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USENET is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose UUCP dial-up network architecture. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, and it was established in 1980. Users read and post messages (called _articles_ or _posts_, and collectively termed _news_) to one or more categories, known as newsgroups . Usenet
Usenet
resembles a bulletin board system (BBS) in many respects and is the precursor to Internet forums that are widely used today. Discussions are threaded , as with web forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially. The name comes from the term "users network".

One notable difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet
Usenet
is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator. Usenet
Usenet
is distributed among a large, constantly changing conglomeration of servers that store and forward messages to one another in so-called news feeds. Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server operated by a commercial usenet provider, their Internet service provider , university, employer, or their own server.

Usenet
Usenet
has significant cultural importance in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many widely recognized concepts and terms such as " FAQ ", "flame ", and "spam ".

CONTENTS

* 1 Introduction

* 2 ISPs, news servers, and newsfeeds

* 2.1 Newsreaders * 2.2 Moderated and unmoderated newsgroups * 2.3 Technical details * 2.4 Organization

* 2.5 Binary content

* 2.5.1 Binary retention time * 2.5.2 Legal issues

* 3 History

* 3.1 Network * 3.2 Software
Software
* 3.3 Public venue * 3.4 Internet
Internet
jargon and history * 3.5 Decline

* 4 Usenet
Usenet
traffic changes

* 5 Archives

* 5.1 Archives by Google Groups and DejaNews

* 6 See also

* 6.1 Usenet
Usenet
newsreaders * 6.2 Usenet/newsgroup service providers * 6.3 Usenet
Usenet
terms * 6.4 Usenet
Usenet
history * 6.5 Usenet
Usenet
administrators * 6.6 Usenet
Usenet
celebrities

* 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

INTRODUCTION

Usenet
Usenet
was conceived in 1979 and publicly established in 1980, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University , over a decade before the World Wide Web was developed and the general public received access to the Internet
Internet
, making it one of the oldest computer network communications systems still in widespread use. It was originally built on the "poor man's ARPANET ", employing UUCP as its transport protocol to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software such as A News . The name Usenet
Usenet
emphasized its creators' hope that the USENIX organization would take an active role in its operation.

The articles that users post to Usenet
Usenet
are organized into topical categories known as newsgroups , which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects. For instance, _sci.math _ and _sci.physics _ are within the _sci.*_ hierarchy, for science. Or, _talk.origins _ and _talk.atheism _ are in the _talk.*_ hierarchy. When a user subscribes to a newsgroup, the news client software keeps track of which articles that user has read.

In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article. The set of articles that can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread . Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into threads and subthreads.

When a user posts an article, it is initially only available on that user's news server. Each news server talks to one or more other servers (its "newsfeeds") and exchanges articles with them. In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server and should eventually reach every server in the network. The later peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle, but for Usenet
Usenet
it is normally the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers. Usenet was designed under conditions when networks were much slower and not always available. Many sites on the original Usenet
Usenet
network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out. This is largely because the POTS network was typically used for transfers, and phone charges were lower at night.

The format and transmission of Usenet
Usenet
articles is similar to that of Internet
Internet
e-mail messages. The difference between the two is that Usenet
Usenet
articles can be read by any user whose news server carries the group to which the message was posted, as opposed to email messages, which have one or more specific recipients.

Today, Usenet
Usenet
has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums , blogs and mailing lists . Usenet
Usenet
differs from such media in several ways: Usenet
Usenet
requires no personal registration with the group concerned; information need not be stored on a remote server; archives are always available; and reading the messages requires not a mail or web client, but a news client. The groups in _alt.binaries _ are still widely used for data transfer.

ISPS, NEWS SERVERS, AND NEWSFEEDS

Many Internet
Internet
service providers, and many other Internet
Internet
sites, operate news servers for their users to access. ISPs that do not operate their own servers directly will often offer their users an account from another provider that specifically operates newsfeeds. In early news implementations, the server and newsreader were a single program suite, running on the same system. Today, one uses separate newsreader client software, a program that resembles an email client but accesses Usenet
Usenet
servers instead. Some clients such as Mozilla Thunderbird and Outlook Express provide both abilities.

