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‘Uthmān Ibn ‘Affān Arabic : عثمان بن عفان‎‎

TRIBE Quraysh
Quraysh
( Banu Umayya )

FATHER Affan ibn Abi al-\'As

MOTHER Arwa bint Kurayz

Uthman The Generous – (Al Ghani)

Related articles

* Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
* Family tree of Uthman * The election * Siege of Uthman
Siege of Uthman
* Uthman Quran * Military campaigns under Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman

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UTHMAN IBN AFFAN (Arabic : عثمان بن عفان‎, translit. ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān‎), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, OSMAN, (579–17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
and the third of the Rashidun
Rashidun
, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs." Born into a prominent Meccan clan of the Quraysh tribe , he played a major role in early Islamic history , succeeding Umar ibn al-Khattab
Umar ibn al-Khattab
who died in office at the age of 59/60 years as caliph at the age of 64/65 years (the second-oldest ruler).

According to Sunni Muslims Uthman
Uthman
was married to Ruqayyah , and then upon her death, married Umm Kulthum , both of them being daughters of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
, which earned Uthman
Uthman
the honorific title Dhū al-Nurayn ("The Possessor of Two Lights").

Under the leadership of Uthman, the empire expanded into Fars (present-day Iran
Iran
) in 650, and some areas of Khorasan (present-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
) in 651. The empire's conquest of Armenia
Armenia
began by the 640s.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 1.1 Conversion to Islam
Islam
* 1.2 Migration to Abyssinia * 1.3 Migration to Medina
Medina
* 1.4 Life in Medina
Medina
* 1.5 Battles * 1.6 Muhammad\'s last years

* 2 Caliph
Caliph
Abu Bakr\'s era (632–634) * 3 Election of Uthman
Uthman

* 4 Reign as Caliph
Caliph
(644–656)

* 4.1 Economical and social administration

* 4.1.1 Economic reforms * 4.1.2 Military expansion * 4.1.3 Uthman\'s emissaries to the provinces * 4.1.4 Further measures

* 5 Armed revolt against Uthman
Uthman

* 5.1 Rebels in Medina
Medina
* 5.2 Siege of Uthman
Siege of Uthman

* 6 Death

* 6.1 Assassination * 6.2 Funeral * 6.3 Burial

* 7 Character * 8 Uthman\'s family tree

* 9 Legacy

* 9.1 Anti- Uthman
Uthman
sentiment * 9.2 Modern historians view * 9.3 Sunni view

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Bibliography * 13 External links

EARLY LIFE

Seven years after Muhammad, Uthman
Uthman
was born in Ta\'if to the wealthy Umayyad
Umayyad
( Banu Umayya ) clan of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe of Mecca. Uthman's father, Affan, died at a young age while travelling abroad, however, Uthman
Uthman
was left with a large inheritance. Uthman
Uthman
became a merchant, like his father. His business flourished, making him one of the richest men among the Qurayshi tribe. His mother was Arwa, daughter of Um Hakim bint Abdul Mutalib, the twin sister of Abdullah, father of Muhammad, making Uthman
Uthman
Muhammad's first cousin. She died before 610.

CONVERSION TO ISLAM

On returning from a business trip to Syria
Syria
in 611, Uthman
Uthman
found out that Muhammad
Muhammad
had declared his mission. After a discussion with his friend Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
, Uthman
Uthman
decided to convert to Islam, and Abu Bakr took him to Muhammad
Muhammad
to declare his faith. Uthman
Uthman
thus became one of the earliest converts to Islam
Islam
, following Ali, Zayd, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and a few others. His conversion to Islam
Islam
angered his clan, the Banu Ummayyah, who strongly opposed Muhammad's teachings.

MIGRATION TO ABYSSINIA

Uthman
Uthman
and his wife, Ruqayya, migrated to Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia ) in 614–15, along with 11 men and 11 women, all of whom were Muslims. As Uthman
Uthman
already had some business contacts in Abyssinia, he continued to practice his profession as a trader, and he continued to flourish. After two years, the news had spread among the Muslims in Abyssinia that the Quraysh
Quraysh
of Mecca
Mecca
had accepted Islam, and this acceptance persuaded Uthman, Ruqayya and some other Muslims to return. However, when they reached Mecca, they found that the news about the Quraysh's acceptance of Islam
Islam
was false. Some of the Muslims who had come from Abyssinia returned, but Uthman
Uthman
and Ruqayya stayed. In Mecca, Uthman
Uthman
had to start his business afresh, but the contacts that he had already established in Abyssinia worked in his favor and his business prospered once again.

