, curtains and cavaliers, along with the beauty of its Baroque palaces, gardens and churches, led the ruling houses of Europe
Europe
to give the city its nickname Superbissima—Most Proud.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Order of Saint John 1.2 French occupation and British rule 1.3 Contemporary

2 Government

2.1 Local government 2.2 National government

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Cityscape

4.1 Neighbourhoods

5 Education 6 Culture

6.1 Saint James Cavalier 6.2 Music 6.3 Carnival 6.4 Feasts

7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns and sister cities

8 Transport 9 Notable people 10 Sports 11 Cultural references 12 Further reading 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] See also: Mount Sciberras
Mount Sciberras
and Sciberras Peninsula The peninsula was previously called Xaghret Mewwija (Mu' awiya - Meuia; named during the Arab period[7])[8][9] or Ħal Newwija.[10] Mewwija refers to a sheltered place.[11] The extreme end of the peninsula was known as Xebb ir-Ras (Sheb point), of which name origins from the lighthouse on site.[12][13] A family which surely owned land became known as Sceberras, now a Maltese surname as Sciberras.[14] At one point the entire peninsula became known as Sceberras.[15] (See also)

Historical affiliations

Order of Saint John 1566–1798 French Republic 1798–1800 Protectorate of Malta
Malta
1800–1813 Crown Colony of Malta
Malta
1813–1964 State of Malta
Malta
1964–1974 Republic of Malta
Malta
1974–present

Order of Saint John[edit]

Former mural at Is-Suq tal-Belt
Is-Suq tal-Belt
showing the city's construction

The building of a city on the Sciberras Peninsula
Sciberras Peninsula
had been proposed by the Order of Saint John as early as 1524.[16] Back then, the only building on the peninsula was a small watchtower[17] dedicated to Erasmus of Formia
Erasmus of Formia
(Saint Elmo), which had been built in 1488. In 1552, the watchtower was demolished and the larger Fort Saint Elmo
Fort Saint Elmo
was built in its place.[18] In the Great Siege of 1565, Fort Saint Elmo
Fort Saint Elmo
fell to the Ottomans, but the Order eventually won the siege with the help of Sicilian reinforcements. The victorious Grand Master, Jean de Valette, immediately set out to build a new fortified city on the Sciberras Peninsula
Peninsula
to fortify the Order's position in Malta
Malta
and bind the Knights to the island. The city took his name and was called La Valletta.[19] The Grand Master asked the European kings and princes for help, and he received a lot of assistance, due to the increased fame of the Order after their victory in the Great Siege. Pope Pius V
Pope Pius V
sent his military architect, Francesco Laparelli, to design the new city, while Philip II of Spain
Spain
sent substantial monetary aid. The foundation stone of the city was laid by Grand Master de Valette on 28 March 1566. He placed the first stone in what later became Our Lady of Victories Church.[6] In his book Dell’Istoria della Sacra Religione et Illustrissima Militia di San Giovanni Gierosolimitano (English: The History of the Sacred Religion and Illustrious Militia of St John of Jerusalem), written between 1594 and 1602, Giacomo Bosio writes that when the cornerstone of Valletta
Valletta
was placed, a group of Maltese elders said: "Iegi zimen en fel wardia col sceber raba iesue uquie" (Which in modern Maltese reads, "Jiġi żmien li fil- Wardija
Wardija
[l-Għolja Sciberras] kull xiber raba’ jiswa uqija", and in English, "There will come a time when every piece of land on Sciberras Hill will be worth its weight in gold").[20] De Valette died from a stroke on 21 August 1568 at age 74 and never saw the completion of his city. Originally interred in the church of Our Lady of the Victories, his remains now rest in St. John's Co-Cathedral among the tombs of other Grand Masters of the Knights of Malta.[6]