Not all ISPs run news servers. A news server is one of the most difficult Internet
Internet
services to administer well because of the large amount of data involved, small customer base (compared to mainstream Internet
Internet
services such as email and web access), and a disproportionately high volume of customer support incidents (frequently complaining of missing news articles that are not the ISP's fault). Some ISPs outsource news operation to specialist sites, which will usually appear to a user as though the ISP ran the server itself. Many sites carry a restricted newsfeed, with a limited number of newsgroups. Commonly omitted from such a newsfeed are foreign-language newsgroups and the _alt.binaries _ hierarchy which largely carries software, music, videos and images, and accounts for over 99 percent of article data.

There are also Usenet
Usenet
providers that specialize in offering service to users whose ISPs do not carry news, or that carry a restricted feed.

See also news server operation for an overview of how news systems are implemented.

NEWSREADERS

Newsgroups are typically accessed with newsreaders : applications that allow users to read and reply to postings in newsgroups. These applications act as clients to one or more news servers. Although historically, Usenet
Usenet
was associated with the Unix
Unix
operating system developed at AT">

TECHNICAL DETAILS

Usenet
Usenet
is a set of protocols for generating, storing and retrieving news "articles" (which resemble Internet
Internet
mail messages) and for exchanging them among a readership which is potentially widely distributed. These protocols most commonly use a flooding algorithm which propagates copies throughout a network of participating servers. Whenever a message reaches a server, that server forwards the message to all its network neighbors that haven't yet seen the article. Only one copy of a message is stored per server, and each server makes it available on demand to the (typically local) readers able to access that server. The collection of Usenet
Usenet
servers has thus a certain peer-to-peer character in that they share resources by exchanging them, the granularity of exchange however is on a different scale than a modern peer-to-peer system and this characteristic excludes the actual users of the system who connect to the news servers with a typical client-server application, much like an email reader.

RFC 850 was the first formal specification of the messages exchanged by Usenet
Usenet
servers. It was superseded by RFC 1036 and subsequently by RFC 5536 and RFC 5537 .

In cases where unsuitable content has been posted, Usenet
Usenet
has support for automated removal of a posting from the whole network by creating a cancel message, although due to a lack of authentication and resultant abuse, this capability is frequently disabled. Copyright holders may still request the manual deletion of infringing material using the provisions of World Intellectual Property Organization treaty implementations, such as the United States Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act , but this would require giving notice to each individual news server administrator.

On the Internet, Usenet
Usenet
is transported via the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) on TCP Port 119 for standard, unprotected connections and on TCP port 563 for SSL encrypted connections which is offered only by a few sites.

ORGANIZATION

The "Big Nine" hierarchies of Usenet
Usenet

The major set of worldwide newsgroups is contained within nine hierarchies, eight of which are operated under consensual guidelines that govern their administration and naming. The current _Big Eight _ are:

* _comp.*_ – computer-related discussions (_comp.software_, _comp.sys.amiga_) * _humanities.*_ – fine arts , literature , and philosophy (_humanities.classics_, _humanities.design.misc_) * _misc.*_ – miscellaneous topics (_misc.education_, _misc.forsale_, _misc.kids_) * _news.*_ – discussions and announcements about news (meaning Usenet, not current events) (_news.groups_, _news.admin_) * _rec.*_ – recreation and entertainment (_rec.music_, _rec.arts.movies_) * _sci.*_ – science related discussions (_sci.psychology_, _sci.research_) * _soc.*_ – social discussions (_soc.college.org_, _soc.culture.african_) * _talk.*_ – talk about various controversial topics (_talk.religion_, _talk.politics_, _talk.origins _)

See also the Great Renaming .