MIGRATION TO MEDINA

In 622, Uthman
Uthman
and his wife, Ruqayya, migrated to Medina
Medina
. They were among the third batch of Muslims who migrated to Medina. Upon their arrival, Uthman
Uthman
stayed with Abu Talha
Talha
ibn Thabit . After a short while, Uthman
Uthman
purchased a house of his own and moved there. Being one of the richest merchants of Mecca, and having amassed a considerable fortune, Uthman
Uthman
did not need any financial help from his Ansari brothers, as he brought all his wealth with him to Medina. In Medina, the Muslims were generally farmers and were not very interested in trade, and thus most of the trading that took place in the town was handled by Jews . Thus, there was considerable space for the Muslims in promoting trade. Uthman
Uthman
took advantage of this position, soon establishing himself as a trader in Medina. He worked hard and honestly, and his business flourished, soon becoming one of the richest men in Medina.

LIFE IN MEDINA

When Ali
Ali
married Fatimah, Uthman
Uthman
bought Ali's shield for five hundred dirhams. Four hundred was set aside as mahr (dower ) for Fatimah's marriage, leaving a hundred for all other expenses. Later, Uthman presented the armor back to Ali
Ali
as a wedding present.

BATTLES

Main article: List of expeditions of Muhammad
Muhammad

Uthman
Uthman
had a reputation of favoring family members. One way he displayed this was he had a habit of splitting war booty among his relatives and keeping it from combatants. During the Invasion of Hamra al-Asad a Meccan spy, Muawiyah bin Al Mugheerah, the cousin of Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan, had been captured. According to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri , Uthman
Uthman
gave him shelter after getting permission from Muhammad, and Muhammad
Muhammad
told him that if he was caught again after 3 days he would be executed. As such, Muawiyah was given a grace period of three days and arranged a camel and provisions for his return journey to Mecca. Uthman
Uthman
departed with Muhammad
Muhammad
for Hamra-al-Asad, and Muawiyah overstayed his grace. Though he fled by the time the army returned, Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered his pursuit and execution. The orders were carried out.

MUHAMMAD\'S LAST YEARS

In 632, the year Muhammad
Muhammad
died, Uthman
Uthman
participated in The Farewell Pilgrimage .

CALIPH ABU BAKR\'S ERA (632–634)

Uthman
Uthman
had a very close relationship with Abu Bakr, as it was due to him that Uthman
Uthman
had converted to Islam. When Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was selected as the Caliph, Uthman
Uthman
was the first person after Umar
Umar
to offer his allegiance. During the Ridda wars
Ridda wars
(Wars of Apostasy), Uthman
Uthman
remained in Medina, acting as Abu Bakr's adviser. On his deathbed, Abu Bakr dictated his will to Uthman, saying that his successor was to be Umar.

ELECTION OF UTHMAN

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Main article: The election of Uthman
The election of Uthman

Umar, on his deathbed formed a committee of six people to choose the next Caliph
Caliph
from amongst themselves. This committee was:

* Ali
Ali
* Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan * Abdur Rahman bin Awf
Abdur Rahman bin Awf
* Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
* Al-Zubayr
Al-Zubayr
* Talhah
Talhah

Umar
Umar
asked that, after his death, the committee reach a final decision within three days, and the next Caliph
Caliph
should take the oath of office on the fourth day. If Talhah
Talhah
joined the committee within this period, he was to take part in the deliberations, but if he did not return to Medina
Medina
within this period, the other members of the committee could proceed with the decision. Abdur Rahman bin Awf withdrew his eligibility to be appointed as Caliph
Caliph
in order to act as a moderator and began his task by interviewing every member of the committee separately. He asked them for whom they would cast their vote. When Ali
Ali
was asked, he didn't reply. When Uthman
Uthman
was asked, he voted for Ali, Zubayr said for Ali
Ali
or Uthman
Uthman
and Saad said for Uthman.

REIGN AS CALIPH (644–656)

Caliphate
Caliphate
خِلافة

Main caliphates

* Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
* Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate
Caliphate
* Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate
Caliphate
* Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate

Parallel caliphates

* Fatimid Caliphate
Caliphate
* Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba * Almohad Caliphate
Caliphate
* Sokoto Caliphate
Caliphate

Islam
Islam
portal

* v * t * e

ECONOMICAL AND SOCIAL ADMINISTRATION

Economic Reforms

The coins were of Persian origin, and had an image of the last Persian emperor, Muslim added the sentence Bismillah to it.

Uthman
Uthman
was a shrewd businessman and a successful trader from his youth, which contributed greatly to the Rashidun
Rashidun
Empire. Umar
Umar
had fixed the allowance of the people and on assuming office, Uthman increased it by about 25%. Umar
Umar
had placed a ban on the sale of lands and the purchase of agricultural lands in conquered territories. Uthman
Uthman
withdrew these restrictions, in view of the fact that the trade could not flourish. Uthman
Uthman
also permitted people to draw loans from the public treasury. Under Umar, it had been laid down as a policy that the lands in conquered territories were not to be distributed among the combatants, but were to remain the property of the previous owners. The army felt dissatisfied at this decision, but Umar suppressed the opposition with a strong hand. Uthman
Uthman
followed the policy devised by Umar
Umar
and there were more conquests, and the revenues from land increased considerably.