Aerial view showing the exterior and interior outlines of Valletta

Francesco Laparelli
Francesco Laparelli
was the city's principal designer and his plan departed from medieval Maltese architecture, which exhibited irregular winding streets and alleys. He designed the new city on a rectangular grid plan, and without any collacchio (an area restricted for important buildings). The streets were designed to be wide and straight, beginning centrally from the City Gate and ending at Fort Saint Elmo (which was rebuilt) overlooking the Mediterranean; certain bastions were built 47 metres (154 ft) tall. His assistant was the Maltese architect Girolamo Cassar, later oversaw the construction of the city himself after Laparelli's death in 1570.[6] The Ufficio delle Case regulated the building of the city as a planning authority.[21] The city of Valletta
Valletta
was mostly complete by the early 1570s, and it became the capital on 18 March 1571 when Grand Master Pierre de Monte moved from his seat at Fort St Angelo
Fort St Angelo
in Birgu
Birgu
to the Grandmaster's Palace in Valletta. Seven Auberges were built for the Order's Langues, and these were complete by the 1580s.[22][23] An eighth Auberge, Auberge de Bavière, was later added in the 18th century.[24] In Antoine de Paule's reign, it was decided to build more fortifications to protect Valletta, and these were named the Floriana Lines after the architect who designed them, Pietro Paolo Floriani
Pietro Paolo Floriani
of Macerata.[25] During António Manoel de Vilhena's reign, a town began to form between the walls of Valletta
Valletta
and the Floriana
Floriana
Lines, and this evolved from a suburb of Valletta
Valletta
to Floriana, a town in its own right.[26] In 1634, a gunpowder factory explosion killed 22 people in Valletta.[27] In 1749, Muslim slaves plotted to kill Grandmaster Pinto and take over Valletta, but the revolt was suppressed before it even started due to their plans leaking out to the Order.[28] Later on in his reign, Pinto embellished the city with Baroque
Baroque
architecture, and many important buildings such as Auberge de Castille
Auberge de Castille
were remodeled or completely rebuilt in the new architectural style.[29] In 1775, during the reign of Ximenes, an unsuccessful revolt known as the Rising of the Priests
Rising of the Priests
occurred in which Fort Saint Elmo
Fort Saint Elmo
and Saint James Cavalier were captured by rebels, but the revolt was eventually suppressed.[30] French occupation and British rule[edit]

Bomb damage in Valletta
Valletta
during the Second World War

In 1798, the Order left the islands and the French occupation of Malta began. After the Maltese rebelled, French troops continued to occupy Valletta
Valletta
and the surrounding harbour area, until they capitulated to the British in September 1800. In the early 19th century, the British Civil Commissioner, Henry Pigot, agreed to demolish the majority of the city's fortifications.[31] The demolition was again proposed in the 1870s and 1880s, but it was never carried out and the fortifications have survived largely intact.[16] Eventually building projects in Valletta
Valletta
resumed under British rule. These projects included widening gates, demolishing and rebuilding structures, widening newer houses over the years, and installing civic projects. The Malta
Malta
Railway, which linked Valletta
Valletta
to Mdina, was officially opened in 1883.[32] It was closed down in 1931 after buses became a popular means of transport. In 1939, Valletta
Valletta
was abandoned as the headquarters of the Royal Navy Mediterranean Fleet
Mediterranean Fleet
due to its proximity to Italy
Italy
and the city became a flashpoint during the subsequent two-year long Siege of Malta.[33] German and Italian air raids throughout the Second World War
Second World War
caused much destruction in Valletta
Valletta
and the rest of the harbour area. The Royal Opera House, constructed at the city entrance in the 19th century, was one of the buildings lost to the raids.[18] Contemporary[edit]

Old town

In 1980, the 24th Chess Olympiad
24th Chess Olympiad
took place in Valletta.[34] The entire city of Valletta
Valletta
has been a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site since 1980, along with Megalithic Temples of Malta
Malta
and the Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni.[5][35] On 11 November 2015 Valletta
Valletta
hosted the Valletta Summit on Migration in which European and African leaders discussed the European migrant crisis.[36] After that, on 27 November 2015 the city also hosted part of the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2015.[37] Valletta
Valletta
has been selected as the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
for 2018.[38] Government[edit] Local government[edit]

Palazzo Lascaris, the former local council building

The Valletta
Valletta
Local Council was established by the Local Councils Act of 1993, along with the other local councils of Malta.[39] The first election was held on 20 November 1993. Other elections were held in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2013,[40] and the next elections are set to be held in 2017.[41] The following people have served as Mayors of Valletta:[42]

Hector Bruno (1993–1999) Paul Borg Olivier
Paul Borg Olivier
(1999–2008) Alexei Dingli
Dingli
(2008–present)