The _alt.*_ hierarchy is not subject to the procedures controlling groups in the Big Eight, and it is as a result less organized. Groups in the _alt.*_ hierarchy tend to be more specialized or specific—for example, there might be a newsgroup under the Big Eight which contains discussions about children's books, but a group in the alt hierarchy may be dedicated to one specific author of children's books. Binaries are posted in _alt.binaries.*_, making it the largest of all the hierarchies.

Many other hierarchies of newsgroups are distributed alongside these. Regional and language-specific hierarchies such as _japan.*_, _malta.*_ and _ne.*_ serve specific countries and regions such as Japan
Japan
, Malta
Malta
and New England
New England
. Companies and projects administer their own hierarchies to discuss their products and offer community technical support, such as the historical _gnu.*_ hierarchy from the Free Software Foundation . Microsoft
Microsoft
closed its newsserver in June 2010, providing support for its products over forums now. Some users prefer to use the term "Usenet" to refer only to the Big Eight hierarchies; others include alt as well. The more general term "netnews" incorporates the entire medium, including private organizational news systems.

Informal sub-hierarchy conventions also exist. _*.answers_ are typically moderated cross-post groups for FAQs. An FAQ would be posted within one group and a cross post to the _*.answers_ group at the head of the hierarchy seen by some as a refining of information in that news group. Some subgroups are recursive—to the point of some silliness in _alt.*_.

BINARY CONTENT

A visual example of the many complex steps required to prepare data to be uploaded to Usenet
Usenet
newsgroups. These steps must be done again in reverse to download data from Usenet.

Usenet
Usenet
was originally created to distribute text content encoded in the 7-bit ASCII character set. With the help of programs that encode 8-bit values into ASCII, it became practical to distribute binary files as content. Binary posts, due to their size and often-dubious copyright status, were in time restricted to specific newsgroups, making it easier for administrators to allow or disallow the traffic.

The oldest widely used encoding method for binary content is uuencode , from the Unix
Unix
UUCP package. In the late 1980s, Usenet
Usenet
articles were often limited to 60,000 characters, and larger hard limits exist today. Files are therefore commonly split into sections that require reassembly by the reader.

With the header extensions and the Base64 and Quoted-Printable MIME encodings, there was a new generation of binary transport. In practice, MIME has seen increased adoption in text messages, but it is avoided for most binary attachments. Some operating systems with metadata attached to files use specialized encoding formats. For Mac OS, both Binhex and special MIME types are used.

Other lesser known encoding systems that may have been used at one time were BTOA , XX encoding , BOO , and USR encoding .

In an attempt to reduce file transfer times, an informal file encoding known as yEnc was introduced in 2001. It achieves about a 30% reduction in data transferred by assuming that most 8-bit characters can safely be transferred across the network without first encoding into the 7-bit ASCII space.

The most common method of uploading large binary posts to Usenet
Usenet
is to convert the files into RAR archives and create Parchive files for them. Parity files are used to recreate missing data when not every part of the files reaches a server.

Binary Retention Time

This is a list of some of the biggest binary groups. With 1341+ days retention, the (binary) Usenet
Usenet
storage (which binsearch.info indexes) is more than 33 petabytes 33000 terabytes ).

Each news server generally allocates a certain amount of storage space for post content in each newsgroup. When this storage has been filled, each time a new post arrives, old posts are deleted to make room for the new content. If the network bandwidth available to a server is high but the storage allocation is small, it is possible for a huge flood of incoming content to overflow the allocation and push out everything that was in the group before it. If the flood is large enough, the beginning of the flood will begin to be deleted even before the last part of the flood has been posted.

Binary newsgroups are only able to function reliably if there is sufficient storage allocated to a group to allow readers enough time to download all parts of a binary posting before it is flushed out of the group's storage allocation. This was at one time how posting of undesired content was countered; the newsgroup would be flooded with random garbage data posts, of sufficient quantity to push out all the content to be suppressed. This has been compensated by service providers allocating enough storage to retain everything posted each day, including such spam floods, without deleting anything.