Umar, the predecessor of Uthman, was very strict in the use of money from the public treasury. Apart from the meagre allowance that had been sanctioned in his favour, Umar
Umar
took no money from the treasury. He did not receive any gifts, nor did he allow any of his family members to accept any gifts from any quarter. During the time of Uthman, there was some relaxation in such strictness. Uthman
Uthman
did not draw any allowance from the treasury for his personal use, nor did he receive a salary , he was a wealthy man with sufficient resources of his own, but unlike Umar, Uthman
Uthman
accepted gifts and allowed his family members to accept gifts from certain quarters. Uthman
Uthman
honestly expressed that he had the right to utilize the public funds according to his best judgment, and no one criticized him for that. The economic reforms introduced by Uthman
Uthman
had far reaching effects; Muslims as well as non-Muslims of the Rashidun Empire
Rashidun Empire
enjoyed an economically prosperous life during his reign.

Military Expansion

* v * t * e

Early Muslim expansion

BYZANTINE (EAST ROMAN) EMPIRE

* Syria
Syria
* Armenia
Armenia
* Egypt * North Africa * Cyprus
Cyprus
* Constantinople
Constantinople
* Georgia * Crete * Sicily * Southern Italy

SASSANID PERSIAN EMPIRE

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Armenia
Armenia
* Georgia

INDUS VALLEY

* Rasil

CAUCASUS

* Georgia * Khazar Khaganate

TRANSOXIANA

VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM (Hispania) FRANKISH EMPIRE (Gaul)

* v * t * e

Arab–Byzantine wars
Arab–Byzantine wars

EARLY CONFLICTS

* Mu\'tah * Dathin * Firaz

MUSLIM CONQUEST OF THE LEVANT

* al-Qaryatayn * Bosra * Ajnadayn * Marj Rahit * Fahl * Damascus * Maraj-al-Debaj * Emesa * Yarmouk * Jerusalem * Hazir * Aleppo * Iron Bridge * Germanicia

MUSLIM CONQUEST OF EGYPT

* Heliopolis * Alexandria * Nikiou

MUSLIM CONQUEST OF NORTH AFRICA

* Sufetula * Vescera * Mamma * Carthage

Umayyad
Umayyad
invasions of Anatolia
Anatolia
and Constantinople
Constantinople

* 1st Constantinople
Constantinople
* Sebastopolis * Tyana * 2nd Constantinople
Constantinople
* Nicaea * Akroinon

ARAB–BYZANTINE BORDER WARFARE

* Kamacha * Abbasid
Abbasid
invasion of 782 * Kopidnadon * Krasos * Abbasid
Abbasid
invasion of 806 * Anzen and Amorium * Mauropotamos * Faruriyyah * Lalakaon * Bathys Ryax

SICILY AND SOUTHERN ITALY

* 1st Syracuse * 2nd Syracuse * 1st Malta * 3rd Syracuse * Campaigns of Leo Apostyppes and Nikephoros Phokas the Elder
Nikephoros Phokas the Elder
* Stelai (1st Milazzo) * (2nd) Milazzo * 1st Taormina * Garigliano * Campaigns of Marianos Argyros
Marianos Argyros
* 2nd Taormina * Rometta * Straits of Messina * George Maniakes
George Maniakes
in Sicily * 2nd Malta

NAVAL WARFARE AND RAIDS

* Phoenix * Keramaia * Muslim conquest of Crete * Thasos * Damietta * Ragusa * Kardia * Gulf of Corinth * Cephalonia * Euripos * Thessalonica

BYZANTINE RECONQUEST

* Campaigns of John Kourkouas
John Kourkouas

* Campaigns of Sayf al-Dawla
Sayf al-Dawla

* Marash * Raban * Andrassos

* Campaigns of Nikephoros Phokas

* Crete

* Antioch float:right;clear:right;width:315px;margin-bottom:0.5em;margin-left:1em;;padding:3px">

* v * t * e

Muslim conquest of Persia

MESOPOTAMIA

* Chains * River * Walaja * Ullais * Hira * Al-Anbar * Ayn al-Tamr * Muzayyah * Saniyy * Zumail * Firaz * Namaraq * Kaskar * Buwayb * Bridge * al-Qādisiyyah * Burs * Babylon * Ctesiphon * Jalula