The present local council was elected in 2013 and is made up of the following members:[43]

Alexei Dingli
Dingli
(mayor) Christian Micallef (deputy mayor) Norman Shaw Raymond Azzopardi Raymond Attard Vincent Fabri Vincent Farrugia Gabriella Agius (executive secretary)

The local council is currently housed in a building in South Street. Since the city has been selected as the European Capital of Culture, the council began to look for new premises at a more central location. Various proposals were made, including the Main Guard, the Grandmaster's Palace, Fort Saint Elmo
Fort Saint Elmo
and the former HSBC offices, but nothing has been decided as of 2015[update].[44] National government[edit]

Parliament House

Valletta
Valletta
is the capital city of Malta,[45] and is the country's administrative and commercial hub.[46] The Parliament of Malta
Malta
is housed at the Parliament House near the city's entrance since 2015, and it was previously housed at the Grandmaster's Palace in the city centre.[47] The latter palace still houses the Office of the President of Malta,[48] while Auberge de Castille
Auberge de Castille
houses the Office of the Prime Minister of Malta. The courthouse and many government departments are also located in Valletta.[49] Geography[edit]

Satellite view of Valletta

The Valletta
Valletta
peninsula has two natural harbours, Marsamxett and the Grand Harbour.[35] The Grand Harbour
Grand Harbour
is Malta's major port, with unloading quays at nearby Marsa. A cruise-liner terminal is located along the old seawall of the Valletta Waterfront
Valletta Waterfront
that Portuguese Grandmaster Manuel Pinto da Fonseca
Manuel Pinto da Fonseca
built.[50] Climate[edit] Valletta
Valletta
features a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
with warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. Valletta
Valletta
experiences a lack of precipitation during the summer months and most of the precipitation happens during the winter months. Winter temperatures are moderated by the city’s proximity to the sea. As a result, Valletta
Valletta
has mild winters. The official climate recording station in Malta
Malta
is at Luqa
Luqa
Airport, which is a few miles inland from Valletta. Average high temperatures range from around 15 °C (59 °F) in January to about 31 °C (88 °F) in August, while average low temperatures range from around 9 °C (48 °F) in January to 22 °C (72 °F) in August. The Köppen Climate Classification
Köppen Climate Classification
subtype for this climate is "Hot-summer Mediterranean climate" Csa (Mediterranean Climate).

Climate data for Valletta, Malta
Malta
1960-1990 (Records 1947-2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 22.2 (72) 26.7 (80.1) 33.5 (92.3) 30.7 (87.3) 35.3 (95.5) 40.1 (104.2) 42.7 (108.9) 43.8 (110.8) 37.4 (99.3) 34.5 (94.1) 28.2 (82.8) 24.3 (75.7) 43.8 (110.8)

Average high °C (°F) 15.2 (59.4) 15.5 (59.9) 16.7 (62.1) 19.1 (66.4) 23.3 (73.9) 27.5 (81.5) 30.7 (87.3) 30.7 (87.3) 28.0 (82.4) 24.2 (75.6) 20.1 (68.2) 16.7 (62.1) 22.31 (72.18)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.2 (54) 12.4 (54.3) 13.4 (56.1) 15.5 (59.9) 19.1 (66.4) 23.0 (73.4) 25.9 (78.6) 26.3 (79.3) 24.1 (75.4) 20.7 (69.3) 17.0 (62.6) 13.8 (56.8) 18.62 (65.51)

Average low °C (°F) 9.2 (48.6) 9.3 (48.7) 10.1 (50.2) 11.9 (53.4) 14.9 (58.8) 18.4 (65.1) 21.0 (69.8) 21.8 (71.2) 20.1 (68.2) 17.1 (62.8) 13.9 (57) 11.0 (51.8) 14.89 (58.8)

Record low °C (°F) 1.4 (34.5) 1.7 (35.1) 2.2 (36) 4.4 (39.9) 8.0 (46.4) 12.6 (54.7) 15.5 (59.9) 15.9 (60.6) 13.2 (55.8) 8.0 (46.4) 5.0 (41) 3.6 (38.5) 1.4 (34.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 89.0 (3.504) 61.0 (2.402) 41.0 (1.614) 23.0 (0.906) 7.0 (0.276) 3.0 (0.118) 0.0 (0) 7.0 (0.276) 40.0 (1.575) 90.0 (3.543) 80.0 (3.15) 112.0 (4.409) 553 (21.773)