The average length of time that posts are able to stay in the group before being deleted is commonly called the _retention time_. Generally the larger Usenet
Usenet
servers have enough capacity to archive several years of binary content even when flooded with new data at the maximum daily speed available. A good binaries service provider must not only accommodate users of fast connections (3 megabit) but also users of slow connections (256 kilobit or less) who need more time to download content over a period of several days or weeks.

Major NSPs have a retention time of more than 4 years. This results in more than 33 petabytes (33000 terabytes ) of storage.

In part because of such long retention times, as well as growing Internet
Internet
upload speeds, Usenet
Usenet
is also used by individual users to store backup data in a practice called _ Usenet
Usenet
backup_, or uBackup. While commercial providers offer more easy to use online backup services , storing data on Usenet
Usenet
is free of charge (although access to Usenet
Usenet
itself may not be). The method requires the user to manually select, prepare and upload the data . Because anyone can potentially download the backup files, the data is typically encrypted . After the files are uploaded, the uploader does not have any control over them; the files are automatically copied to all Usenet
Usenet
providers, so there will be multiple copies of it spread over different geographical locations around the world—desirable in a backup scheme.

Legal Issues

While binary newsgroups can be used to distribute completely legal user-created works, open-source software, and public domain material, some binary groups are used to illegally distribute commercial software, copyrighted media, and obscene material.

ISP-operated Usenet
Usenet
servers frequently block access to all _alt.binaries.*_ groups to both reduce network traffic and to avoid related legal issues. Commercial Usenet
Usenet
service providers claim to operate as a telecommunications service, and assert that they are not responsible for the user-posted binary content transferred via their equipment. In the United States, Usenet
Usenet
providers can qualify for protection under the DMCA Safe Harbor regulations , provided that they establish a mechanism to comply with and respond to takedown notices from copyright holders.

Removal of copyrighted content from the entire Usenet
Usenet
network is a nearly impossible task, due to the rapid propagation between servers and the retention done by each server. Petitioning a Usenet
Usenet
provider for removal only removes it from that one server's retention cache, but not any others. It is possible for a special _post cancellation_ message to be distributed to remove it from all servers, but many providers ignore cancel messages by standard policy, because they can be easily falsified and submitted by anyone. For a takedown petition to be most effective across the whole network, it would have to be issued to the origin server to which the content has been posted, before it has been propagated to other servers. Removal of the content at this early stage would prevent further propagation, but with modern high speed links, content can be propagated as fast as it arrives, allowing no time for content review and takedown issuance by copyright holders.

Establishing the identity of the person posting illegal content is equally difficult due to the trust-based design of the network. Like SMTP email, servers generally assume the header and origin information in a post is true and accurate. However, as in SMTP email, Usenet
Usenet
post headers are easily falsified so as to obscure the true identity and location of the message source. In this manner, Usenet
Usenet
is significantly different from modern P2P services; most P2P users distributing content are typically immediately identifiable to all other users by their network address , but the origin information for a Usenet
Usenet
posting can be completely obscured and unobtainable once it has propagated past the original server.

Also unlike modern P2P services, the identity of the downloaders is hidden from view. On P2P services a downloader is identifiable to all others by their network address. On Usenet, the downloader connects directly to a server, and only the server knows the address of who is connecting to it. Some Usenet
Usenet
providers do keep usage logs, but not all make this logged information casually available to outside parties such as the Recording Industry Association of America . The existence of anonymising gateways to USENET also complicates the tracing of a postings true origin.