KHUZESTAN

* Hormizd-Ardashir * Susa * Ram-Hormizd * Shushtar * Gundishapur

CENTRAL PERSIA

* Nahavand * Spahan * Waj Rudh * Ray

NORTHERN PERSIA

* Tabaristan * Armenia
Armenia
* Azerbaijan

PARS

* Bishapur * Darabgerd * 1st Estakhr * Gor * 2nd Estakhr

KERMAN

* Sirjan * Qeshm

SAKASTAN

* Zaranj

KHORASAN

* Oxus River
Oxus River
* Nishapur * Herat * Badghis

Further information: Military campaigns under Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman

During his rule, Uthman's Military style was more autonomical in nature as he delegated so much military authority to his trusted kinsmen like Abdullah ibn Aamir , Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
and Abdullāh ibn Sa‘ad ibn Abī as-Sarâḥ , unlike the tenure of Umar
Umar
where the military expansion was generally centralized in Umar's authority. Consequently, this more independent expansion enabled more overarching expansion until Sindh, Pakistan
Pakistan
, which was not touched during the tenure of Umar.

Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
was appointed the Governor of Syria
Syria
by Umar
Umar
in 639 to stop the Byzantine harassment from the sea during the Arab-Byzantine Wars . This Appointment occurred after his elder brother Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan (Governor of Syria) died in a plague, along with Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah , the governor before him and 25,000 other people. Now, under Uthman's rule in 649, Muawiyah was allowed set up a navy, manned by Monophysitise Christians , Copts
Copts
, and Jacobite Syrian Christian sailors and Muslim troops. This resulted in the defeat of the Byzantine navy at the Battle of the Masts in 655, opening up the Mediterranean.

In 31 Hijri year or around 651 AD, Caliph
Caliph
Uthman
Uthman
sent Abdullah ibn Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Saad to lead reconquest expedition towards Maghreb where he met the army of Gregory the Patrician , Exarch of Africa and relative of Heraclius
Heraclius
which is recorded numbers between 120,000 and 200,000 soldiers, Although another estimation was recorded, Gregory's army was put in 20,000. The opposing forces clashed in Sabuthilag (alternately called Sufetula), which became the name of this battle. Records from al-Bidayah wal Nihayah state that Abdullah's troops were completely surrounded by Gregory's army in a circular fashion and the situation was very dire for the Muslim army as they were threatened with annihilation. However, Abdullah ibn Zubayr spotted Gregory in his chariot and soon he asked Abdullah ibn Sa'd to lead a small detachment to intercept him. The interception was successful, and Gregory was slain by Zubayr's ambush party. Consequently, the morale of Byzantine army started crumbling and soon they were routed.

Some Muslim sources claim that after the conquest of Northern Africa was complete by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari , Abdullah ibn Sa'd continued the conquest to Spain
Spain
. Spain
Spain
was first invaded some sixty years earlier during the caliphate of Uthman. Other prominent Muslim historians like, Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
, have also quoted the same narration. In the description of this campaign, during which North Africa was conquered by Abdullah ibn Saad, two of his generals, Abdullah ibn Nafiah ibn Husain, and Abdullah ibn Nafi' ibn Abdul Qais, were commissioned to invade the coastal areas of Spain
Spain
by sea aided by a Berber force. They succeeded in conquering the coastal areas of Al-Andalus. It is not known where the Muslim force landed, what resistance they met, and what parts of Spain
Spain
they actually conquered. However, it is clear that the Muslims did conquer some portion of Spain
Spain
during the caliphate of Uthman, presumably establishing colonies on its coast. On this occasion, Uthman
Uthman
is reported to have addressed a letter to the invading force:

Constantinople
Constantinople
will be conquered from the side of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
. Thus, if you conquer it, you will have the honor of taking the first step towards the conquest of Constantinople. You will have your reward in this behalf both in this world and the next. ”

Although raids by Berbers and Muslims were conducted against the Visigothic Kingdom in Spain
Spain
during the late 7th century, there is no evidence that Spain
Spain
was invaded or that parts of it were conquered or settled by Muslims prior to the 711 campaign by Tariq.

Abdullah ibn Saad also continued his success in the very first Caliphate
Caliphate
Naval battle against the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in the Battle of the Masts which is described as the first decisive conflict of Islam on the deep of Byzantine offshore. Rashidun Empire
Rashidun Empire
at its peak under third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman- 654 Strongholds of Rashidun Caliphate
Caliphate

On the east Ahnaf ibn Qais , chief of Banu Tamim and a veteran commander who conquer Shustar earlier. Now in Uthman's regime, Ahnaf launched a series of successful further military expansions by further mauling Yazdegerd III near Oxus River
Oxus River
in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and later crushing the military coalition of Sassanid empire
Sassanid empire
loyalists and Hephthalite Empire
Hephthalite Empire
in the Siege of Herat . Later the governor of Basra
Basra
, Abdullah ibn Aamir also lead successful various campaign which ranged from punitive Re-conquest of the revolting population of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Khorasan to the opening of new conquest fronts in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
.