Average relative humidity (%) 79 79 79 77 74 71 69 73 77 78 77 79 76

Mean monthly sunshine hours 169.0 178.0 227.0 253.0 309.0 336.0 376.0 352.0 270.0 223.0 195.0 161.0 3,049

Source #1: ClimateData.EU[51]

Source #2: NSO Malta[52]

Cityscape[edit]

Turner's depiction of the Grand Harbour, National Museum of Fine Arts

Lower Barrakka Gardens
Lower Barrakka Gardens
and its monuments of remembrance

The architecture of Valletta's streets and piazzas ranges from mid-16th century Baroque
Baroque
to Modernism. The city is the island's principal cultural centre and has a unique collection of churches, palaces and museums and act as one of the city's main visitor attractions. When Benjamin Disraeli, future British Prime Minister, visited the city in 1830, he described it as "a city of palaces built by gentlemen for gentlemen," and remarked that " Valletta
Valletta
equals in its noble architecture, if it does not excel, any capital in Europe," and in other letters called it "comparable to Venice
Venice
and Cádiz" and "full of palaces worthy of Palladio."[53][54] Buildings of historic importance include St John's Co-Cathedral, formerly the Conventual Church of the Knights of Malta. It has the only signed work and largest painting by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio.[55] The Auberge de Castille
Auberge de Castille
et Leon, formerly the official seat of the Knights of Malta
Malta
of the Langue of Castille, Léon and Portugal, is now the office of the Prime Minister of Malta.[56] The Grandmaster's Palace, built between 1571 and 1574 and formerly the seat of the Grand Master of the Knights of Malta, used to house the Maltese Parliament, now situated in a purpose-built structure at the entrance to the city, and now houses the offices of the President of Malta.[57] The National Museum of Fine Arts is a Rococo palace dating back to the late 1570s, which served as the official residence of the Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet
Mediterranean Fleet
during the British era from the 1820s onwards. The Manoel Theatre
Manoel Theatre
(Maltese: Teatru Manoel) was constructed in just ten months in 1731, by order of Grand Master António Manoel de Vilhena, and is one of the oldest working theatres in Europe. The Mediterranean Conference Centre
Mediterranean Conference Centre
was formerly the Sacra Infermeria. Built in 1574, it was one of Europe's most renowned hospitals during the Renaissance. The fortifications of the port, built by the Knights as a magnificent series of bastions, demi-bastions, cavaliers and curtains, approximately 100 metres (330 ft) high, all contribute to the unique architectural quality of the city. Neighbourhoods[edit] Valletta
Valletta
contains a number of unofficial neighbourhoods, including:[58]

Strada Rjali – the main throughfare, Triq ir-Repubblika l-Arċipierku – an area close to the Sacra Infermeria. Its name possibly derives from archipelago since it contains a number of lanes which break up the area into many "islands" of houses, or from archi-borgo since the area is located just outside Fort Saint Elmo.[59] il-Baviera – an area around the English Curtain, bounded by Old Bakery, Archbishop, Marsamxett and St. Sebastian Streets. It is named after Auberge de Bavière.[59] il-Biċċerija – an area close to il-Baviera, named after the slaughterhouse which was formerly located there.[59] il-Kamrata – an area close to the Sacra Infermeria. It is named after the Camerata, a spiritual retreat which was demolished in the 19th century and replaced by social housing.[59] Deux Balles (Maltese: Duwi Balli) – an area close to il-Baviera. The name probably originates from the French occupation.[59] il-Fossa – an area close to the Jews' Sally Port and Fort Saint Elmo. It is regarded as the worst maintained area of Valletta.[60] Manderaggio
Manderaggio
(Maltese: il-Mandraġġ) – an area behind Manderaggio Curtain, bounded by St. Mark, St. Lucia, St. Patrick and Marsamxett Streets. This was meant to be a small harbour (mandracchio) but it was never completed, and a slum area developed instead. The slums were demolished in the 1950s and were rebuilt as housing estates.[59]

Education[edit] The Valletta
Valletta
Campus of the University of Malta
Malta
is situated in the Old University Building. It serves as an extension of the Msida
Msida
Campus, especially offering international masters programmes.[61] A church school, "St. Albert the Great", is also situated in Valletta. The Headmaster is Alternattiva Demokratika
Alternattiva Demokratika
politician Mario Mallia.[62][63] Culture[edit]

Early morning in 1967 on the notorious Straight Street known to generations of British Servicemen (especially to sailors on shore leave) as "The Gut". Bars and bordellos abounded, and brawls were common. But its popularity never waned.