HISTORY

UUCP/ Usenet
Usenet
Logical Map — June 1, 1981 / mods by S. McGeady November 19, 1981 (ucbvax) +=+===================================+==+ wivax microsoft uiucdcs genradbo (Tektronix) purdue decvax+===+=+====+=+=+ pur-phy tekmdp +@@@@@@cca +=pur-ee=+=+=====+===+ csin +==o===+===================+==+========+=======+====teklabs=+ pdp phs grumpy wolfvax cincy unc=+===+======+========+ bio (Misc) (Misc) sii reed dukgeri duke34 utzoo +====+=+=+==+====++======+==++===duke=+===+=======+==+=========+ u1100s bmd70 ucf-cs ucf andiron red pyuxh zeppo psupdp---psuvax alice whuxlb utah-cs houxf allegra +--chico---+ +===+=mhtsa====research /=+=======harpo=+==+ / hocsr +=+=============+=/ cbosg---+ ucbopt esquire : cbosgd : ucbcory eagle==+=====+=====+=====+=====+ : +-uwvax--+ : mhuxa mhuxh mhuxj mhuxm mhuxv : : +----------------------------o--+ : ucbcad ihpss mh135a : : --o--o------ihnss----vax135----cornell : +=+==ucbvax==========+===+==+=+======+=======+=+========+=========+ (UCB) : (Silicon Valley) ucbarpa cmevax menlo70--hao : ucbonyx sri-unix ucsfcgl Legend: sytek====+========+ ------- - / + = Uucp sdcsvax=+=======+=+======+ intelqa zehntel = "Bus" o jumps sdcarl phonlab sdcattb : Berknet @ Arpanet

UUCP/ Usenet
Usenet
Logical Map, original by Steven McGeady . Copyright© 1981, 1996 Bruce Jones, Henry Spencer , David Wiseman. Copied with permission from _The Usenet
Usenet
Oldnews Archive: Compilation_.

Newsgroup experiments first occurred in 1979. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis of Duke University came up with the idea as a replacement for a local announcement program, and established a link with nearby University of North Carolina using Bourne shell scripts written by Steve Bellovin . The public release of news was in the form of conventional compiled software , written by Steve Daniel and Truscott. In 1980, Usenet
Usenet
was connected to ARPANET through UC Berkeley which had connections to both Usenet
Usenet
and ARPANET. Mark Horton , the graduate student who set up the connection, began "feeding mailing lists from the ARPANET into Usenet" with the "fa" ("From ARPANET" ) identifier. Usenet
Usenet
gained 50 member sites in its first year, including Reed College , University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
, and Bell Labs
Bell Labs
, and the number of people using the network increased dramatically; however, it was still a while longer before Usenet
Usenet
users could contribute to ARPANET.

NETWORK

UUCP networks spread quickly due to the lower costs involved, and the ability to use existing leased lines, X.25 links or even ARPANET connections. By 1983, thousands of people participated from more than 500 hosts, mostly universities and Bell Labs
Bell Labs
sites but also a growing number of Unix-related companies; the number of hosts nearly doubled to 940 in 1984. More than 100 newsgroups existed, more than 20 devoted to Unix
Unix
and other computer-related topics, and at least a third to recreation. As the mesh of UUCP hosts rapidly expanded, it became desirable to distinguish the Usenet
Usenet
subset from the overall network. A vote was taken at the 1982 USENIX conference to choose a new name. The name Usenet
Usenet
was retained, but it was established that it only applied to news. The name UUCPNET became the common name for the overall network.

In addition to UUCP, early Usenet
Usenet
traffic was also exchanged with Fidonet and other dial-up BBS networks. Widespread use of Usenet
Usenet
by the BBS community was facilitated by the introduction of UUCP feeds made possible by MS-DOS implementations of UUCP, such as UFGATE (UUCP to FidoNet Gateway), FS UUCP and UUPC. In 1986, RFC 977 provided the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) specification for distribution of Usenet
Usenet
articles over TCP/IP as a more flexible alternative to informal Internet
Internet
transfers of UUCP traffic. Since the Internet
Internet
boom of the 1990s, almost all Usenet
Usenet
distribution is over NNTP.