In the next year of 652 AD, the translation of records from Futh Al-Buldan of Baladhuri write that Balochistan
Balochistan
was re-conquered during the campaign against the revolt in Kermān, under the command of Majasha ibn Mas'ud. It was the first time that western Balochistan
Balochistan
had come directly under the Laws of Caliphate
Caliphate
and it paid an agricultural tribute.

The military campaigns under Uthman's rule was generally successful, except a few campaigns in the kingdom of Nubia in the lower Nile.

Uthman\'s Emissaries To The Provinces

The situation was becoming tense and so the Uthman's administration had to investigate the origins and extent of anti-government propaganda and its aims. Some time around 654, Uthman
Uthman
called all the governors of his 12 provinces to Medina
Medina
to discuss the problem. In this Council of Governors, Uthman
Uthman
directed the governors that they should adopt all the expedients they had suggested, according to local circumstances. Later, in the Majlis al Shurah (council of ministry), it was suggested to Uthman
Uthman
that reliable agents should be sent to various provinces to investigate the matter and report about the sources of such rumors. Uthman
Uthman
then sent his agents to the main provinces, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Maslamah was sent to Kufa; Usama ibn Zayd was sent to Basra; Ammar ibn Yasir was sent to Egypt, while `Abd Allah ibn Umar
Umar
was sent to Syria. The emissaries who had been sent to Kufa, Basra
Basra
and Syria
Syria
submitted their reports to Uthman, that all was well in Kufa, Basra
Basra
and Syria. The people were satisfied with the administration, and they had no legitimate grievance against it. Some individuals in various locations had some personal grievances of minor character, with which the people at large were not concerned. Ammar ibn Yasir, the emissary to Egypt, however, did not return to Medina. The rebels had carried on with their propaganda in favor of the Caliphate
Caliphate
of Ali. Ammar ibn Yasir had been affiliated with Ali; he left Uthman, and instead joined the opposition in Egypt. Abdullah ibn Saad, the governor of Egypt, reported about the activities of the opposition in Egypt. He wanted to take action against Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr (foster son of Ali), Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abi Hudhaifa (adopted son of Uthman) and Ammar ibn Yasir.

Further Measures

In 655, Uthman
Uthman
directed the people who had any grievance against the administration to assemble at Mecca
Mecca
for the Hajj. He promised them that all their legitimate grievances would be redressed. He directed the governors and the "Amils" throughout the empire to come to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj. In response to the call of Uthman, the opposition came in large delegations from various cities to present their grievances before the gathering.

The rebels realized that the people in Mecca
Mecca
supported the defense offered by Uthman
Uthman
and were not in the mood to listen to them. That was a great psychological victory for Uthman. It is said, according to Sunni Muslim accounts, that before returning to Syria, the governor Muawiyah , Uthman’s cousin, suggested that Uthman
Uthman
should come with him to Syria
Syria
as the atmosphere there was peaceful. Uthman
Uthman
rejected his offer, saying that he didn't want to leave the city of Muhammad (referring to Medina). Muawiyah then suggested that he be allowed to send a strong force from Syria
Syria
to Medina
Medina
to guard Uthman
Uthman
against any possible attempt by rebels to harm him. Uthman
Uthman
rejected it too, saying that the Syrian forces in Medina
Medina
would be an incitement to civil war , and he could not be party to such a move.

ARMED REVOLT AGAINST UTHMAN

The politics of Egypt played the major role in the propaganda war against the caliphate, so Uthman
Uthman
summoned Abdullah ibn Saad, the governor of Egypt, to Medina
Medina
to consult with him as to the course of action that should be adopted. Abdullah ibn Saad came to Medina, leaving the affairs of Egypt to his deputy, and in his absence, Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abi Hudhaifa staged a coup d\'état and took power. On hearing of the revolt in Egypt, Abdullah hastened back, but Uthman
Uthman
was not in a position to offer him any military assistance and, accordingly, Abdullah ibn Saad failed to recapture his power.

Several Sunni scholars such as Ibn Qutaybah , Ali
Ali
Ibn Burhanuddin al-Halabi, Ibne Abi-al-Hadeed and Ibne Manzur reported that there were several leading Sahaba along those who openly opposing and asking Uthman
Uthman
to step down for reasons such as nepotism and a profligate lifestyle. Talha
Talha
and Zubayr ibn al-Awam
Zubayr ibn al-Awam
were among those leading the rebels while A\'isha had even called for Uthman's head with her famous statement "Kill this Na'thal (a Jew) for he has turned apostate" as recordrd by several leading historians.