Valletta
Valletta
has been designated European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
for 2018.[64] The year was inaugurated with an event called Erba' Pjazez (Four Squares), with shows focused in 4 plazas in the city - Triton Square, St. George's Square, St. John's Square, and Castille Square - along with other shows in other points.[65] This was followed by the unveiling of a public art installation, Kif Jgħid il-Malti (Maltese Sayings), which featured a number of Maltese language
Maltese language
proverbs figured in gypsum, in order to engage linguistic heritage.[66][67] Saint James Cavalier[edit] Saint James Cavalier, originally a raised gun platform, was converted into a Centre of Creativity in the year 2000 as part of Malta's Millennium Project. It now houses a small theatre, a cinema, music rooms and art galleries. Various exhibitions are regularly held there. Since it was opened it has welcomed over a million visitors.[68] Music[edit] The Valletta
Valletta
International Baroque
Baroque
Festival is held every year in January. Jazz music in Malta
Malta
was introduced in the Strait Street area, frequented by Allied sailors during both world wars. Malta's Jazz Festival took place here. Strait Street is also known as The Gut. This area is undergoing a programme of regeneration. The city's dual band clubs are the " King's Own Band Club" (Maltese: L-Għaqda Mużikali King's Own) and "La Valette National Philarmonic Society" (Maltese: Is-Soċjetà Filarmonika Nazzjonali La Valette). Carnival[edit] Valletta
Valletta
is the scene of the Maltese Carnival, held in February leading up to Lent.[69] Feasts[edit]

The feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Our Lady of Mount Carmel
is celebrated on 16 July Saint Paul's feast is celebrated on 10 February Saint Dominic's feast is celebrated in Valletta
Valletta
on 4 August or before The feast of Saint Augustine is celebrated on the third Sunday after Easter The city's residents also conduct an annual procession in honour of St. Rita

International relations[edit] Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Rhodes, Greece Palermo, Italy

Transport[edit]

Bus station at Valletta

Malta
Malta
International Airport serves Valletta, with the airport located 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the city in the town of Luqa. Malta's public transport system, which uses buses, operates mostly on routes to or from Valletta, with their central terminus just outside the city's entrance. Traffic within the city itself is restricted, with some principal roads being completely pedestrian areas. In 2006, a park and ride system was implemented in order to increase the availability of parking spaces in the vicinity of the city. People can leave their personal vehicles in a nearby Floriana
Floriana
parking lot and transfer to a van for the rest of the trip, which takes a mere few minutes. In 2007, a congestion pricing scheme was implemented, the Controlled Vehicular Access system, in order to reduce long-term parking stays and traffic while promoting business in the city.[70][71] An ANPR-based automated system takes photos of vehicles as they enter and exit the charging zone and vehicle owners are billed according to the duration of their stay. Various exemptions and flexible billing rules make the system the next evolutionary step of systems like the London congestion charge programme. Main differences from the London
London
system include ex post invoicing (with financial incentives/penalties for early/late payment), prepayments not day-specific, hourly instead of daily rates, a maximum daily charge (8 hours), free dashes (free if duration under 30 minutes), defined free access periods for delivery and service vehicles.[70] Valletta
Valletta
is served by a fleet of electric taxis which transport riders from 10 points in Valletta
Valletta
to any destination within the city.[72] Notable people[edit] Main page: Category:People from Valletta Sports[edit]

Valletta F.C.
Valletta F.C.
football team Valletta Lions RFC
Valletta Lions RFC
Rugby Football Union team Valletta's Marsamxett Harbour
Marsamxett Harbour
a "Regatta" (Rowing) Team, which takes part in the annual traditional Regatta on Victory Day (8 September).