SOFTWARE

Early versions of Usenet
Usenet
used Duke's A News
A News
software, designed for one or two articles a day. Matt Glickman and Horton at Berkeley produced an improved version called B News that could handle the rising traffic (about 50 articles a day as of late 1983). With a message format that offered compatibility with Internet
Internet
mail and improved performance, it became the dominant server software. C News , developed by Geoff Collyer and Henry Spencer at the University of Toronto , was comparable to B News in features but offered considerably faster processing. In the early 1990s, InterNetNews by Rich Salz was developed to take advantage of the continuous message flow made possible by NNTP versus the batched store-and-forward design of UUCP. Since that time INN development has continued, and other news server software has also been developed.

PUBLIC VENUE

Usenet
Usenet
was the first Internet
Internet
community and the place for many of the most important public developments in the pre-commercial Internet. It was the place where Tim Berners-Lee announced the launch of the World Wide Web , where Linus Torvalds announced the Linux
Linux
project, and where Marc Andreessen announced the creation of the Mosaic browser and the introduction of the image tag, which revolutionized the World Wide Web by turning it into a graphical medium.

INTERNET JARGON AND HISTORY

Many jargon terms now in common use on the Internet
Internet
originated or were popularized on Usenet. Likewise, many conflicts which later spread to the rest of the Internet, such as the ongoing difficulties over spamming , began on Usenet.

" Usenet
Usenet
is like a herd of performing elephants with diarrhea. Massive, difficult to redirect, awe-inspiring, entertaining, and a source of mind-boggling amounts of excrement when you least expect it." —  Gene Spafford , 1992

DECLINE

Sascha Segan of _ PC Magazine _ said in 2008 that " Usenet
Usenet
has been dying for years". Segan said that some people pointed to the Eternal September in 1993 as the beginning of Usenet's decline. Segan believes that when pornographers and software crackers began putting large (non-text) files on Usenet
Usenet
by the late 1990s, Usenet
Usenet
disk space and traffic increased correspondingly. Internet
Internet
service providers questioned why they needed to host space for pornography and unauthorized software. When the State of New York opened an investigation on child pornographers who used Usenet, many ISPs dropped all Usenet
Usenet
access or access to the _alt.*_ hierarchy .

In response, John Biggs of TechCrunch
TechCrunch
said "As long as there are folks who think a command line is better than a mouse, the original text-only social network will live on".

AOL
AOL
discontinued Usenet
Usenet
access in 2005. In May 2010, Duke University , whose implementation had kicked off Usenet
Usenet
more than 30 years earlier, decommissioned its Usenet
Usenet
server, citing low usage and rising costs. After 32 years, the Usenet
Usenet
news service link at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (news.unc.edu) was retired on February 4, 2011.

USENET TRAFFIC CHANGES

Over time, the amount of Usenet
Usenet
traffic has steadily increased. As of 2010 the number of all text posts made in all Big-8 newsgroups averaged 1,800 new messages every hour, with an average of 25,000 messages per day. However, these averages are minuscule in comparison to the traffic in the binary groups. Much of this traffic increase reflects not an increase in discrete users or newsgroup discussions, but instead the combination of massive automated spamming and an increase in the use of _.binaries_ newsgroups in which large files are often posted publicly. A small sampling of the change (measured in feed size per day) follows:

DAILY VOLUME DAILY POSTS DATE SOURCE

4.5 GiB

1996 Dec Altopia.com

9 GiB

1997 Jul Altopia.com

12 GiB 554 k 1998 Jan Altopia.com

26 GiB 609 k 1999 Jan Altopia.com

82 GiB 858 k 2000 Jan Altopia.com

181 GiB 1.24 M 2001 Jan Altopia.com

257 GiB 1.48 M 2002 Jan Altopia.com

492 GiB 2.09 M 2003 Jan Altopia.com

969 GiB 3.30 M 2004 Jan Altopia.com

1.30 TB

2004-09-30 Octanews.net

1.38 TB

2004-12-31 Octanews.net

1.52 TiB 5.09 M 2005 Jan Altopia.com

1.34 TB

2005-01-01 Octanews.net

1.30 TB

2005-01-01 Newsreader.com

1.81 TB

2005-02-28 Octanews.net

1.87 TB

2005-03-08 Newsreader.com

2.00 TB

2005-03-11 Various sources

2.27 TiB 7.54 M 2006 Jan Altopia.com

2.95 TiB 9.84 M 2007 Jan Altopia.com

3.07 TiB 10.13 M 2008 Jan Altopia.com

3.80 TB

2008-04-16 Newsdemon.com

4.60 TB

2008-11-01 Giganews.com

4.65 TiB 14.64 M 2009 Jan Altopia.com

6.00 TB

2009 Dec Newsdemon.com

5.42 TiB 15.66 M 2010 Jan Altopia.com

8.00 TB

2010 Sep Newsdemon.com

7.52 TiB 20.12 M 2011 Jan Altopia.com

8.25 TB

2011 Oct Thecubenet.com

9.29 TiB 23.91 M 2012 Jan Altopia.com

11.49 TiB 28.14 M 2013 Jan Altopia.com

14.61 TiB 37.56 M 2014 Jan Altopia.com

15.50 TB

2014 Feb Newsdemon.com

17.50 TB

2015 Jan Newsdemon.com

17.87 TiB 44.19 M 2015 Jan Altopia.com

23.50 TB

2015 Nov Newsdemon.com

23.87 TiB 55.59 M 2016 Jan Altopia.com

27.80 TiB 64.55 M 2017 Jan Altopia.com

In 2008, Verizon Communications , Time Warner Cable and Sprint Nextel signed an agreement with Attorney General of New York Andrew Cuomo to shut down access to sources of child pornography . Time Warner Cable stopped offering access to Usenet. Verizon reduced its access to the "Big 8" hierarchies. Sprint stopped access to the _alt.*_ hierarchies. AT they had more than 50% of the U.S. ISP marketshare. On June 8, 2009, ATborder:solid #aaa 1px">

* Internet
Internet
portal

* Usenet II * Reddit

USENET NEWSREADERS

* Newsreader (Usenet) * Comparison of Usenet newsreaders * List of Usenet newsreaders

USENET/NEWSGROUP SERVICE PROVIDERS

* EasyNews (since 1994) * Giganews (since 1994) * Astraweb (since 1997) * Highwinds (since 2002)

USENET TERMS

* Backbone cabal * Breidbart Index * Cleanfeed (Usenet spam filter) * Crossposting * Flaming (Internet) * Godwin\'s law * Kibology * kill file * List of newsgroups * MSTing * Otherkin * Postcount * Sockpuppet (Internet) * Sporgery * Troll (Internet) * Usenet Death Penalty * Warnock\'s dilemma

USENET HISTORY

* Legion of Net.Heroes * Scientology and the Internet
Internet
* Serdar Argic

USENET ADMINISTRATORS

Usenet
Usenet
as a whole has no administrators; each server administrator is free to do whatever pleases him or her as long as the end users and peer servers tolerate and accept it. Nevertheless, there are a few famous administrators:

* Chris Lewis * Gene (Spaf) Spafford * Henry Spencer * Kai Puolamäki * Mary Ann Horton

USENET CELEBRITIES

Main article: Usenet celebrity

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _From Usenet
Usenet
to CoWebs: interacting with social information spaces_, Christopher Lueg, Danyel Fisher, Springer (2003), ISBN 1-85233-532-7 , ISBN 978-1-85233-532-8 * ^ The jargon file v4.4.7, Jargon File
File
Archive. * ^ Chapter 3 - The Social Forces Behind The Development of Usenet, Netizens Netbook by Ronda Hauben and Michael Hauben. * ^ "USENET Newsgroup Terms – SPAM". Archived from the original on 2012-09-15. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Emerson, Sandra L. (October 1983). "Usenet / A Bulletin Board for Unix
Unix
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