REBELS IN MEDINA

From Egypt, a contingent of about 1,000 people were sent to Medina, with instructions to assassinate Uthman
Uthman
and overthrow the government. Similar contingents marched from Kufa and Basra
Basra
to Medina. They sent their representatives to Medina
Medina
to contact the leaders of public opinion. The representatives of the contingent from Egypt waited on Ali, and offered him the Caliphate
Caliphate
in succession to Uthman, which Ali turned down. The representatives of the contingent from Kufa waited on Al-Zubayr, while the representatives of the contingent from Basra waited on Talhah
Talhah
, and offered them their allegiance as the next Caliph, which were both turned down. In proposing alternatives to Uthman
Uthman
as Caliph, the rebels neutralized the bulk of public opinion in Medina
Medina
and Uthman's faction could no longer offer a united front. Uthman
Uthman
had the active support of the Umayyads, and a few other people in Medina.

SIEGE OF UTHMAN

Main article: Siege of Uthman
Siege of Uthman

The early stage of the siege of Uthman's house was not severe, but as the days passed, the rebels intensified their pressure against Uthman. With the departure of the pilgrims from Medina
Medina
to Mecca, the hands of the rebels were further strengthened, and as a consequence the crisis deepened further. The rebels understood that after the Hajj, the Muslims gathered at Mecca
Mecca
from all parts of the Muslim world
Muslim world
might march to Medina
Medina
to relieve Uthman. They therefore decided to take action against Uthman
Uthman
before the pilgrimage was over. During the siege, Uthman
Uthman
was asked by his supporters, who outnumbered the rebels, to let them fight against the rebels and rout them. Uthman
Uthman
prevented them in an effort to avoid the bloodshed of Muslim by Muslim. Unfortunately for Uthman, violence still occurred. The gates of the house of Uthman
Uthman
were shut and guarded by the renowned warrior, Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr. The sons of Ali, Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
and Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
, were also among the guards.

DEATH

ASSASSINATION

On July 20, 656, finding the gate of Uthman's house strongly guarded by his supporters, the Egyptian rebels climbed the back wall and crept inside, leaving the guards on the gate unaware of what was going on inside. The rebels entered his room and struck blows at his head. Naila , the wife of Uthman, threw herself on his body to protect him and raised her hand to deflect a sword. She had her fingers chopped off and was pushed aside. The next blow killed Uthman. Some of Uthman's slaves counter-attacked, one of whom killed the assassin and was in turn killed by the rebels. :216

The rioters tried to decapitate Uthman's corpse, but his two widows, Nailah and Umm al-Banin, threw themselves across the body and screamed, beating their faces and tearing their clothing, until the rioters were deterred. Instead, they looted the house, even snatching at the women's veils. :216,248 The rebels left the house and the supporters of Uthman
Uthman
at the gate heard them and entered, but it was too late.

FUNERAL

Uthman's tomb

After the body of Uthman
Uthman
had been in the house for three days, Naila, Uthman's wife, approached some of his supporters to help in his burial, but only about a dozen people responded. These included Marwan, Zayd ibn Thabit , 'Huwatib bin Alfarah, Jubayr ibn Mut\'im , Abu Jahm bin Hudaifa, Hakim bin Hazam and Niyar bin Mukarram. The body was lifted at dusk, and because of the blockade, no coffin could be procured. The body was not washed, as Islamic teaching states that martyrs' bodies are not supposed to be washed before burial. Thus, Uthman
Uthman
was carried to the graveyard in the clothes that he was wearing at the time of his assassination.

His body was buried by Hassan, Hussein, Ali
Ali
and others, however; some people rejected that Ali
Ali
attended the funeral Naila followed the funeral with a lamp, but in order to maintain secrecy the lamp had to be extinguished. Naila was accompanied by some women including Ayesha, Abubaker's daughter. :247,248

BURIAL

The body was carried to Jannat al-Baqi
Jannat al-Baqi
, the Muslim graveyard. It appeared that some people gathered there, and they resisted the burial of Uthman
Uthman
in the graveyard of the Muslims. The supporters of Uthman insisted that the body should be buried in Jannat al-Baqi. They later buried him in the Jewish graveyard behind Jannat al-Baqi. Some decades later, the Umayyad
Umayyad
rulers demolished the wall separating the two cemeteries and merged the Jewish cemetery into the Muslim one to ensure that his tomb was now inside a Muslim cemetery.

The funeral prayers were led by Jabir bin Muta'am, and the dead body was lowered into the grave without much of a ceremony. After burial, Naila the widow of Uthman
Uthman
and Aisha his daughter wanted to speak, but they were advised to remain quiet due to possible danger from the rioters. :247

CHARACTER

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Uthman
Uthman
was a family man who apparently led a simple life even after becoming the Caliph
Caliph
of the Rashidun Empire
Rashidun Empire
and regardless of the fact that he was rich due to his flourishing family business. The caliphs were paid for their services from bait al-mal, the public treasury, but Uthman
Uthman
never took any salary for his service as a Caliph, as he was independently wealthy. Uthman
Uthman
was also a humanitarian: He developed a custom to free slaves every Friday, look after the widows and orphans , and give unlimited charity. His patience and endurance were among the characteristics that made him a successful leader. As a way of taking care of Muhammad's wives, he doubled their allowances. Uthman
Uthman
wasn't completely plain and simple, however: Uthman
Uthman
built a Palace for himself in Medina, known as Al-Zawar, with a notable feature being doors of precious wood. Although Uthman
Uthman
paid for the palace with his own money, Shia Muslims considered it his first step towards ruling like a King.