Cultural references[edit]

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See also: Fort Saint Elmo
Fort Saint Elmo
§ In popular culture

Several chapters of Thomas Pynchon's Postmodern novel V. take place in the city of Valletta. Much of Nicholas Rinaldi's novel The Jukebox Queen of Malta
Malta
is set in Valletta. Several chapters of Patrick O'Brian's novel "Treason's Harbour", the 9th in his Aubrey-Maturin series, are set in Valletta. Parts of the Steven Spielberg's Academy Award nominee film Munich were shot in Valletta. In the popular computer strategy game, Age Of Empires III, Valletta and its surrounding areas are featured as the base of the main protagonist, Morgan Black, and is the setting for the first two levels of the game. Valletta
Valletta
is the birthplace of popular comic book character Corto Maltese, created by Italian artist Hugo Pratt. Valletta
Valletta
is featured in the video game Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Conviction. Stefan Dorra's 2017 board game Valletta
Valletta
is about the construction of Valletta, presided over by Jean Parisot de Valette.

Further reading[edit]

Bianco, Lino (2009). "Valletta: A city in history" (PDF). Melita Theologica. University of Malta: Department of Architecture and Urban Design - Faculty for the Built Environment. 60 (2): 1–20. ISSN 1012-9588. OCLC 1587122. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2018. 

References[edit]