UTHMAN\'S FAMILY TREE

Main article: Family tree of Uthman

LEGACY

ANTI-UTHMAN SENTIMENT

According to Muslim sources, unlike his predecessor, Umar, who maintained discipline with a stern hand, Uthman
Uthman
was less rigorous upon his people; he focused more on economic prosperity. Under Uthman, the people became economically more prosperous and on the political plane they came to enjoy a larger degree of freedom. No institutions were devised to channel political activity, and, in the absence of such institutions, the pre-Islamic tribal jealousies and rivalries, which had been suppressed under earlier caliphs, erupted once again. In view of the lenient policies adopted by Uthman, the people took advantage of such liberties, which became a headache for the state, and it culminated in the assassination of Uthman.

The actual reason for the anti- Uthman
Uthman
movement is disputed among the Shia and Sunni Muslims. Uthman, as a caliph, relied solely on his own volition in picking his cabinet, which led to decisions that breeded resistance within the Muslim community. Indeed, his style of governance made Uthman
Uthman
one of the most controversial figures in Islamic history. The resistance against Uthman
Uthman
originated because he favored family members over any others in choosing his governors, reasoning that by doing this, he would be able to exact more influence on how the caliphate was ran and consequently improve the capitalist system he worked to establish. The contrary turned out to be true and his appointees had more control over how he conducted business than he originally planned. They went so far as to impose authoritarianism over their provinces. Indeed, many anonymous letters were written to the leading companions of Muhammad, complaining about the alleged tyranny of Uthman's appointed governors. Moreover, letters were sent to the leaders of public opinion in different provinces concerning the reported mishandling of power by Uthman's family. This contributed to unrest in the empire and finally Uthman
Uthman
had to investigate the matter in an attempt to ascertain the authenticity of the rumors. Wilferd Madelung discredits the alleged role of Abdullah ibn Saba in the rebellion against Uthman
Uthman
and observes that few if any modern historians would accept Sayf's legend of Ibn Saba. Although the view shared by Madelung was largely debated, it was based on the influence regarding the bias of Shiite view and the assertions of Bernard Lewis, that argued the mythical status of Abdullah bin Saba' was a result of simplified political unrest, during the time of Caliph Uthman
Uthman
and caliph Ali
Ali
that casted being despite being recorded by earliest Islamic scholars comprehensive recording outside the mainstream subjects of recording such as Tabari which rarely reviewed to the scope of many modern historians Further information: Abdullah_ibn_Saba\' § Other_sources_on_Ibn_Saba

MODERN HISTORIANS VIEW

Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
, a 20th-century scholar , says of Uthman:

UTHMAN, like Mu\'awiya , was a member of the leading Meccan family of Ummaya and was indeed the sole representative of the Meccan patricians among the early companions of the Prophet with sufficient prestige to rank as a candidate. His election was at once their victory and their opportunity. That opportunity was not neglected. Uthman
Uthman
soon fell under the influence of the dominant Meccan families and one after another, the high posts of the Empire went to members of those families.

The weakness and nepotism of Uthman
Uthman
brought to a head the resentment which had for some time been stirring obscurely among the Arab warriors. The Muslim tradition attribute the breakdown which occurred during his reign to the personal defects of Uthman. But, the causes lie far deeper and the guilt of Uthman
Uthman
lay in his failure to recognize, control or remedy them.

According to R. V. C. Bodley , during Muhammad's lifetime, Uthman
Uthman
was not an outstanding figure and was not assigned to any authority, and was not ever distinguished in any of Muhammad's campaigns. Bodley also believed that after Umar's assassination, Ali
Ali
rejected the caliphate as he disagreed with governing according to regulations established by Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar, and that Uthman, accepted those terms which he failed to administrate during his ten years Caliphate. He subjected most of the Islamic nation to his relatives, Bani Umayya , who were partially accursed during Muhammad's lifetime.