^ Badger, George Percy (1869). Historical Guide to Malta
Malta
and Gozo. Calleja. p. 152.  ^ a b "Population by sex and age groups on 1 January". Eurostat. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2015.  ^ "Study on Urban Functions, ESPON project 1.4.3" - European Observation Network for Territorial Development and Cohesion 2007, ISBN 2-9600467-2-2 ^ "Estimated Population by Locality 31st March, 2014". Government of Malta. 16 May 2014. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015.  ^ a b "City of Valletta". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List. Retrieved 18 July 2015.  ^ a b c d Gugliuzzo, Carmelina (9 December 2011). "Building a Sense of Belonging. The Foundation of Valletta
Valletta
in Malta": 209–224. doi:10.1163/9789004222083_010 – via booksandjournals.brillonline.com.  ^ "thinksite.eu" (PDF). www.thinksite.eu.  ^ Mewwija: L-Istorja tal-Belt … Milwija’ aka Dragut’s revenge ^ "The Secrets of underground Valletta
Valletta
- The Malta
Malta
Independent". www.independent.com.mt.  ^ p. 21, footnote 163. ^ "p. 231" (PDF).  ^ Manley, Deborah (10 February 2012). "Malta: A Traveller's Anthology". Andrews UK Limited – via Google Books.  ^ Delbeke, M.; Schraven, M. (9 December 2011). "Foundation, Dedication and Consecration in Early Modern Europe". BRILL – via Google Books.  ^ de Piro. ^ Delbeke, M.; Schraven, M. (9 December 2011). "Foundation, Dedication and Consecration in Early Modern Europe". BRILL – via Google Books.  ^ a b Attard, Sonia. "The Valletta
Valletta
Fortifications". aboutmalta.com. Retrieved 12 July 2015.  ^ Leopardi, E. R. (1949). "The First Printed Description of Malta : Lyons 1536" (PDF). Scientia. 15 (2): 56, 58.  ^ a b "History of Valletta". City of Valletta. Retrieved 19 September 2014.  ^ Blouet, Brian W. (October 1964). "Town Planning in Malta, 1530-1798". Town Planning Review. Liverpool
Liverpool
University Press. 35 (3): 183. doi:10.3828/tpr.35.3.383v818680j843v8.  ^ (in Maltese) Cassar, Mario. "L-Istorja tal-Ilsien Malti". L-Akkademja tal-Malti. Retrieved 19 September 2014.  ^ Graff, Philippe (1994). "La Valette: une ville nouvelle du XVIe siècle et son évolution jusqu'à nos jours". Revue du Monde Musulman et de la Méditerranée: Le carrefour maltais (in French). Publications de l'Université de Provence. 71 (1): 157. ISSN 2105-2271.  ^ Rudolf, Uwe Jens; Berg, Warren G. (2010). Historical Dictionary of Malta. Scarecrow Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780810873902.  ^ Cassar, Paul (1946). "The Hospital of the Order of St. John in Malta" (PDF). Scientia. 12 (2): 57–59.  ^ Ellul, Michael (1986). "Carlo Gimach (1651–1730) – Architect and Poet" (PDF). Proceedings of History Week. Historical Society of Malta: 20–22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 April 2016.  ^ "Floriana's Pavilion from the Knights to the British". Times of Malta. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2015.  ^ Armstrong, Gary; Mitchell, Jon P. (2008). Global and Local Football: Politics and Europeanization on the Fringes of the EU. Routledge. p. 44. ISBN 9781134269198.  ^ Spiteri, Stephen C. (2012). "Hospitaller Gunpowder Magazines". Arx – International Journal of Military Architecture and Fortification. Occasional Papers (2): 6.  ^ Eltis, David; Bradley, Keith; Cartledge, Paul (2011). The Cambridge World History of Slavery: Volume 3: AD 1420-AD 1804. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 9780521840682.  ^ Mifsud Bonnici, Carmelo (August 1936). "Fr. Emanuel Pinto de Fonseca" (PDF). Malta
Malta
Letteraria. 11 (8): 230.  ^ Borg Muscat, David (2005). "Reassessing the September 1775 Rebellion: a Case of Lay Participation or a 'Rising of the Priests'?". Malta
Malta
Historical Society. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014.  ^ Bonello, Giovanni (18 November 2012). "Let's hide the majestic bastions". Times of Malta. Retrieved 14 October 2014.  ^ Cole, Beverly (2011). Trains. Potsdam, Germany: H.F.Ullmann. p. 64. ISBN 978-3-8480-0516-1.  ^ Peter Jacobs (31 January 2016). Fortress Islands Malta: Defence & Re-Supply During the Siege. Pen and Sword. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-1-4738-8255-3.  ^ "24th Chess Olympiad". OlimpBase. Retrieved 2 March 2014.  ^ a b Gatt, Oliver (2008). Valletta
Valletta
City of the Knights. p. 1. ISBN 978-99957-20-05-6.  ^ " Valletta
Valletta
Conference on Migration (Malta, 11–12 November 2015) – Orientation debate" (PDF). statewatch.org. Council of the European Union. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.  ^ "Queen to greet line-up of despots at meeting of Commonwealth leaders in Malta". Daily Telegraph. 26 November 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.  ^ " Valletta
Valletta
awarded the title of European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2018". gov.mt. Retrieved 25 June 2015.  ^ "About Local Government". Local Councils' Association. Retrieved 12 July 2015.  ^ (in Maltese) "Elezzjonijiet tal-Kunsilli Lokali fis-Snin li Għaddew (1993-2013)" (PDF). lc.gov.mt. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2015.  ^ "Elezzjonijiet tal-Kunsilli Lokali 2015-2023" (PDF). lc.gov.mt (in Maltese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2015.  ^ "Mayors from 1993". vassallohistory.wordpress.com. Retrieved 12 July 2015.  ^ "Council Members". lc.gov.mt. Retrieved 12 July 2015.  ^ "No immediate solution to finding new premises for Valletta council". Times of Malta. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2015.  ^ "The Maltese Islands". Government of Malta. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015.  ^ "The Capital City Valletta". Government of Malta. Archived from the original on 27 June 2015.  ^ Maitland, Robert (2014). Tourism in National Capitals and Global Change. Routledge. pp. 135–142. ISBN 9781317850076.  ^ "Il-Palazz tal-Belt". Office of the President of Malta
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Valletta
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Auberge de Castille
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Local Council. pp. 16–18. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016.  ^ Gauci, Anisia (2011). "Regeneration of Jews Sally Port (Il-Fossa), Valletta". University of Malta. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016.  ^ http://www.youthinfo.gov.mt/default.asp?m=cat&id=38 ^ http://www.stalbert.edu.mt/find-st-albert-the-great/ ^ http://www.alternattiva.org.mt/people-2/ ^ " Valletta
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Valletta.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Valletta.

Valletta
Valletta
Local Council Valletta
Valletta
2018 Valletta
Valletta
Living History

v t e

Valletta

History

Design and construction (Jean de Valette Francesco Laparelli Girolamo Cassar) Gunpowder factory explosion (1634) Conspiracy of the Slaves
Conspiracy of the Slaves
(1749) Rising of the Priests
Rising of the Priests
(1775) French blockade (1798–1800) Carnival stampede (1823) Sette Giugno
Sette Giugno
(1919) Valletta
Valletta
Treaty (1992) CHOGM 2005 25th European Film Awards (2012) Valletta Summit on Migration
Valletta Summit on Migration
(2015) CHOGM 2015

Architecture

Streets and Piazzas

Republic Street Merchants Street Republic Square St. George's Square St. John's Square

Fortifications

City Gate Fort St. Elmo Lascaris Battery St. James Cavalier St. John's Cavalier Saluting Battery Victoria Gate

Churches

Christ the Redeemer Church of the Jesuits Nibbia Chapel Our Lady of Damascus Our Lady of Liesse Our Lady of Mount Carmel Our Lady of Pilar Our Lady of Victory St. Andrew St. Augustine St. Barbara St. Catherine St. Dominic ( Porto
Porto
Salvo) St. Francis of Assisi St. George St. James St. John's Co-Cathedral St. Lucy St. Mary of Jesus (ta' Ġieżu) St. Mary Magdalene St. Nicholas St. Paul's Pro-Cathedral St. Paul's Shipwreck St. Roque

Palaces

Admiralty House Auberge d'Allemagne Auberge d'Aragon Auberge d'Auvergne Auberge de Bavière Auberge de Castille Auberge de France Auberge d'Italie Auberge de Provence Casa Rocca Piccola Grandmaster's Palace Hostel de Verdelin Messina Palace Palazzo Correa Palazzo Ferreria Palazzo Parisio Spinola Palace

Museums

Fortifications Interpretation Centre Lascaris War Rooms Malta
Malta
Postal Museum National Museum of Archaeology National Museum of Fine Arts National War Museum Palace Armoury

Monuments

Great Siege Monument Monument to Sir Alexander Ball Ponsonby's Column Siege Bell War Memorial Triton Fountain Wignacourt Aqueduct fountains

Gardens

Ġnien is-Sultan Hastings Gardens Lower Barrakka Gardens Upper Barrakka Gardens

Other

Banca Giuratale Bibliotheca Casa del Commun Tesoro Castellania Courts of Justice building Forni della Signoria La Borsa Main Guard Malta
Malta
Stock Exchange Manoel Theatre Mediterranean Conference Centre
Mediterranean Conference Centre
(Sacra Infermeria) Monte di Pietà Old University Building Parliament House Royal Opera House Slaves' Prison Is-Suq tal-Belt

Sport

Valletta
Valletta
F.C. Valletta
Valletta
Lions RFC 24th Chess Olympiad Malta
Malta
Grand Prix Games of the Small States of Europe

1993 2003

Other

Valletta
Valletta
International Baroque
Baroque
Festival Valletta
Valletta
Living History HMS Maori Manderaggio Barrakka Lift

Destroyed, demolished or in ruins · Main category

v t e

Local councils and administrative committees of Malta
Malta
and Gozo

Malta Local councils

Attard Balzan Birgu Birkirkara Birżebbuġa Cospicua Dingli Fgura Floriana Għargħur Għaxaq Gudja Gżira Ħamrun Iklin Senglea Kalkara Kirkop Lija Luqa Marsa Marsaskala Marsaxlokk Mdina Mellieħa Mġarr Mosta Mqabba Msida Mtarfa Naxxar Paola Pembroke Pietà Qormi Qrendi Rabat Safi St. Julian's San Ġwann St. Paul's Bay Santa Luċija Santa Venera Siġġiewi Sliema Swieqi Tarxien Ta' Xbiex Valletta Xgħajra Żabbar Żebbuġ Żejtun Żurrieq

Malta Administrative committees

Baħar iċ-Ċagħaq Baħrija Bubaqra Burmarrad
Burmarrad
& Wardija Fleur-de-Lys Gwardamanġa Ħal Farruġ Kappara Madliena Paceville San Pietru Swatar Tal-Virtù

Gozo Local councils

Fontana Għajnsielem Għarb Għasri Kerċem Munxar Nadur Qala Rabat (Victoria) San Lawrenz Sannat Xagħra Xewkija Żebbuġ

Gozo Administrative committees

Marsalforn Santa Luċija Xlendi

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 133703152 LCCN: n81103153 GND: 4119358-1 SUDOC: 087552698 BNF:

.