SUNNI VIEW

Part of a series on

Sunni Islam
Islam

Beliefs

* Monotheism * Prophets and messengers * Holy books * Angels * Judgement Day * Predestination

Five Pillars

* Declaration of Faith * Prayer * Charity * Fasting * Pilgrimage

Rightly-Guided Caliphs

* Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
* Umar ibn al-Khattab
Umar ibn al-Khattab
* Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan * Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib

Sunni schools of law

* Hanafi
Hanafi
* Maliki
Maliki
* Shafi\'i * Hanbali
Hanbali

Others

* Zahiri
Zahiri
* Awza\'i * Thawri
Thawri
* Laythi
Laythi
* Jariri
Jariri

Sunni schools of theology

* Ash\'ari * Maturidi
Maturidi
* Traditionalist

Others:

* Mu\'tazila * Murji\'ah

Contemporary movements

* Ahl-i Hadith
Hadith
* Al-Ahbash
Al-Ahbash
* Barelvi
Barelvi
* Deobandi
Deobandi
* Islamic Modernism
Islamic Modernism
* Salafi movement
Salafi movement
* Wahhabism
Wahhabism

Holy sites

* Jerusalem * Mecca
Mecca
* Medina
Medina
* Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai

Lists

* Literature

* Kutub al-Sittah

Islam
Islam
portal

* v * t * e

The general opinion of the Sunni Muslim community and Sunni historians regarding Uthman's rule were positive regarding his leniency and accused nepotism was in fact the kinsmen whom he appointed such as Muawiya and Abdullah ibn Aamir was proven to be competent and effective in both of military and political management affairs. Historians, like Zaki Muhammad, accused Uthman
Uthman
for allegation corruption particularly in the case of Waleed ibn Uqba . Muhammad
Muhammad
Zaki also accused Walid for being one of the worst of Uthman's nepotistic relative as he points out the diminishing features of Walid's dishonesty and unpopularity among the peoples of caliphate. However modern Sunni historian regard Walid was not as bad. Dr. A.M. Sallabi asserting Walid has fine qualities which is trusted and reliable by both of these two caliphs, one of those to whom important tasks could be entrusted. He further said Al- Waleed was one of the most beloved to the people, and one of the kindest to them. For five years there was no gate at his house.

Another case is Uthman's other relative named Marwan bin Hakam , the one which instigate the controversy regarding nepotism was the case of the Marwan corruption of the spoils of war from the conquest of northern Africa. However, it is argued that that is non existent because the allegation of corruption was originated from the misconception regarding of how Marwan transported the spoils tribute to the capital. Marwan did not directly send the tribute of spoils of war because it was not efficient as the spoils of war was in the form of cattle and hardware. As such, he sold the spoils of war first and then the treasury in the form of Dinars, which easier to be transported was sent directly to the caliph.

This treatment was similar with Abdullah ibn Saad . Despite him being unpopular among the newly conquered populace in northern Africa, particularly after he replaced popular Amr ibn al \'Aas . He was; however, proven as capable as Muawiya and Abd-Allah ibn Amr .

Perhaps the most significant act of Uthman
Uthman
was his allowance to Muawiya and Abdullah ibn Saad, both respectively governor of Syria
Syria
and Northern Africa to form the first integrated Muslim navy in the Mediterranean sea, rivaling the maritime domination of Byzantine empire. Abdullah ibn Saad's feats in conquering southeast coast of Spain
Spain
and stunning victory of Battle of the Masts in Lycia
Lycia
which became the milestone of newly formed Rashidun's navy and the extensions of conquest to the coasts of Mediterranean Sea
Sea
was generally overlooked as it successfully giving birth to an embryo of the very first Muslim standing navy which helped the first maritime colonial expansion of Muslim towards Cyprus
Cyprus
and Rhodes
Rhodes
island, subsequently paving the way for establishments of several Muslim states in Mediterranean sea during the later Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
era which is evident in the form of consistently emerging Muslim naval states in the form Emirate of Sicily
Emirate of Sicily
and its minor vassal Emirate of Bari which formed from the servant or slave of Aghlabids, and Emirate of Crete
Emirate of Crete
and Aglabid Dynasty
Dynasty
. This assessment regarding political legacy regarding the significance of Muslim naval development was agreed by Muhammad, the author of "Islamic Fiscal and Monetary policy" and further strengthened by Hassan Khalileh referencing Tarikh al Bahriyya wal Islamiyya fii Misr wal Sham by Ahmad Abaddy and Esayyed Salem

From the view of expansions, Uthman
Uthman
was viewed as good at conflict managements regarding how to dispute the heated and troubled earliest Muslim colonies such as Kufa or Basra
Basra
by directing the hot headed Arab settlers to the new military campaign and expansions. This not only resulted in settling down the internal conflicts in those settlement garrisons, but also expanded the Rashidun's territory further, as the Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphate reached the most extent as far as southern Iberia which campaign was led by Abd Allah bin Nafi al Husayn and Abd Allah bin Nafi al Abd al Qays and even Sindh, Pakistan.

SEE ALSO

* Book: Sahabah
Sahabah

* Islam
Islam
portal

* List of Sahabah
Sahabah

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